Historical Right

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Historical Right

Destra storica
Leaders
Founded1849; 170 years ago (1849)
Dissolved1913; 106 years ago (1913)
Merged intoLiberal Union
IdeologyConservatism[1][2]
Classical liberalism[3][4]
Liberal conservatism[5][6][7]
Monarchism[8]
Political positionCentre to Centre-right[9]
Colours     Blue

The Right group (Italian: Destra), later called Historical Right (Italian: Destra storica) by historians to distinguish it from the right-wing groups of the 20th century, was an Italian parliamentary group during the second half of the 19th century.[10] Since 1876, the Historical Right constituted the Constitutional opposition toward the left governments.[11] Since 1882, its members were usually labeled as Constitutionals or Liberal-Conservatives,[12] especially during the leadership of Rudinì and Sonnino.[5][13] Few prime ministers after 1852 were party men; instead they accepted support where they could find it, and even the governments of the Historical Right during the 1860s included leftists.[9]

The Right was represented the interests of the Northern bourgeoisie and the Southern aristocracy. Its members were mostly large landowners, industrialists and people related to the military. On economy, the Right supported free trade and laissez-faire while on social issues it favoured a strong central government, obligatory conscription and during the Cavour's era the secular Law of Guarantees, causing Pope Pius IX's Non Expedit.[14] In foreign relations, their goal was the unification of Italy, primarily searching an alliance with the British Empire and the French Empire, but sometimes also with the German Empire against Austria-Hungary.[15]

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

The origins of the Historical Right are in the right-wing faction of the Sardinian Parliament, established in 1849. The Right was at the time led by Massimo d'Azeglio, who was also a representative of the moderate movement that tried to unify Italy as a federation of states.[16] As the Right dominated the Parliament, D'Azeglio was appointed as Prime Minister of Sardinia by King Victor Emmanuel II. However, there were tensions inside the group caused by D'Azeglio assertiveness towards the Catholic Church and the King.[17][18] The tensions caused the group to split into two separate factions:

In May 1852, Cavour and his supporters left the Right group and moved toward the moderate Left led by Urbano Rattazzi.[19] The duo Rattazzi–Cavour made an alliance (pejoratively called "a marriage"),[20] forming a centrist group called the Liberal Union. D'Azeglio was forced to resign in November 1852 and Cavour was appointed by the King as the new Prime Minister, ending the Sardinian phase of the Right.

Unification and governments[edit]

In 1861, Italy was united as a Kingdom under the House of Savoy. Cavour, who was Prime Minister of Sardinia since November 1852 with brief interruptions, became the first Prime Minister of Italy. During the first year since unification, Cavour became more conservative as many radicals and republicans refused to recognize the new government, but instead recognize the Southern Army led by Giuseppe Garibaldi. Fearing a democratic revolution, Cavour became near to the new Right group in the Italian Parliament and led it until his premature death in June 1861. The Cavourian policies were partially continued by his successors aligned with the Right group like Luigi Farini, Bettino Ricasoli and Marco Minghetti. Since 1861, the Right's government pursued a policy of balanced budget,[21] maintained with austerity and high taxation. The taxations, especially the tax on grains, were unpopular among the rural and middle classes. As a result, the Right progressively lost its support. With that, the Right was split into two factions, i.e. the original Northern liberals who supported taxation and the new arrived Southern conservatives who opposed the modernization and taxation.[22]

Since the 1870s, in a time of rising tensions inside the Right governments the group split into different factions for goals and territorial composition:[23]

On 25 March 1876, Prime Minister Marco Minghetti was forced to resign after the so-called Parliamentary Revolution. The Left, together with dissident members from the Right, put the government into a minority because of the tax on grains' question, who damaged rural economy.[31] Ironically, many Right politicians who sided now with Left were from North. Since this moment, the Right fell in opposition and Agostino Depretis, leader of the Left, was appointed as the new Prime Minister.

Constitutional opposition[edit]

After the fall of Minghetti, the Right progressively disbanded. On 8 October 1882, some weeks before the general elections, Depretis proclaimed that anyone who will become a progressive will be accepted into his government. Surprisingly, Minghetti agreed with this, causing various individuals in the Right to join the Left.[32] After this event, the rest of the anti-compromise Right was called Liberal Constitutional Party or Constitutional opposition"[33] led by former Finance Minister Quintino Sella and Interior Minister Antonio Starabba, Marquess of Rudinì. The Constitutionals were not a structured and organized party, but simply a coalition of both Northern and Southern conservatives like Sidney Sonnino, Luigi Luzzatti and Pasquale Villari who rejected opportunism and Depretis' protectionist policy.

