List of historic states of Italy

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Italy, up until the Italian unification in 1861, was a conglomeration of city-states, republics, and other independent entities. The following is a list of the various Italian states during that period.

Archaic Italy[edit]

Ethnic groups of Italy (as defined by modern borders) in 400 BC

Classical Italy[edit]

Roman Empire under Caesar Augustus

Early Middle Ages[edit]

High Middle Ages[edit]

Political map of Italy in the year 1000
Political map of Southern Italy in the year 1112

States of the Holy Roman Empire[edit]

States in Southern Italy[edit]

Sardinian Judicates[edit]

Other states[edit]

Late Middle Ages[edit]

Italy in 1454, right after the Peace of Lodi.
Italy in 1494, before the beginning of the Italian Wars.

After the Italian Wars (1494–1559)[edit]

Direct dominions of the House of Habsburg in Europe, at the abdication of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was signed between Elizabeth I of England and Henry II of France on 2 April and between Henry II and Philip II of Spain on 3 April 1559, at Le Cateau-Cambrésis. Under its terms, France restored Piedmont and Savoy to the Duke of Savoy, and Corsica to the Republic of Genoa. The Papacy and Venice remained independent. The treaty confirmed Habsburg Spanish direct control of Sardinia, Sicily, Naples and, by extension of Naples, the State of the Presidi. Florence, Piedmont, Parma, Mantua, Modena, and Genoa were confirmed as Imperial fiefs ruled by local families. Milan was an Imperial fief held by Spain. Since the Holy Roman Empire was ruled by the Austrian Habsburgs all major Italian states, with the exception of Venice and the Papacy, were formally dependent on the House of Habsburg.

After the Wars of succession of the XVIII century[edit]

Political map of Italy in the year 1789

Following the European wars of succession of the XVIII century, Austria was ruled by the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and Spain by the Spanish Bourbons. International treaties such as the Treaty of Utrecht affected considerably the map of Italy.

During Napoleonic times (1792–1815)[edit]

Political map of Italy in the year 1810

Sister republics of Revolutionary France[edit]

In personal union with France[edit]

Client states of the First French Empire[edit]

Other states[edit]

From the Restoration to the Unification[edit]

Political map of Italy in the year 1843

Following the defeat of Napoleon's France, the Congress of Vienna (1815) was convened to redraw the European continent. In Italy, the Congress restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, either directly ruled or strongly influenced by the prevailing European powers, particularly Austria. The Congress also determined the end of two millenary republics: Genoa was annexed by the then Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia, and Venice was incorporated with Milan into a new kingdom of the Austrian Empire.

At the time, the struggle for Italian unification was perceived to be waged primarily against the Habsburgs, since they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of present-day Italy and were the most powerful force against the Italian unification. The Austrian Empire vigorously repressed nationalist sentiment growing on the Italian peninsula, as well as in the other parts of Habsburg domains.

See also[edit]