Historical Romanian ranks and titles

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This is a glossary of historical Romanian ranks and titles used in the principalities of Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania, and later in Romania. Many of these titles are of Slavic etymology, with some of Greek, Latin, and Turkish etymology; several are original (such as armaş, paharnic, jitnicer and vistiernic). Various boier titles correspond to various honorary services at the Court, but often they were associated with various actual governmental duties as well.

Mare (Romanian), vel (Slavic) or baş (Turkish) are composing parts used with other titles. Synonymous with the Byzantine "Megas", they precede a title or rank: Mare Vornic, Mare Stolnic, Vel Paharnic, Vel Pitar, Vel Logofăt, Baş Boier, etc.[1][2]

Middle Ages[edit]

Name of the rank Etymology Description
Aprod Hungarian apród official in charge of justice or fiscal affairs, or introducing guest to the court.[3]
Armaş Romanian Armă, arm + suffix -aş official in charge of security, prisons and executions.[4]
Ban probably Sarmatian, Persian or Avar The title of medieval rulers of parts of Wallachia (Oltenia and Severin) since the 13th century. The Wallachian bans were military governors. Territory over which a ban ruled in Wallachia was called a banat (see article about Banat region).[5]
Becer Romanian beci, cellar (of Cuman origin) court cook.[6]
Boier Slavic bolyarin A hereditary aristocrat (boyars).[7]
Cămăraş Romanian cămară, pantry person in charge of the rooms and pantries of the court.[8]
Căminar Romanian camină, tax, from Slavic person in charge of collecting some taxes (initially the taxes for beeswax).[9]
Chelar Greek kellarios, ultimately from Latin cellarium, storeroom person in charge of the court's cellars and food stores.[10]
Clucer Slavic kliučiari, from the word for "key" a person in charge of the court household and servants, cf. Master of the Royal Court, Russian boyar title klyuchnik.[11]
Cneaz Slavic Knyaz, ultimately from German. chieftain or judge of some villages[12]
Condicar Romanian condică, register book, from Greek kódik person in charge of the court archives, archivist.[13]
Comis Greek kómis Master of the Horse.[14]
Cupar Romanian cupă boyar in charge with filling the cups at the boyar's table[15]
Domn Romanian a domni, to rule, from Domn, Lord title of rulers of Wallachia and Moldavia [16]
Domnitor Romanian a domni, to rule, from Domn, Lord the official title of the ruler of Romania between 1859 and 1881 (also unofficially used earlier).[17]
Dregător Romanian a drege, to fix, to plan general term referring to most officials at the court, with roles ranging from counsellorship to administration, justice or military organisation.[18]
Jitnicer Romanian jitniţă, granary, from Slavic žitnica, derived from žito, rye person in charge of the court granary.[19]
Jude Latin judex, cf Romanian judeţ, a jurisdiction generally translated as "county" judge and/or mayor of a region.[20]
Grămătic Greek ghrammatikós secretary.[21]
Hatman cf. Hetman, from Polish, ultimately from German a Moldavian equivalent of spătar.[22]
Hospodar South Slavic gospodar title of rulers of Wallachia and Moldavia in Slavic documents.
Ispravnic Slavic izpravnik a representative of the Domnitor in a county.[23]
Logofăt Greek logothetēs chancellor.[24]
Medelnicer Slavic "medelnica", copper wash-basin a boier title; literally, the person who pours water on hands to wash them before meals.[25]
Paharnic Slavic root "bowl"/"goblet"/"cup" (pohar/pucharz) cf. Romanian pahar, "glass" person in charge of the wine supplies, loosely corresponds to "Royal Cup-bearer",[26] akin to Polish Cześnik, but with a different etymology.
Pârcălab Hungarian porkoláb head of a county (judeţ).[27]
Pârgar German Bürger, via Hungarian polgár. member of the local council of a town.[28]
Pitar from Pita bread bread supplier of the court.[29]
Polcovnic cf. Polkovnik commander of a regiment.[30]
Portar Romanian Poartă, gate Gatekeeper, for example Portar de Suceava.[31]
Postelnic Slavic postel, "bed"; cf. Russian postelnichy a boier title; literally "a person in charge of royal chambers";[32] loosely corresponds to Chamberlain.
Şătrar South Slavic šatra boyar in charge of the watch of the military camp during war.[33]
Sfetnic Slavic suvetnik voivode/domnitor's adviser.[34]
Spătar Greek spatharios In Wallachia, holder of the royal sword and bludgeon and second in rank in the army after the voivode.[35]
Staroste Slavic Starosta guildmaster, the leader of a guild (breaslă in Moldavia, isnaf in Wallachia).[36]
Stolnic Slavic Stolnik a boier rank and the position at the court in the history of Moldavia and Wallachia, a seneschal; a person in charge of the royal table.[37]
Sluger Slavic služar person in charge of meat supplies for the court.[38]
Vătaf Slavic vatah overseer of various kinds (Vătaful divanului, Vătaf de agie, Vătaf de plai, Vătaf de hotar, etc.).[39]
Vistier Latin vestiarius, a person in charge of the wardrobe a title of treasurer.[40]
Voievod Slavic Voivode ruling prince, commander-in-chief of the army, titles of the Wallachian and Moldavian rulers; they were also known as domnitori.[41]
Vornic cf. Slovak nádvorník official in charge of justice and internal affairs [42]

Phanariote era[edit]

