Historical characters in the Southern Victory Series

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The Southern Victory Series is a series of alternate history novels written by Harry Turtledove. The point of divergence involves Confederate States of America winning the American Civil War and becoming an independent nation. The series covers events from 1862 to 1945 and features dozens of characters, some of whom were historical figures.

Contents

Books in the series[edit]

United States[edit]

Alcott, Louisa May[edit]

(HFR)

Rather than Little Women, set in a North that was winning the war, Louisa May Alcott wrote After the War was Lost.

Baum, L. Frank[edit]

(GW:AF, AE:VO)

In a rather odd move on Turtledove's part, L. Frank Baum is introduced as an American fighter pilot early in the Great War, this despite the fact that Baum was aged 58 in 1914. (Perhaps there is confusion with his son Frank Joslyn Baum) Somewhere along the line, Baum still becomes a children's author. Only his book Queen Zixi of Ix is mentioned by name, but because the book is an offshoot of The Wizard of Oz craze, we can assume he still wrote his most famous book. (However, The Wizard of Oz was inspired by architectural exhibits at the Chicago World's Fair of 1893, which is unlikely to have happened in this timeline, making this plot element questionable.)

Bernstein, Carl[edit]

(SA:G)

Sergeant Carl Bernstein is in charge of a U.S. Army counterintelligence squadron that specializes in detecting wiretaps. He is sent to check Congresswoman Flora Blackford's office for bugs. Among his team are a 'Bob' (possibly Bob Woodward or H. R. Haldeman) and 'Dick' (almost certainly Richard Nixon). However, this is an obvious anachronism for the sake of a laugh, as the Bernstein of our timeline was not born until 1944.

Blaine, James G.[edit]

(HFR)

James G. Blaine was the second and last Republican president of the United States. He was also known as the only other president to start a war (over the CSA's purchase of the states of Chihuahua and Sonora, giving the Confederacy a Pacific port) and to lose the war as well. At the end of The Second Mexican War, Blaine started the U.S. tradition of Remembrance Day and also started the alliance with the German Empire, which developed into The Central Powers of the Great War.

Bogart, Humphrey[edit]

(SA:DE)

In this timeline, Humphrey Bogart still became a movie actor. He starred in the movie The Maltese Elephant, which is an analog of our timeline's The Maltese Falcon (The Maltese Elephant is also the name of a short story in Harry Turtledove's short story collection Counting Up, Counting Down). Armstrong Grimes thought of Bogart when he learned that his aunt Clara was marrying someone named Humphrey Baxter.

Booth, John Wilkes[edit]

(HFR)

With the South having gained its independence, John Wilkes Booth has nothing to be homicidally angry about. He and his elder brother Edwin Booth remain popular stage actors in both the U.S. and CSA into the 1880s.

Borah, William Edgar[edit]

(AE:VO)

Herbert Hoover's running mate (Hoover became president after president-elect Calvin Coolidge died and did not have a vice president) in the 1936 election, William Edgar Borah had even some of the most loyal Democrats saying that his vice presidential opponent, Charles W. La Follette, would make a better VP.

Brown, Mordecai[edit]

(GW:WH, AE:VO)

Known only as "Mordecai" in the series, Mordecai "Three Finger" Brown, instead of becoming a Hall of Fame pitcher, was a crewman on the USS Dakota during the Great War. Sam Carsten noted how Mordecai could work as if he had ten fingers, instead of eight, which was the result of a childhood accident. By 1934, Mordecai was the foreman at a Los Angeles construction company; one of his employees was Chester Martin, who had moved from Toledo, Ohio as a result of the Business Collapse. By the late 1930s, however, Mordecai lost many of his workers, including Martin, as a result of a strike.

Butler, Benjamin Franklin[edit]

(HFR)

Benjamin Franklin Butler had been a politician of the Democratic Party when the War of Secession began in 1861. He left the party and joined the Army to fight the war. He was best known for commanding the occupation garrison of New Orleans, Louisiana, a post in which he was most thoroughly despised by the locals. When the Union was defeated, Butler was forced to flee New Orleans for his life; the Confederate authorities had promised to hang him for war crimes without a trial. In the aftermath of the war, Butler left the army and returned to politics, this time joining the Republican Party as a hard liner.

When the Second Mexican War began in 1881, Butler was more than enthusiastic to fight it, but as the war progressed and turned against the Union, Butler grew bitter and openly critical of US President James G. Blaine.

In 1882, Butler was one of several prominent leaders of the Republican Party to attend a convention called by former president Abraham Lincoln in Chicago, Illinois. He resisted Lincoln's proposal to replace hostility toward the Confederate States with workers' rights as the central plank of the party's platform. Butler steadfastly refused to drop his Anti-Confederate policies. He blamed the loss of the war on the social and moral weakness of the country, and that it needed to rebuild itself into a more authoritarian nation if the nation was to ever be triumphant over the Rebels. When he realized he wasn't going to get his way, Butler walked out of the meeting. In the chaos that followed, the Republican Party split, with the Liberal faction joining the Socialist Party, while Butler left the Republican Party and rejoined the Democrats, taking all of the Conservative hardliners with him.

As a result of Butler's actions, the Democratic Party would be pushed further to the right on the political spectrum and would also cause a majority of the party to adopt a hard line foreign policy and the gearing of American society to nationalism and revanchism.

Cannon, Clarence[edit]

(AE:VO)

A Socialist Congressman from Missouri, Clarence Cannon becomes Speaker of the House during the Smith Administration.

