Historic Compromise

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Historic Compromise
Compromesso storico
Leaders Aldo Moro,
Enrico Berlinguer
Founded 1976 (1976)
Dissolved November 28, 1980 (1980-11-28)
Preceded by Organic Centre-left
Succeeded by Pentapartito
Headquarters Rome
Ideology Consociationalism
Political position Centre-left
Politics of Italy
Political parties
Elections

The Historic Compromise (Italian: Compromesso storico), called also Third Phase (Italian: Terza Fase) or Democratic Alternative (Italian: Alternativa Democratica), was an Italian historical political alliance and accommodation between the Christian Democrats (DC) and the Italian Communist Party (PCI) in the 1970s.

History[edit]

In 1973, the Italian Communist Party's General Secretary Enrico Berlinguer launched on Rinascita (communist magazine) a pourpose of "democratic alliance" with the Christian Democracy, embraced by Aldo Moro. This alliance was inspired by the Allende Government in Chile, that was composed by a left-wing coalition Popular Unity and supported by the Christian Democratic Party. After the Chilean coup of the same year, there was an approach between PCI and DC, that became a political alliance in 1976. In this time, the Berlinguer's PCI attempted also a parting from the USSR, with the launch of the "Eurocommunism" along with the Spanish Communist Party and the French Communist Party.

However, the Compromise was unpopular between the other moderate leftist group, like PRI and PSI, led respectively by Ugo La Malfa and Bettino Craxi. Also the righist Christian Democrat Giulio Andreotti doubted of the accommodation.[1]

Finally, the PCI started and external support to a Christian Democrat one-party government led by Andreotti. Despite this, several radical communist of PCI boycott the government, there was an increase of the far-left terrorism, mainly of the Red Brigades (Italian: Brigate Rosse, BR). The BR kidnapped Aldo Moro, at the time President of DC, on March 16, 1978. After several consultation in the Italian Parliament, the government refused the terrorists' conditions, and Moro was killed on May 9, 1978. A strong anti-communist sentiment raised, and the PSI, along with the far-right Italian Social Movement (MSI) increased their votes in the 1979 election. Nevertheless, the Compromise continued but continuous also his decline.

At the DC XIV Congress of 1980, the DC's moderate wing ("Democratic Initiative", "Dorothean" and "New Force") won with an anti-communist program, obtained the 57.7%, while the DC's conservative wing led by Benigno Zaccagnini and Giulio Andreotti's faction "Spring", ironically, obtained the 42.3% with a pro-Compromise program. The new DC Secretary became Flaminio Piccoli, a Dorothean, and the Compromise was disused.

On November 1980, also Berlinguer announced the end of the Historic Compromise.

Electoral results[edit]

Italian Parliament[edit]

Chamber of Deputies
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leaders
1976 26,824,169 (#1) 73.1
491 / 630
Aldo Moro, Enrico Berlinguer
Senate of the Republic
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leaders
1976 22,865,125 (#1) 72.7
251 / 315
Aldo Moro, Enrico Berlinguer

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Fallaci, Oriana (1974). Intervista con la storia. Rizzoli.