Historic Compromise

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Historic compromise)
Jump to: navigation, search
Historic Compromise
Compromesso storico
Leaders Aldo Moro,
Enrico Berlinguer
Founded 1976 (1976)
Dissolved November 28, 1980 (1980-11-28)
Preceded by Organic Centre-left
Succeeded by Pentapartito
Headquarters Rome
Ideology Consociationalism
Political position Centre-left

The Historic Compromise (Italian: Compromesso storico), called also Third Phase (Italian: Terza Fase) or Democratic Alternative (Italian: Alternativa Democratica), was an Italian historical political alliance and accommodation between the Christian Democrats (DC) and the Italian Communist Party (PCI) in the 1970s.

History[edit]

In 1973, the Italian Communist Party's General Secretary Enrico Berlinguer launched in Rinascita (communist magazine) a proposal for a "democratic alliance" with the Christian Democracy, embraced by Aldo Moro. The call for this alliance was inspired by the overthrow of the Allende Government in Chile. For Berlinguer, the events in Chile proved that the Marxist left could not aspire to govern in democratic countries without establishing alliances with more moderate forces. After the 1973 Chilean coup, there was cooperation between the PCI and DC that became a political alliance in 1976. Then Berlinguer's PCI attempted to part from the USSR, with the launching of "Eurocommunism" along with the Spanish Communist Party and the French Communist Party.

However, the Compromise was unpopular among the other moderate leftist groups like the PRI and PSI, led respectively by Ugo La Malfa and Bettino Craxi. Also the rightist Christian Democrat Giulio Andreotti had doubts about the accommodation.[1]

Finally, the PCI started an external support to a Christian Democrat one-party government led by Andreotti. Despite this, several radical communists of the PCI boycotted the government, there was an increase of the far-left terrorism, mainly of the Red Brigades (Italian: Brigate Rosse, BR). The BR kidnapped Aldo Moro, at the time President of DC, on March 16, 1978. After several consultations in the Italian Parliament, the government refused the terrorists' conditions, and Moro was killed on May 9, 1978. A strong anti-communist sentiment raised, and the PSI, along with the far-right Italian Social Movement (MSI) increased their votes in the 1979 election. Nevertheless, the Compromise continued but continuous also was its decline.

At the DC XIV Congress of 1980, the DC's moderate wing ("Democratic Initiative", "Dorothean" and "New Force") won with an anti-communist program, obtained the 57.7%, while the DC's conservative wing led by Benigno Zaccagnini and Giulio Andreotti's faction "Spring", ironically, obtained the 42.3% with a pro-Compromise program. The new DC Secretary became Flaminio Piccoli, a Dorothean, and the Compromise was discontinued.

On November 1980 Berlinguer announced the end of the Historic Compromise.

Electoral results[edit]

Italian Parliament[edit]

Chamber of Deputies
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leaders
1976 26,824,169 (#1) 73.1
491 / 630
Aldo Moro, Enrico Berlinguer
Senate of the Republic
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leaders
1976 22,865,125 (#1) 72.7
251 / 315
Aldo Moro, Enrico Berlinguer

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Fallaci, Oriana (1974). Intervista con la storia. Rizzoli.