Chaney, Lon[edit]

(SA:G)

Lon Chaney, Sr. appeared as a silent movie star in The Phantom of the Catacombs, which is probably an analog of our timeline's The Phantom of the Opera.

Clemens, Samuel[edit]

(HFR, SA:DE)

Samuel Clemens does not become famous in this timeline as the novelist, travel writer, and essayist Mark Twain. Here he has lost his family's valuable land in Tennessee (as it is now part of an enemy nation), and settles down with a family in San Francisco where he becomes the editor of the San Francisco Morning Call, known for his very sarcastic war editorials in the 1880s during the Second Mexican War. His home is burned by British soldiers on their way to steal from the San Francisco Mint, and he is briefly suspected of being an enemy agent until Colonel William Tecumseh Sherman meets with him and determines he is safe. His journalistic work keeps him occupied full-time and he never takes up writing books.

Clemens had a different wife and children in this world than he had in our timeline. Unlike our world, one of his offspring grew up to be a famous journalist: Ophelia Clemens. It was never revealed whatever happened to his other child, Orion.

Coolidge, Calvin[edit]

(AE:BI-AE:CCH)

Calvin Coolidge was the Democratic politician in the early 1900s. He served as the governor of Massachusetts in the 1910s and 20s, and was elected to the presidency in 1932. He holds the distinction of being the only man elected President of the United States never to be inaugurated.

A veteran of the Great War, Coolidge rose to prominence during his tenure as the governor of Massachusetts during the 1920s. In 1928, he was the Democratic Party's nominee for president. However, as the United States had been experiencing an economic boom under the Socialist President Upton Sinclair, Coolidge was readily portrayed as another regressive Democrat. Despite Coolidge's promises to keep the Confederate States in check, his lack of accomplishment outside of Massachusetts, worked against him. Although he carried all of the New England states (including his home and birth states of Massachusetts and Vermont), Kansas, Kentucky, Montana, Idaho, Nevada, and Houston, he lost that election narrowly to the incumbent Vice President, Socialist Hosea Blackford. When Coolidge called Blackford to concede the race, he warned him that a "bull market going as high as it is, will fall". Blackford thought it was just sour grapes and paid no heed. When Coolidge's words came true in 1929 and the Socialists and Blackford were blamed for the crash, he was nominated on the Democratic ticket again in 1932 with Herbert Hoover as his running mate. He won the 1932 election in a landslide. However, on January 5, 1933, President-elect Coolidge suffered a heart attack while shaving and died, less than a month before he would be inaugurated on February 1. (The Coolidge of our history died on the same date, but after he served as president from 1923 to 1929.) Herbert Hoover took his place as President-elect and would go on to be inaugurated as the thirty first President of the United States on February 1.

Curley, Jim[edit]

(SA:ID)

Congressman Jim Curley of Massachusetts was the Socialist Party's candidate for Vice President in the 1944 election. Flora Hamburger Blackford questioned this choice because of his role in the Boston Socialist political machine, though she figured the Kansas City Democratic machine was more corrupt. The Socialist ticket of Charles W. La Follete and Curley lost to the Democratic ticket of Thomas E. Dewey and Harry S. Truman.

Custer, George Armstrong[edit]

(HFR, GW:AF-AE:CCH)

In this timeline, George Custer was not killed fighting Indians in 1876, as this smaller United States appears to have attempted to salve its wounded national pride following the War of Secession by unleashing a much larger US Army upon the Native American tribes, thus compressing the conquest of the Great Plains into what appears to be a much shorter timescale. He served in Utah and Montana during the Second Mexican War (where he met Theodore Roosevelt). His forces helped defeat General Charles Gordon's invasion of Montana (after the cease-fire, as the Canadians later complained, although at the time neither he nor the Canadians had heard of it.) A movement to nominate him to succeed James G. Blaine as US President flourished briefly but petered out, nevertheless he was remembered as the one commander to come out with a good record from two wars that the U.S. lost. In the Great War, he was a lieutenant general in the United States Army and commanded the First Army forces in Tennessee. He was personally vain, using peroxide to bleach his grey hair and mustache despite his advanced age. He was concerned about his public image, and was furious when he read the reports on him by journalist Richard Harding Davis. As a Great War commander, he was unsuited for trench warfare, insisting on mounting large assaults on enemy lines instead of winning by attrition. However, his strategies were perfectly suited for "barrels," the timeline's term for tanks. Once they were introduced in force he crafted the "Barrel Roll Offensive," an armored breakthrough which ultimately won the Great War for the U.S.

Following the war, Custer was appointed to command the occupation forces in Canada, where he survived a few assassination attempts, ultimately killing the man who had tried so determinedly to kill him. Custer was forced into retirement following the election of Upton Sinclair as President; Secretary of War Norman Mattoon Thomas served him the papers. He died in 1930 and was buried next to Theodore Roosevelt near Robert E. Lee's house in Arlington, West Virginia, in one of several northern Virginia counties reassigned to West Virginia after the Great War. His extraordinarily lengthy career, approximately 60 years in the US Army, is roughly analogous to that of the German general Paul von Hindenburg in our timeline.

Custer, Thomas[edit]

(HFR)

Tom Custer, in this timeline, was not killed in 1876 alongside his brother George at Little Big Horn. He fought alongside his brother during the Second Mexican War in both Utah and Montana. In 1881, Tom was killed during the fighting in Montana; this led to his brother George developing a lifelong hatred of the Canadians.

Daniels, Josephus[edit]

(GW:AF-GW:B)

Although being of Southern origins, Josephus Daniels served as Secretary of the U.S. Navy during the Great War. A destroyer escort was named after him in the Second Great War.