Name of the rank Etymology Description
Aga Turkish ağa, military commander. chief of a law enforcement agency (agie)[43]
Alaiceauş Turkish alay and çavuş master of ceremonies[44]
Beizadea Turkish beyzade hospodar's son (during the Phanariote period).[45]
Binişliu Turkish binişli court waiter.[46]
Buhurdargiu Turkish buhurdur person in charge with the court spice pot[44]
Cafegiu Turkish kahveci persons who served the coffee at the court.[47]
Caftangiu caftan, mantle, of Turkish origin. person who put the boyarial mantle on the back of the new appointed boyars.[44]
Calemgiu Turkish kalemcı clerk.[48]
Capuchehaie Turkish kapikâhaya diplomatic representative of the Wallachian/Moldavian rulers to the Ottoman court.[49]
Capugiu Turkish kapucu guard of the Sultan and executer of secret orders, including deposing or assassinating of the princes of Wallachia and Moldavia[50]
Caraghios Turkish karagöz court buffoon[51]
Cavas-başa Turkish Kavas and baş court servant who guarded the door of the prince's room.[44]
Ceauş Turkish çavuş messenger or doorman[52]
Chehaia Turkish kehaya representative of the Domnitor at the Ottoman court.[53]
Ciohodar Turkish çuhadar person in charge of the shoes of the ruler.[54]
Ciubucciu Turkish çubukçu person in charge of the pipes (çubuk) of the ruler.[55]
Divan Efendi Turkish Ottoman clerk who worked as a translator at the court, who was also a spy of the Sultan[44]
Divictar Turkish divitdar court clerk in charge with the ink and writing supplies.[56]
Dragoman Greek dragomános interpreter, translator.[57]
Gealat Turkish cellât executioner.[58]
Geamgirgiu Turkish servant in charge of the prince's bedsheets.[44]
Gus-başa Turkish servant in charge of the books with the boyar's ranks.[44]
Ibrictar Turkish servant who was in charge of the kettle which held the water for washing prince's hands.[44]
Iciolan Turkish içoğlan boy servant[59]
Idicliu Turkish servant in charge of the horses[44]
Isbaşa Turkish clerk in charge with the petitions at the Court.[44]
Iuzbaşa Turkish yüz, a hundred commander over the hundred soldiers who defended the Court[44]
Lipcan Turkish Lipkan official courier between the Porte and the Wallachian and Moldavian Courts.[60]
Mabeemgiu Turkish servant in charge with the mabeems (chambers dedicated to the dregători)[44]
Mazil Turkish mazul or Southern Russian mazil (landowner) boiar of the landed gentry holding no public function.[61]
Mehmendar Turkish mihmandar a boyar accompanying the ruler, taking care of the lodging.[62]
Meteregiu Turkish a servant in charge with the prince's washing basin[44]
Mucurdar, Muhurdar, Muhardagiu Turkish mühürdar a person in charge with the Court's seals.[63]
Mumbaşir Turkish mübaşir tax collector[64]
Nerghelegiu Turkish nargileci servant in charge with the prince's nargile[65]
Nazâr Turkish nāzır governor of a Turkish city (such as the Turkish fortresses on the Danube) [66]
Paia Turkish pāye boyar without a public function[67]
Pehlivan Turkish Pehlivan acrobat of the court, often brought from Constantinople.[68]
Peschirigi-başa Turkish servant in charge with giving to the prince the towel for drying himself.[44]
Rahtivan Turkish servant in charge with the prince's horse harnesses.[69]
Serdar from Turkish sardar, ultimately from Persian commander of an army.[70]
Ṣeitar court buffoon[44]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dregătorii în Tara Românească:importanţă şi atribuţii (1601-1654)
  2. ^ Dimitrie Cantemir - Descrierea Moldovei
  3. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: aprod
  4. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: armaş
  5. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: ban
  6. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: becer
  7. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: boier
  8. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: cămăraş
  9. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: căminar
  10. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: chelar
  11. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: clucer
  12. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: cneaz
  13. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: condicar
  14. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: comis
  15. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: cupar
  16. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: domn
  17. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: domnitor
  18. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: dregător
  19. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: jitnicer
  20. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: jude
  21. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: grămătic
  22. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: hatman
  23. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: ispravnic
  24. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: logofăt
  25. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: medelnicer
  26. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: paharnic
  27. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: pârcălab
  28. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: pârgar
  29. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: pitar
  30. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: polcovnic
  31. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: portar
  32. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: postelnic
  33. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: şătrar
  34. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: sfetnic
  35. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: spătar
  36. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: staroste
  37. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: stolnic
  38. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: sluger
  39. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: vătaf
  40. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: vistier
  41. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: voievod
  42. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: vornic
  43. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: aga
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Ştefan Ionescu, Bucureştii în vremea fanarioţilor ("Bucharest in the time of the Phanariotes"), Editura Dacia, Cluj-Napoca, 1974; glossary; pp. 308-323
  45. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: beizadea
  46. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: binişliu
  47. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: cafegiu
  48. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: calemgiu
  49. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: capuchehaie
  50. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: capugiu
  51. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: caraghios
  52. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: ceauş
  53. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: chehaia
  54. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: ciohodar
  55. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: ciubucciu
  56. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: divictar
  57. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: dragoman
  58. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: gealat
  59. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: iciolan
  60. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: lipcan
  61. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: mazil
  62. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: mehmendar
  63. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: muhurdar
  64. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: mumbaşir
  65. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: nerghelegiu
  66. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: nazâr
  67. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: paia
  68. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: pehlivan
  69. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: rahtivan
  70. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX), Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998; entry: serdar