Historical brightest stars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Solar System and all of the visible stars are in different orbits about the core of the Milky Way galaxy. Thus, their relative positions change over time, and for the nearer stars this movement can be measured. As a star moves toward or away from us, its apparent brightness changes. Sirius is currently the brightest star in Earth's night sky, but it has not always been so. Canopus has persistently been the brightest star over the ages; other stars appear brighter only during relatively temporary periods, during which they are passing the Solar System at a much closer distance than Canopus. The table below lists the brightest star in Earth's night sky at each period within the last or next 5 million years.

Star Start
year
End
year
Maximum
year
Maximum
magnitude
Distance at
maximum (LY)
Current
distance
Current
magnitude
Epsilon Canis Majoris [1] ... -4,460,000 -4,700,000 -3.99 34 430 1.50
Beta Canis Majoris [2] -4,460,000 -3,700,000 -4,420,000 -3.65 37 500 1.99
Canopus (first time) -3,700,000 -1,370,000 -3,110,000 -1.86 177 310 -0.72
Zeta Sagittarii -1,370,000 -1,080,000 -1,200,000 -2.74 8 89.1 2.60
Zeta Leporis -1,080,000 -950,000 -1,050,000 -2.05 5.3 70 3.55
Canopus (second time) -950,000 -420,000 -950,000 -1.09[3] 252 310 -0.72
Aldebaran -420,000 -210,000 -320,000 -1.54 21.5 65 0.85
Capella -210,000 -160,000 -240,000 -0.82[4] 27.9 42.2 0.08
Canopus (third time) -160,000 -90,000 -160,000 -0.70[3] 302 310 -0.72
Sirius (current) -90,000 +210,000 +60,000 -1.64 7.8 8.6 -1.46
Vega +210,000 +480,000 +290,000 -0.81 17.2 25.04 0.03
Canopus (fourth time) +480,000 +990,000 +480,000 -0.40[3] 346 310 -0.72
Beta Aurigae +990,000 +1,150,000 +1,190,000 -0.40[4] 28.5 82.1 1.9
Delta Scuti +1,150,000 +1,330,000 +1,250,000 -1.84 9.2 187 4.72
Gamma Draconis +1,330,000 +2,030,000 +1,550,000 -1.39 27.7 154 2.36
Upsilon Librae +2,030,000 +2,670,000 +2,290,000 -0.46 30 195 3.6
NR Canis Majoris +2,670,000 +3,050,000 +2,870,000 -0.88 14 280 5.6
Omicron Herculis +3,050,000 +3,870,000 +3,470,000 -0.63 44 346 3.83
Albireo +3,870,000 ... +4,610,000 -0.52 80 390 3.18
  1. ^ This star is now a luminous giant. It may have been on the main sequence, approx. 1 mag fainter, during the time span given.
  2. ^ This star is now a supergiant. It may have been on the main sequence, approx. 1 mag fainter, during the time span given.
  3. ^ a b c Peak magnitude is not the brightest for this star
  4. ^ a b This peak occurs when another star is brightest

References[edit]