(It is unknown why he is on the USA's side, and it is commonly believed to be an error on the part of author Harry Turtledove. In actual history, Daniels was born in Washington, North Carolina to a Unionist family; his father was killed by Confederate artillery in January 1865.[1] In the Southern Victory timeline, it may be presumed that the Daniels family moved North after the Union defeat in 1862.)

Darrow, Clarence[edit]

(AE:CCH)

With no Southern states to interfere with the teaching of evolution, Clarence Darrow practiced criminal law in the United States. He was famous enough to convince the State of Kentucky (and the Kentucky State Police head Luther Bliss) that it was wrong in holding Cincinnatus Driver on trumped-up charges.

Davis, Richard Harding[edit]

(GW:AF-GW:WH)

Richard Harding Davis was a journalist and war correspondent in this timeline as well as ours. He was famous for coverage of the Hispano-Japanese War of 1905, and was a thorn in the side of General George Armstrong Custer. He died of a heart attack in 1916 observing the trench fighting in the Great War. (In our timeline, he died in the same year of the same cause, but in New York City instead of a war zone.)

Debs, Eugene V.[edit]

(GW:B-AE:BI)

Senator Eugene V. Debs was one of the first Socialists to be elected to Congress after the split of the Republican Party. He was the Socialist Party candidate for President in 1908, 1912 and 1916. He ran unsuccessfully for president against Theodore Roosevelt in both the 1912 and 1916, and was a strong opponent of U.S. involvement in the Great War.

Dewey, George[edit]

(GW:AF)

George Dewey of Vermont is the admiral who commands the successful U.S. attack on the Sandwich Islands early the Great War, in 1914. There are passing similarities between this fictional battle and the real Battle of Manila Bay.

Dewey may or may not have commanded the Navy during the Battle of the Three Navies—the commander is never named. If it is not Dewey, it is Bradley Fiske, who evidently succeeded Dewey. It should be noted that Dewey would have been 77 at the time of the Battle, and Fiske was over a decade younger.

Dewey, Thomas E.[edit]

(SA:ID)

Thomas Dewey was governor of New York when he received the Democratic nomination for President in 1944. He and his running mate Harry S. Truman of Missouri defeat the incumbent Charles W. La Follette. His victory is partially attributed to pointing out that the CSA was able to regain strength and attack the United States on the watch of three Socialist Presidents (conveniently downplaying Democrat Herbert Hoover, who made no efforts to stop the Confederacy).

At his inauguration on February 1, 1945, President Dewey pledged to continue US occupation of the CS with the intention of re-integrating the southern states back into the Union, even though over 82 years had passed since the Confederate States had won its independence in the War of Secession (1861–1862) with the support of the United Kingdom and France. He pledged to continue La Follette's policy of racial equality in the armed services. Furthermore, he proposed a continued partnership with the United States' traditional ally, the German Empire, to police the world and prevent the spread of superbomb technology to their former enemies, Russia and Japan. Given that it was widely believed that Dewey would lose the election, the front page headline of the November 8, 1944 edition of the Chicago Tribune inaccurately read "La Follette Defeats Dewey". Vice President-elect Truman was photographed holding up a copy of the paper by the media. Dewey was elected at the age of 42, tying the first Socialist president Upton Sinclair (who was elected to the first of two terms in 1920, defeating the Democratic incumbent Theodore Roosevelt) as the youngest President in US history. He also held the distinction of being the first President born in the 20th century whereas Sinclair was the first born after the War of Secession.

Dewey's victory might be intended to parallel Clement Attlee's surprising landslide victory over Winston Churchill at the end of the Second World War in our timeline. His U.S.-German partnership is reminiscent of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Four Policemen idea.

Douglass, Frederick[edit]

(HFR)

Frederick Douglass was still trying to tell the United States of the suffering of the African-American slaves in the Confederacy twenty years after the War of Secession. His pleas were heard only by the small minority of freedmen in the USA and a handful of whites. He also, ironically, becomes one of the first people (in his mind) to approve of the "Revenge" mindset that the United States picked up in the Second Mexican War in fighting the CSA.

Fields, W.C.[edit]

(SA:DE)

W.C. Fields still becomes a film comic, and retains his trademark line "All things considered, I'd rather be in Philadelphia," perhaps inspired by the city becoming the de facto capital of the U.S.

Fiske, Bradley[edit]

(GW:B)

Bradley Fiske is a rear admiral during the Great War. He is the force commander of the U.S. fleet that assists Chile in its war against Argentina in 1917. He appears briefly to congratulate Sam Carsten and Vic Crosetti for tipping off the military to Hawaiian spy John Liholiho.

It is quite possible that he was also in overall command during the Battle of the Three Navies, fighting the Japanese and British to a draw and frustrating their efforts to retake the Sandwich Islands from the United States. However, his name is not mentioned. If it was not Fiske, it was probably his predecessor, George Dewey.

Foulke, William Dudley[edit]

(HFR, GW:AF)

This American politician, lawyer, and poet appears at the beginning of How Few Remain. Before the war starts William Foulke is an infantry captain of the United States Army. Jeb Stuart wonders what a stuck-up young man is doing out west. He reappears in 1915 as Irving Morrell's divisional commander in southeastern Kentucky.

Foxx, Jimmie[edit]

(SA:DE)

Instead of becoming a Hall of Fame first baseman, Jimmie Foxx was a running back in the U.S. football league. His name was used as a password in Irving Morrell's army to identify Confederate spies.

