Historical annual reformulations of the influenza vaccine

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Since 1999, the World Health Organization has issued annual recommendations for influenza vaccine formulations. One reformulation of the influenza vaccine is for the Northern Hemisphere, and the other is for the Southern Hemisphere.[1] Both recommendations are trivalent, i.e. featuring three strains.

Since the 2012–13 season, the WHO recommendations have also included the formulation of an annual quadrivalent vaccine, featuring an additional B-strain.

Northern Hemisphere recommended strains[edit]

The following is a list of WHO recommended strains for the Northern Hemisphere influenza season.

NH winter season H1N1 H3N2 B-strain additional B-strain for QIV
November 1998–April 1999[2] A/Beijing/262/95(H1N1)-like virus A/Sydney/5/97(H3N2)-like virus B/Beijing/184/93-like virus N/A
November 1999–April 2000[3] A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1)-like virus A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2)-like virus B/Beijing/184/93-like virus or B/Shangdong/7/97-like virus N/A
2000–2001[4] A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like virus A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like virus B/Beijing/184/93-like virus N/A
2001–2002[5] A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus B/Sichuan/379/99-like virus N/A
2002–2003[6] A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like virus N/A
2003–2004[7] A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like virus N/A
2004–2005[8] A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus A/Fujian/411/2002(H3N2)-like virus B/Shanghai/361/2002-like virus N/A
2005–2006[9] A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus A/California/7/2004(H3N2)-like virus B/Shanghai/361/2002-like virus N/A
2006–2007[10] A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like virus B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like virus N/A
2007–2008[11] A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)-like virus A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like virus B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like virus N/A
2008–2009[12] A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-like virus A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus B/Florida/4/2006-like virus N/A
2009–2010[13] A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-like virus A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus N/A
2010–2011[14] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus N/A
2011–2012[15] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus N/A
2012–2013[16] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09[note 1]-like virus[17] A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2)-like virus B/Wisconsin/1/2010-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus
2013–2014[18] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09[note 1]-like virus A(H3N2) virus antigenically like the cell-propagated prototype virus A/Victoria/361/2011[note 2] B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus
2014–2015[19] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09[note 1]-like virus A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2)-like virus[note 3] B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus
2015–2016[20] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09[note 1]-like virus A/Switzerland/9715293/2013 (H3N2)-like virus B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus
2016–2017[21] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09[note 1]-like virus A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus
2017–2018[22] A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09[note 1]-like virus[23] A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus
2018–2019[24] A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09[note 1]-like virus A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016 (H3N2)-like virus B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus (B/Victoria/2/87 lineage) B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage)

Southern hemisphere recommended strains[edit]

The following is a list of WHO recommended strains for the southern hemisphere influenza season.

SH winter season H1N1 H3N2 B-strain additional B-strain for QIV
1999[25] A/Beijing/262/95(H1N1)-like virus A/Sydney/5/97(H3N2)-like virus B/Beijing/184/93-like virus N/A
May–October 2000[26] A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like virus A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like virus B/Beijing/184/93-like virus or B/Shangdong/7/97-like virus N/A
May–October 2001[27] A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like virus A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like virus B/Sichuan/379/99-like virus N/A
2002[28] A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus B/Sichuan/379/99-like virus N/A
2003[29] A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like virus N/A
2004[30] A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus A/Fujian/411/2002(H3N2) - like virus B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like virus N/A
2005[31] A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus A/Wellington/1/2004(H3N2)-like virus B/Shanghai/361/2002-like virus N/A
2006[32] A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus A/California/7/2004(H3N2)-like virus B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like virus N/A
2007[33] A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like virus B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like virus N/A
2008[34] A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)-like virus A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus B/Florida/4/2006-like virus N/A
2009[35] A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-like virus A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus B/Florida/4/2006-like virus N/A
2010[36] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus N/A
2011[37] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus N/A
2012[38] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09[note 1]-like virus[17] A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus N/A
2013[39] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2)-like virus B/Wisconsin/1/2010-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus
2014[40] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2)-like virus[note 3] B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus
2015[41] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus A/Switzerland/9715293/2013 (H3N2)-like virus B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus
2016[42] A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus
2017[43] A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus[23] A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus
2018[44] A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016 (H3N2)-like virus B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h (H1N1)pdm09 is newer nomenclature for the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, not a different strain.
  2. ^ It is recommended that A/Texas/50/2012 is used as the A(H3N2) vaccine component because of antigenic changes in earlier A/Victoria/361/2011-like vaccine viruses (such as IVR-165) resulting from adaptation to propagation in eggs.
  3. ^ a b A/Texas/50/2012 is an A(H3N2) virus that following adaptation to growth in eggs has maintained antigenic properties similar to the majority of recently circulating cell-propagated A(H3N2) viruses including A/Victoria/361/2011

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ WHO Report on Global Surveillance of Epidemic-prone Infectious Diseases (pdf)
  2. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Northern hemisphere November 1998-April 1999". WHO. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  3. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Northern hemisphere: November 1999 to April 2000". WHO. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  4. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Northern hemisphere: 2000-2001". WHO. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  5. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Northern hemisphere: 2001-2002". WHO. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  6. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Northern hemisphere: 2002-2003". WHO. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  7. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Northern hemisphere: 2003-2004". WHO. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  8. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Northern hemisphere: 2004-2005". WHO. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  9. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Northern hemisphere: 2005-2006". WHO. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  10. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Northern hemisphere: 2006-2007". WHO. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  11. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Northern hemisphere: 2007-2008". WHO. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  12. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Northern hemisphere: 2008-2009". WHO. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  13. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Northern hemisphere: 2009-2010". WHO. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  14. ^ a b "Standardization of terminology of the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus" (PDF). WHO. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  15. ^ a b "WHO switches H1N1 in Southern Hemisphere flu vaccine". University of Minnesota - Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP). 29 September 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2017. A/Michigan/45/2015 replaces the longstanding A/California/7/2009 and is recommended to improve protection against two subclades that have emerged over the past season. 
  16. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Southern hemisphere 1999". WHO. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  17. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Southern hemisphere: May–October 2000". WHO. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  18. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Southern hemisphere: May–October 2001". WHO. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  19. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Southern hemisphere: 2002". WHO. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  20. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Southern hemisphere: 2003". WHO. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  21. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Southern hemisphere: 2004". WHO. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  22. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Southern hemisphere: 2005". WHO. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  23. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Southern hemisphere: 2006". WHO. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  24. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Southern hemisphere: 2007". WHO. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  25. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Southern hemisphere: 2008". WHO. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  26. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Southern hemisphere: 2009". WHO. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  27. ^ "Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition Southern hemisphere: 2010". WHO. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  28. ^ "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2018 southern hemisphere influenza season". WHO. 28 September 2017. Retrieved 28 September 2017.