After ten years in opposition, the Constitutionals gained the majority thanks to an agreement with dissident Left Giovanni Nicotera and radical Felice Cavallotti and Rudinì was charged to form a new government in substitution of Francesco Crispi. During his short government, overthrown after one year, Rudinì worked to reduce to public expenditure, limit the rising imperialist sentiment and keep Italy aligned with the Triple Alliance.[34] Rudinì was recalled in office after the political fall of Crispi, following the defeat in the First Italo-Ethiopian War. During this second term, Rudinì worked to repress the Sicilian Fasci, a powerful rising socialist protest in Sicily, but also several nationalist groups. After two years, Rudinì was ousted from office after his unpopular cease of Kassala to the United Kingdom. Constitutional politicians like Luzzatti and Sonnino later formed their own governments, they were short and weakened by the newborn Italian Socialist Party and the first organized parties. The awareness of that forced the Constitutionals to join in the Liberal Union, a political alliance between various liberal politicians, many of whom were previously opposed to each other.[35]

Electoral results[edit]

Chamber of Deputies
Election year No. of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
No. of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
1861 110,400 (1st) 46.1
342 / 443
Camillo Benso di Cavour
1865 114,208 (1st) 41.2
183 / 443
Decrease 159
Alfonso La Marmora
1867 84,685 (2nd) 39.2
151 / 493
Decrease 32
Bettino Ricasoli
1870 110,525 (1st) 37.2
233 / 508
Increase 82
Giovanni Lanza
1874 156,784 (1st) 53.6
276 / 508
Increase 43
Marco Minghetti
1876 97,726 (2nd) 28.2
94 / 508
Decrease 182
Marco Minghetti
1880 135,797 (2nd) 37.9
171 / 508
Increase 77
Marco Minghetti
1882 353,693 (2nd) 28.9
147 / 508
Decrease 24
Marco Minghetti
1886 675,271 (2nd) 27.9
145 / 508
Decrease 2
Silvio Spaventa
1890 138,854 (2nd) 9.4
48 / 508
Decrease 97
Antonio Starabba di Rudinì
1892 309,873 (2nd) 18.3
93 / 508
Increase 45
Antonio Starabba di Rudinì
1895 263,315 (2nd) 21.6
104 / 508
Increase 11
Antonio Starabba di Rudinì
1897 242,090 (2nd) 19.4
99 / 508
Decrease 5
Antonio Starabba di Rudinì
1900 271,698 (2nd) 21.4
116 / 508
Increase 17
Antonio Starabba di Rudinì
1904 212,584 (3rd) 13.9
76 / 508
Decrease 20
Tommaso Tittoni
1909 108,029 (4th) 5.9
44 / 508
Decrease 32
Sidney Sonnino

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gramsci, Antonio (1966). Gramsci Institute, ed. Studi storici. p. 703.
  2. ^ Campanelli, Giuseppe; Carducci, Michele; Tondi Della Mura, Vincenzo; Loiodice, Isabella (2 December 2016). Giappichelli, ed. Lineamenti di diritto costituzionale della regione Puglia. p. 188.
  3. ^ Baglioni, Guido (1973). L'Ideologia della borghesia industriale nell'Italia liberale. Einaudi. p. 191.
  4. ^ Treccani, ed. (2010). "Destra storica italiana". Dizionario di Storia.
  5. ^ a b Mario Belardinelli (1976). ELIA, ed. Un esperimento liberal-conservatore: i governi di Rudinì (1896-1898).
  6. ^ Umberto Gentiloni Silveri (2000). Stadium, ed. Conservatori senza partito. Un tentativo fallito nell'Italia giolittiana.
  7. ^ Di Mauro, Luca. "La Destra storica". Oilproject.
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  9. ^ a b Donovan, Mark; Newell, James L. (2008). "Centrism in Italian politics". Modern Italy. 13 (4): 381–397.
  10. ^ Herb, Guntram H.; Kaplan, David H. Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview [4 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851099085.
  11. ^ Pirett (October 1999). Una voce per l'Opposizione Costituzionale di Sua Maestà: Alle origini del "Giornale d'Italia" (in Italian). Contemporanea. pp. 699–712.
  12. ^ Giovanni Battista Cuniglio (1896). A. Fina, ed. L'Italia liberale in fin di secolo: trattato politico di un liberale-conservatore. p. 156.
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  14. ^ Montanelli, Indro. Storia d'Italia: Gli anni della destra (1861-1876). 32.|editor=Rizzoli|date=1977}}
  15. ^ Sarti, Roland (2009). "The Politics of the Liberal State (1861-1901)". In Infobase Publishing. Italy: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present.
  16. ^ "Partito Moderato". Encilopedia Treccani.
  17. ^ Romeo, Vita di Cavour, Bari, 2004, p. 213.
  18. ^ Hearder, Cavour, Bari, 2000, p. 74.
  19. ^ Romeo, Vita di Cavour, Bari, 2004, p. 213.
  20. ^ Cavour (1865). "Discorsi parlamentari del conte Camillo di Cavour". Chamber of Deputies of Italy. p. 355. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  21. ^ XII/elenco "Camera dei deputati".
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  25. ^ Luzzatti, Luigi (2006). Cosimo, Inc, ed. God in Freedom: Studies in the Relations Between Church and State. p. 420.
  26. ^ Montaldo, Silvano (2004). Treccani, ed. "Giovanni Lanza". Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. 63.
  27. ^ Tavallini, Enrico (1887). L. Roux & Co., ed. La vita e i tempi di Giovanni Lanza. 2.
  28. ^ Manfredi, Marco (2015). Treccani, ed. "Ubaldino Peruzzi". Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. 82.
  29. ^ a b Leoni, Francesco (2001). Guida, ed. Storia dei partiti politici italiani. p. 117.
  30. ^ Ambrosoli, Luigi (1983). Treccani, ed. "Cesare Correnti". Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. 3.
  31. ^ "Destra storica italiana". Treccani (in Italian). 2010.
  32. ^ Fulvio Cammarano (2011). Storia dell'Italia liberale. Laterza. ISBN 9788842095996.
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  34. ^ "Antonio Starrabba marchese di Rudinì". Treccani.
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