Garfield, James[edit]

(HFR)

Senator James Garfield is one of the Republican Party leaders who gather in Chicago in 1882 to discuss the party's future. He is more conservative than former president Abraham Lincoln and wishes not to make the party more radical.

Gehrig, Lou[edit]

(AE:CCH)

Lou Gehrig played professional football in this timeline as a member of the Philadelphia Barrels team. When asked about earning more money than US President Hosea Blackford, he responded, "I had a better year than he did," echoing Babe Ruth's comments about President Hoover in our timeline.

Goldwater, Barry[edit]

(AE:VO)

Barry Goldwater was a Democratic Congressman from New Mexico noted for his anti-Mormon speeches and rabble rousing during the days and months leading up to Second Great War. (Note that the New Mexico of this timeline included Arizona, home to our timeline's Goldwater.)

Grant, Ulysses S.[edit]

(HFR, AE:BI)

General Ulysses Grant, in the twenty years after the War of Secession, is a broken down, poor man. Known for his victories in a war the United States had few in, he was one of the few people left in the United States who supported the plight of African-Americans in both North American republics. Grant died from complications from alcoholism.

Greenberg, Hank[edit]

(SA:DE)

Instead of becoming a Hall of Fame first baseman for the Detroit Tigers, Hank Greenberg was a prominent U.S. running back. His name was used as a code in Irving Morrell's army to prevent Confederate spies from infiltrating U.S. lines.

Guffey, Joseph[edit]

(SA:RE)

Joseph F. Guffey was the U.S. Speaker of the House during the Smith and La Follette administrations. When Al Smith was killed in the Confederate bombing raid of Philadelphia in 1942, Guffey announced the President's death to a joint session of Congress.

Halsey, William Frederick Jr.[edit]

(SA:RE)

A Rear Admiral of the Southern Shore Squadron, Bill Halsey was part of the MacArthur plan to land and attack at the mouth of the James River until General Abner Dowling contacted the War Department to stop that plan. From Dowling's statement on him, it seems he is as reckless as MacArthur.

Hamlin, Hannibal[edit]

(HFR)

Hannibal Hamlin, former Vice President of the United States becomes secretary of state in the James G. Blaine administration and is chosen to negotiate a peaceful resolution to the conflict leading up to the Second Mexican War, a task in which he was not successful.

Haywood, Bill[edit]

(GW:WH)

Like he was in our timeline, "Big Bill" Haywood is a Socialist Party bigwig in the U.S. during the Great War. He is introduced to Flora Hamburger by Herman Bruck at a May Day rally, and eyes her with lust. Flora doesn't seem to like him, but does acknowledge that he brings a furious energy to the cause that makes him a force to be reckoned with.

Hemingway, Ernest[edit]

(GW:WH, AE:CCH-AE:VO)

Known only as "Ernie", the novelist Ernest Hemingway was an ambulance driver in the U.S. Army on the Québec front in the Great War (in our timeline Hemingway drove an ambulance in Italy during World War I), Ernest was strafed by a British aircraft and severely wounded in the groin. After the war, his impotence served as a constant frustration. He ghost-wrote Sylvia Enos' book, I Sank Roger Kimball, and was involved in an affair with his client. He accidentally shoots her when attempting suicide while he is drunk. He then shoots himself in remorse. (In our timeline, Hemingway lived to 1961, shooting himself to death but no one else.) In the Southern Victory Series, he never becomes a prominent author—though he does have work published.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell[edit]

(GW:WH-AE:VO)

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. becomes Chief Justice of the United States rather than associate justice, as he does in our timeline. He is one of the last surviving War of Secession veterans and manages to outlive even General George Armstrong Custer. Holmes is a staunch Democratic supporter, who is very displeased in 1920 at having to administer the oath of office to Upton Sinclair, the first Socialist President. He dies in 1935 (the same year of his death in our timeline) during Herbert Hoover's administration. He is replaced as Chief Justice by Cicero Pittman in time for Al Smith's inauguration in 1937.

Hoover, Herbert[edit]

(AE:CCH-AE:VO)

Herbert Hoover was part of the Coolidge-Hoover Democratic ticket that defeated the Blackford-Johnson Socialist ticket during the Democratic sweep in 1932. When President-Elect Calvin Coolidge died less than a month before he got into office, Hoover took over. The only thing his term was known for was making the situation in Kentucky, Houston, Sequoyah, and Utah worse. He ended the Pacific War with a status quo ante bellum "peace" with Japan and allowed Jake Featherston to begin rebuilding the Confederate Army in the face of the "black rebellion". Hoover was also derided for not doing anything to help the Great Depression. Because of this, the Democrats were defeated with a Socialist sweep the Congressional elections of 1934 and he lost the presidential race to Socialist Al Smith in 1936.

Humphrey, Hubert[edit]

(AE:VO)

Hubert Humphrey is referred to as the "pharmacist from Minneapolis." He wisely decides not to move his business to Rosenfeld, Manitoba, where the local general store (owned by an American) had been bombed by Mary MacGregor Pomeroy several years before.

Johnson, Hiram[edit]

(AE:CCH)

Hiram Johnson was the Socialist nominee for vice-president in both the 1928 and 1932 elections. He and Hosea Blackford won the 1928 election over Calvin Coolidge; the victory was clinched after the Socialists won Johnson's home state of California. He was present at the Socialist party rally that was held on the same day that Japan raided Los Angeles. Blackford and Johnson were easily defeated in 1932 by Coolidge and Herbert Hoover.

