Histamine H1 receptors are activated by endogenous histamine, which is released by neurons that have their cell bodies in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus. The histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus become active during the 'wake' cycle, firing at approximately 2 Hz; during slow wave sleep, this firing rate drops to approximately 0.5 Hz. Finally, during REM sleep, histaminergic neurons stop firing altogether. It has been reported that histaminergic neurons have the most wake-selective firing pattern of all known neuronal types.
^ abCanonica GW, Blaiss M (Feb 2011). "Antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, and antiallergic properties of the nonsedating second-generation antihistamine desloratadine: a review of the evidence". The World Allergy Organization Journal. 4 (2): 47–53. doi:10.1097/WOX.0b013e3182093e19. PMC3500039. PMID23268457. The H1-receptor is a transmembrane protein belonging to the G-protein coupled receptor family. Signal transduction from the extracellular to the intracellular environment occurs as the GCPR becomes activated after binding of a specific ligand or agonist. A subunit of the G-protein subsequently dissociates and affects intracellular messaging including downstream signaling accomplished through various intermediaries such as cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, calcium, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a ubiquitous transcription factor thought to play an important role in immune-cell chemotaxis, proinflammatory cytokine production, expression of cell adhesion molecules, and other allergic and inflammatory conditions.1,8,12,30–32 ... For example, the H1-receptor promotes NF-κB in both a constitutive and agonist-dependent manner and all clinically available H1-antihistamines inhibit constitutive H1-receptor-mediated NF-κB production ... Importantly, because antihistamines can theoretically behave as inverse agonists or neutral antagonists, they are more properly described as H1-antihistamines rather than H1-receptor antagonists.15
^Passani MB, Lin JS, Hancock A, Crochet S, Blandina P (Dec 2004). "The histamine H3 receptor as a novel therapeutic target for cognitive and sleep disorders". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 25 (12): 618–25. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2004.10.003. PMID15530639.
^Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 6: Widely Projecting Systems: Monoamines, Acetylcholine, and Orexin". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 175–176. ISBN9780071481274. Within the brain, histamine is synthesized exclusively by neurons with their cell bodies in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) that lies within the posterior hypothalamus. There are approximately 64000 histaminergic neurons per side in humans. These cells project throughout the brain and spinal cord. Areas that receive especially dense projections include the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hypothalamus. ... While the best characterized function of the histamine system in the brain is regulation of sleep and arousal, histamine is also involved in learning and memory ... It also appears that histamine is involved in the regulation of feeding and energy balance.
Hill SJ, Ganellin CR, Timmerman H, Schwartz JC, Shankley NP, Young JM, Schunack W, Levi R, Haas HL (Sep 1997). "International Union of Pharmacology. XIII. Classification of histamine receptors". Pharmacological Reviews. 49 (3): 253–78. PMID9311023.
Holden CA, Chan SC, Norris S, Hanifin JM (Oct 1987). "Histamine induced elevation of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity in human monocytes". Agents and Actions. 22 (1–2): 36–42. doi:10.1007/BF01968814. PMID2891264.
Moguilevsky N, Varsalona F, Noyer M, Gillard M, Guillaume JP, Garcia L, Szpirer C, Szpirer J, Bollen A (Sep 1994). "Stable expression of human H1-histamine-receptor cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Pharmacological characterisation of the protein, tissue distribution of messenger RNA and chromosomal localisation of the gene". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 224 (2): 489–95. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1994.00489.x. PMID7925364.
Fukui H, Fujimoto K, Mizuguchi H, Sakamoto K, Horio Y, Takai S, Yamada K, Ito S (Jun 1994). "Molecular cloning of the human histamine H1 receptor gene". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 201 (2): 894–901. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.1786. PMID8003029.
Le Coniat M, Traiffort E, Ruat M, Arrang JM, Berger R (Aug 1994). "Chromosomal localization of the human histamine H1-receptor gene". Human Genetics. 94 (2): 186–8. doi:10.1007/bf00202867. PMID8045566.
De Backer MD, Gommeren W, Moereels H, Nobels G, Van Gompel P, Leysen JE, Luyten WH (Dec 1993). "Genomic cloning, heterologous expression and pharmacological characterization of a human histamine H1 receptor". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 197 (3): 1601–8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1993.2662. PMID8280179.
Max SI, Chowdhury BA, Fraser CM (Jun 1996). "Sequence analysis of the 5'-untranslated region of the human H1 histamine receptor-encoding gene". Gene. 171 (2): 309–10. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(96)00036-4. PMID8666296.
Horváth BV, Szalai C, Mándi Y, László V, Radvány Z, Darvas Z, Falus A (Nov 1999). "Histamine and histamine-receptor antagonists modify gene expression and biosynthesis of interferon gamma in peripheral human blood mononuclear cells and in CD19-depleted cell subsets". Immunology Letters. 70 (2): 95–9. doi:10.1016/S0165-2478(99)00126-1. PMID10569698.
Wang KY, Arima N, Higuchi S, Shimajiri S, Tanimoto A, Murata Y, Hamada T, Sasaguri Y (May 2000). "Switch of histamine receptor expression from H2 to H1 during differentiation of monocytes into macrophages". FEBS Letters. 473 (3): 345–8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01560-X. PMID10818238.
Oda T, Morikawa N, Saito Y, Masuho Y, Matsumoto S (Nov 2000). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel type of histamine receptor preferentially expressed in leukocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (47): 36781–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006480200. PMID10973974.
Brew OB, Sullivan MH (Sep 2001). "Localisation of mRNAs for diamine oxidase and histamine receptors H1 and H2, at the feto-maternal interface of human pregnancy". Inflammation Research. 50 (9): 449–52. doi:10.1007/PL00000269. PMID11603849.
Gutzmer R, Langer K, Lisewski M, Mommert S, Rieckborn D, Kapp A, Werfel T (Mar 2002). "Expression and function of histamine receptors 1 and 2 on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 109 (3): 524–31. doi:10.1067/mai.2002.121944. PMID11898002.
Idzko M, la Sala A, Ferrari D, Panther E, Herouy Y, Dichmann S, Mockenhaupt M, Di Virgilio F, Girolomoni G, Norgauer J (May 2002). "Expression and function of histamine receptors in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 109 (5): 839–46. doi:10.1067/mai.2002.124044. PMID11994709.