Kennedy, Joseph P. Sr.[edit]

(AE:CCH-AE:VO, SA:ID)

Joseph Kennedy, in this timeline, was a Democratic Party organizer in Boston, Massachusetts. Although married to Rose Kennedy and the father of Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., he attempted to seduce Sylvia Enos, who was a minor heroine for killing Roger Kimball, and was campaigning for him at his political rallies.

After the Second Great War, Kennedy helped obtain the discharge of George Enos Jr., from the navy to allow him to return to civilian life.

Kennedy, Joseph Jr.[edit]

(SA:RE)

Joseph Kennedy, Jr. is a fighter pilot serving in the same squadron as Jonathan Moss during Operation Blackbeard. It is unknown whether he survived the Second Great War. In our timeline, he did not survive World War II.

LaGuardia, Fiorello[edit]

(AE:VO)

Fiorello LaGuardia is elected governor of New York on the Socialist ticket and attends the New York City Remembrance Day parade shortly before the beginning of the Second Great War.

Lansing, Robert[edit]

(GW:B)

Robert Lansing was the United States Secretary of State at the conclusion of the Great War in 1917, and was responsible for drafting the terms of the peace treaty with the Confederate States and setting policy for Occupied Canada.

Liggett, Hunter[edit]

(AE:BI-AE:CCH)

Hunter Liggett replaced General Leonard Wood as Army Chief of Staff under President Upton Sinclair. He appeared unenthusiastic about some of the Socialists' more unrealistic policies.

Lincoln, Abraham[edit]

(HFR, GW:AF)

In this timeline, Abraham Lincoln was a one-term president who was defeated in the 1864 election in a landslide, and who was generally remembered as a failure. After his presidency, he travels around the country as an orator advocating for labor rights. In 1881, feeling that the Republican party was no longer true to its original roots, he led a faction of the party to break off and join the Socialist Party with Marxist activist Friedrich Sorge, which eventually became the major opposition to the Democrats and one of the two main parties in the American political system. After which, he spends the rest of his days in seclusion outside Chicago.

In the prologue of Great War: American Front, while considering the mediation put forth by British ambassador Richard Lyons, Lincoln makes a solemn vow that the United States would find European allies to someday get even with England and France for their violating of the Monroe Doctrine and helping of the CSA. Though laughed at by Lyons, his prediction would eventually come true by the Great War.

Lincoln, Mary Todd[edit]

(HFR)

Mary Todd Lincoln was the wife of former President Abraham Lincoln. As her husband was not assassinated in 1865, she did not suffer from mental illness. In the late 1870s, Mary Lincoln died of typhus.

Mahan, Alfred Thayer[edit]

(GW:WH)

Alfred Mahan was a two-term Democratic president from 1889 to 1897. During his time in office, Mahan threatened to declare war on the Confederate States because of a proposal by the CSA to build a canal in Nicaragua in order to reach their Pacific port in Guaymas, Sonora, without having to travel around South America. After receiving the threat of war, the CSA backed down in their attempt to build the canal. Sam Carsten mentions that he might be the best President the country had ever had before Theodore Roosevelt.

Moran, Edward[edit]

(AE:VO)

Congressman Edward C. Moran, Jr. of Maine is a Democrat who debates Flora Blackford on whether or not the United States should interfere with the treatment of blacks in the CSA.

Patrick, Mason[edit]

(GW:AF-GW:B)

Brigadier General Mason Patrick was a senior aviator in the U.S. Army air service and served on the Canadian front in the Great War.

Pershing, John "Black Jack"[edit]

(GW:AF-AE:CCH)

John Pershing was commanding general of the US Second Army and rival of George Custer's First Army in the Great War. After the Socialist victory over the Democrats, he became military governor of Utah. In 1929, a Mormon sniper killed him, and he was succeeded by Colonel Abner Dowling, erstwhile commandant of Salt Lake City.

Pitney, Mahlon[edit]

(AE:BI)

Rather than being appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States in 1912, as he was in our timeline, Mahlon Pitney goes to Canada to preside over trials in occupied country.

Pope, John[edit]

(HFR)

John Pope was the commander of U.S. forces in Utah during the Second Mexican War. He was responsible for ordering the execution of several Mormon leaders during the attempted revolt in Utah. Pope also arrested former president Abraham Lincoln for allegedly having Mormon sympathies, but President James Blaine ordered Lincoln's release.

Reagan, Ronald[edit]

(AE:VO)

Ronald Reagan, "Dutch", like this timeline's counterpart, was a sports announcer in Iowa between the wars. His favorite phrase in games is "There he goes again" (similar to one of Reagan's most familiar phrases in our timeline, "There you go again"). Cincinnatus Driver also describes "Dutch" as a "great communicator", a description applied to the historical Reagan.

Reed, Thomas Brackett[edit]

(GW:AF)

Thomas Brackett Reed was a Democratic president sometime in the late 1890s. Like Alfred Thayer Mahan, Reed was considered a hero of the Remembrance ideology. Reed entered the United States into a mutual-defense pact with Haiti. Presumably this helped curb CSA designs in the Caribbean while at the same time irritating the CS government, which had long desired the destruction of the former slave colony. This pact was reaffirmed by Theodore Roosevelt during the Great War.

Reed was depicted on a fifty-cent coin used as currency during the Great War.

Rickover, Hyman G.[edit]

(SA:ID)

Captain Hyman G. Rickover, U.S. Navy testifies before a House of Representatives committee, as an expert on submarines (as he was in our timeline). Rickover has the unpleasant task of explaining why the U.S. has not yet built copies of German High Seas Fleet submarines.

Rogers, Will[edit]

(AE:VO)

Will Rogers is referred to as "that comic from Sequoyah." A Oklahoma native in our timeline. As in our timeline, he is quoted as having said, "All I know is what I read in the newspapers."

Roosevelt, Franklin D.[edit]

(AE:CCH, SA:RE-SA:ID)

Franklin D. Roosevelt, in this timeline, was Secretary of War in the Herbert Hoover administration and later Assistant Secretary of War under the Alfred E. Smith and Charles La Follette Administrations. He is not much in the public eye, but plays a key role at being in charge of the United States nuclear program at the Hanford site. Roosevelt was paraplegic and uses a wheelchair. He develops a kind of platonic affair with Flora Blackford. There is no mention of his being married in this timeline to Eleanor Roosevelt, who as wife of an obscure Assistant Secretary would have far less scope for her own activities than she did as First Lady in our timeline. It noted that his son (who goes unnamed) is in the US Navy during the Second Great War.

Shortly before the end of the war Flora Blackford notices with concern that Roosevelt is "killing himself with overwork and smoking". After the fall of the CSA, Roosevelt is not mentioned again, and the disposal of the Confederate nuclear program is left to General Abell rather than to him. Some have taken this to indicate that FDR died in 1944, but this is not likely, as Turtledove usually has characters die natural deaths on the same day as in our timeline (12 April 1945 in FDR's case). More tellingly, none of Flora's soliloquies mention his death, and she surely would have acknowledged the passing of her good friend. More likely is that there is less for FDR to do after the war is ending, and his term is about to expire.

Roosevelt, Theodore[edit]

(HFR-AE:CCH)

Theodore Roosevelt, called Teddy or TR in the press, became a national figure for leading a volunteer cavalry unit, the "Unauthorized Regiment," in the Second Mexican War, during which he developed an intense rivalry with George Custer. A member of the Democratic Party, he was President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. Roosevelt was the first president to run for a third term, but he was ultimately defeated by Socialist Upton Sinclair in 1920. After he died suddenly of a cerebral hemorrhage while golfing in 1924, he was buried at Robert E. Lee's house in Arlington which had been annexed to West Virginia from Virginia after the Great War. He died in 1919 in our timeline.

Rosecrans, William[edit]

(HFR)

William Rosecrans was a lead general in the Second Mexican War. He was partly responsible for the U.S. defeat as he admitted to observers on the Kentucky front that he had no real strategy to defeat the Confederate States.

Sevareid, Eric[edit]

(SA:ID)

Eric Sevareid was a radio broadcaster for U.S. Wireless Atlanta, which was established after the fall of Atlanta, possibly to counter Confederate Connie. After the death of Jake Featherston, Sevareid was one of the broadcasters who interviewed Cassius Madison.

Shaw, Robert Gould[edit]

(GW:AF)

Ironically, Robert Gould Shaw, the man who in our timeline led the 54th Massachusetts, one of the first all black regiments in the US Civil War, ends up surviving through the War of Secession, though losing a hand in the process, and lives on until 1914 in Boston. He was depicted as an elderly racist with little money.

Sherman, William T.[edit]

(HFR)

Despite having fought with valor and distinction at the historical Battles of Bull Run and Shiloh, the victories of William Tecumseh Sherman amounted to nothing after the United States' defeat at Camp Hill and the encirclement of Washington, DC. Sherman was stripped of his rank of brigadier general and would never command over regular troops again.

Nonetheless, Sherman remained in the US Army and by 1881, he commanded the defences of San Francisco from his headquarters at the Presidio. When the Second Mexican War began later that year, Sherman organised volunteers and harbour guns in preparation for any attacks. His efforts were mocked greatly by Samuel Clemens in his newspaper, the San Francisco Morning Call. Because of this, he interviewed Clemens on suspicion that he was a Confederate agent, but found nothing to substantiate it and gave Clemens a letter to that effect.

As the war dragged on, the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom turned up the pressure against the United States in support of their Confederate ally and attacked San Francisco. In spite of Sherman's preparations, the harbour guns were ineffective and his own troops proved inadequate in stopping the Royal Marines from raiding the San Francisco Mint. After the raid, Sherman was greatly embarrassed and ridiculed in the city's papers, especially the Morning Call. However, after the cease fire was called, Sherman loudly insisted that with more fortifications, he could make the city impregnable.

Shirer, William[edit]

(SA:ID)

William Shirer is a U.S. broadcaster who interviews Cassius Madison in his tour of the U.S. after killing Jake Featherston.

Sinclair, Upton[edit]

(AE:BI-AE:VO)

Upton Sinclair was the first Socialist President. He was elected over Theodore Roosevelt in the 1920 election for a number of reasons, including (but not limited to) worker unrest, outrage at Roosevelt's decision to run for a third term, and the public's general exhaustion with the Remembrance ideology. His first acts were to slash the military budget, force General Custer into retirement and enact new labor laws. He was re-elected in 1924, where he and the Socialist Party take credit for the Roaring Twenties prosperity. Sinclair declined to run for a third term in 1928 and was succeeded in office by his Vice President, Hosea Blackford, who defeated Democratic candidate Calvin Coolidge by a narrow margin.

Smith, Al[edit]

(AE:VO-SA:RE)

Al Smith is elected as the third Socialist (and first Catholic) President in the 1936 election, defeating Democrat Herbert Hoover. He is known as the "Happy Warrior" since he tries everything to keep the United States out of war with Jake Featherston's Confederate States, including the infamous Richmond Agreement, helping to gain him re-election over Robert Taft in 1940. All of Smith's efforts simply delay the inevitable; Featherston scraps any agreement with Smith and once again demands territorial concession. Smith refuses, touching off the Second Great War in June, 1941 (in an operation patterned after OTL's Operation Barbarossa). Smith is killed in his second term (1942) when Confederate bombers blew up parts of Powel House and destroy his bunker.

Smith shares parallels with Neville Chamberlain, who attempted, but failed, to prevent war in our timeline with a fascist regime through the use of appeasement.

Smith, Kate[edit]

(SA:G)

Kate Smith was a famous U.S. singer in this timeline as well as ours. In 1943, she sang "God Bless the Stars and Stripes" with backing by Satchmo and the Rhythm Aces.

Sousa, John Philip[edit]

(GW:AF and AE:BI)

The marches of John Philip Sousa in this timeline were very popular in the United States. The Socialists despised him as a tool who substituted nationalist desires for vengeance for the class struggle, but respected his talents.

Stassen, Harold[edit]

(SA:ID)

Harold Stassen was peripherally mentioned as "the governor of Minnesota" as the Republican Party's candidate for President in the 1944 election, carrying electoral votes from the four states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Kansas, and Indiana in a three-way race against Socialist Charles W. La Follette and Democrat Thomas E. Dewey.

Stedman, Seymour[edit]

(AE:BI)

Seymour Stedman was a Socialist Congressman from Ohio. In the Socialist-majority Congress of 1919, he was elected Speaker of the House. Stedman became the first non-Democrat since 1881 to be elected as Speaker.

Sutro, Adolph[edit]

(HFR)

Adolph Sutro is still the mayor of San Francisco, California as in our timeline. His mayorship was heavily criticized for incompetence, particularly after the British Royal Navy bombarded the city and Royal Marines raided the San Francisco Mint.

Sutro was a supporter of President James G. Blaine and designed several comical, outlandish security measures to protect San Francisco (which was an extremely low priority target) from attack during the Second Mexican War. Ironically, when the British did attack the city, the defenses Sutro proposed proved worthless.

One of Sutro's most vocal critics was Samuel Clemens, who named his dog Sutro as an insult to the mayor.

Taft, Robert[edit]

(AE:VO, SA:DE-SA:G)

Robert A. Taft was a Democratic Senator from Ohio who ran against Al Smith in the 1940 presidential election. Taft was narrowly defeated running his campaign on an anti-Freedom Party line and the refusal to permit the states of Kentucky and Houston to hold a plebiscite to return to the CSA. During the Second Great War, he and former rival Flora Blackford (who had known his father before him) became fast friends and political allies as Flora became more hawkish as the war went on. Taft died in 1943, a victim of a Mormon suicide bomber in Philadelphia.

Taft, William Howard[edit]

(GW:B-AE:BI)

William Howard Taft was a Democratic Congressman from Ohio who served on the Transportation Committee during the later days of the Great War. He was on the same committee as Socialist congresswoman Flora Hamburger, and the two frequently disagreed on many political issues. His son Robert A. Taft became an important ally of hers during the Second Great War.

Thomas, Norman[edit]

(AE:BI-AE:CCH)

N. Mattoon Thomas served as Undersecretary of War in the Upton Sinclair Administration, often as Sinclair's hatchet man. He was responsible for informing General George A. Custer of his forced retirement and for closing down the Barrel Works.

Tilden, Samuel J.[edit]

(HFR)

Samuel Tilden was President of the United States from 1877 to 1881. He was nominated by the Democrats for reelection in 1880, but lost to Republican James G. Blaine. Tilden was defeated for not taking a hard line against the Confederate States and for ordering the removal of twelve stars (representing the former Union states in the CSA) from the U.S. flag.

Truman, Harry[edit]

(SA:ID)

Harry Truman was a Democratic Senator from Missouri who was selected by New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey as the Democratic VP candidate in 1944. The Dewey-Truman ticket defeated the incumbent President Charles W. La Follette. In announcing the Democratic victory, Truman had a copy of the Chicago Tribune that had the inaccurate headline "La Follete Beats Dewey". Truman made an appearance in occupied Florida to speak to U.S. soldiers before his inauguration as Vice President. He made it clear to the locals that the United States would be firm in the former Confederate States, but that they would be no firmer than needed, and that if they worked together they could one day be part of the same country once again.

Voorhis, Jerry[edit]

(AE:VO)

Jerry Voorhis was the United States ambassador to the Confederate States prior to the start of the Second Great War. After delivering news to Jake Featherston that U.S. president Al Smith refused the latest C.S. territorial demands, the C.S. president told Voorhis to leave the country within 24 hours; soon after this meeting, Featherston authorized the commencement of Operation Blackbeard.

Wallace, Henry[edit]

(SA:RE)

Henry A. Wallace was US Secretary of the Interior under Al Smith. He was one of the few people who knew of the United States' plans to develop nuclear weapons during the Second Great War.

Wayne, John[edit]

(AE:VO)

John Wayne is an actor known in this world under his real name, Marion Morrison. He played Theodore Roosevelt in a movie that recounted the details of the Battle of Montana in How Few Remain.

Willkie, Wendell[edit]

(AE:VO)

Wendell Willkie was the Republican nominee for president in the 1940 election, both in this timeline and our history. As the Republicans had become a third party in this timeline, Willkie was not considered to seriously contend for the presidency against the Socialist incumbent Al Smith and the Democratic challenger Robert Taft. In fact, on election day, he only carried the electoral votes from his home state of Indiana.

Winchell, Walter[edit]

(SA:ID)

Walter Winchell was a news reporter from New York City who was one of those to interview Cassius Madison after he shot Jake Featherston. During his interview with Winchell, Cassius found his accent difficult to understand.

Wood, Leonard[edit]

(GW:AF-GW:B)

General Leonard Wood was Chief of the General Staff of the U.S. Army during the Great War.

Confederate States[edit]

Arango, Doroteo[edit]

(GW:AF-GW:WH, AE:BI)

During the Great War, Doroteo Arango (known by the nom de guerre "Pancho Villa" in our timeline) was the Radical Liberal presidential candidate in the 1915 election. He promised he would fight the war against the United States even harder than Woodrow Wilson did. He is also the first non-white candidate to seriously run for the presidency of the Confederacy and showed the wartime strains on the ruling Whig Party, as the war dragged on and the United States' numbers and the Red Rebellion started to strain the Confederates. Interestingly enough, he was not opposed due to his ethnicity (Mixed "Mestizo" Mexican), only his political views. The Mexican Revolution in which our timeline's Pancho Villa had a major role has its counterpart in the Republican revolt against the Habsburg Emperors of this timeline's Mexico, which is crushed with the help of Freedom Party stalwarts. However, in the Confederate-annexed parts of Mexico, it is the Freedom Party itself which mobilises the peasants to overthrow the centuries-old rule of the big landowners.

Benjamin, Judah[edit]

(HFR)

Judah P. Benjamin was Secretary of State under President Jefferson Davis, and served in the Cabinets of many others of the Confederacy's first generation of leaders. He led his country's diplomatic efforts in the War of Secession. During the presidency of James Longstreet, Judah Benjamin was the ambassador to the United States. Despite his best efforts, he was not able to prevent the Second Mexican War of 1881-2.

During the closing days of the Second Mexican War, Benjamin became aware that Senator Wade Hampton III was attempting to recruit support for a coup should Longstreet go through with his plans to end slavery. He also knew that Hampton had unsuccessfully attempted to recruit Thomas Jackson, a fact which surprised Jackson.

Black, Hugo[edit]

(AE:CCH)

Hugo Black was the Whig Party's Vice-Presidential nominee in 1933 during the Freedom electoral sweep. He ran with James Longstreet's grandson Samuel Longstreet, and was caught in a riot against Freedom Party stalwarts during the 1933 Election Riots. The Longstreet-Black ticket lost in a landslide to the Featherston-Knight ticket. This defeat made it the first Presidential election in Confederate history where the Whig candidates lost.

Castro, Fidel[edit]

(SA:G)

Known by his first name only, Fidel Castro is a young leader of an anti-Freedom Party group in Confederate Cuba, working closely with the United States which sends him clandestine shipments of arms and ammunition.

Carter, Jimmy[edit]

(SA:DE)

A Confederate Navy sailor, Jimmy Carter (1924-1942) was on leave and found himself informally in charge of the defense of his hometown of Plains, Georgia when the black rebels raided the town. He was killed by Jonathan Moss in front of his mother, "Miss Lillian". In our timeline, he remains alive in 2017.

Chapman, Ben[edit]

(AE:VO)

Instead of becoming notorious in the baseball world for his attitude towards Jackie Robinson, Ben Chapman serves in the Freedom Party guards as a Chief Assault Band Leader (a captain in Army ranking). His first and only appearance in the books is when he shows up at Camp Dependable in the dead of night to drop off Willy Knight as a political prisoner.

Forrest, Nathan Bedford III[edit]

(AE:VO-SA:ID)

A great-grandson of Nathan Bedford Forrest was the head of the Confederate General Staff. Instead of airplane warfare, Nathan Bedford Forrest III, was a barrel expert. Forrest was valued by Jake Featherston because he was unafraid to tell the President the truth about how the war was going, instead of being a "yes man" and only telling him what he wanted to hear. When an increasingly stubborn Featherston rejects Forrest's advice to cut short the Pittsburgh Campaign, thus dooming George Patton's entire army of irreplaceable veterans to death or surrender, he begins plotting with Clarence Potter based on concerns about Featherston's sanity and whether new leadership was needed, for Forrest fears a Confederate loss and what the Yankees would do if they defeated the Confederacy again.

With the Confederate war effort collapsing, Forrest attempted to execute a coup to oust Featherston in 1944, analogous to the July 20 Plot, but was thwarted by the President. Forrest never revealed that he had ever discussed the failed coup with Potter. Eventually, Forrest was killed off for his attempt.

Hope, Bob[edit]

(SA:RE)

Bob Hope is a comic seen entertaining the troops in Occupied Ohio. He was booed offstage for his non realistic war jokes and for not being "Satchmo and the Rhythm Aces".

Jackson, Thomas J. "Stonewall"[edit]

(HFR)

Because of the Confederate victory in 1862, Stonewall Jackson did not die in 1863 as he did in our timeline. In the twenty years from the War of Secession to the Second Mexican War, Jackson became the head of the Confederate General Staff in the James Longstreet Administration. His brilliant tactics in the Second Mexican War led to victory for the Confederacy. Also critical to the Confederate cause was his decision to let the captured Frederick Douglass go free, after a memorable debate between the two showing some grudging mutual respect - a decision which eventually helped the Confederacy cement British and French support for its cause. Subsequently, Jackson refused Wade Hampton III's proposal to lead a coup against Longstreet after Longstreet began steps to end slavery.

His face appeared on the Confederate five-dollar coin, which naturally came to be called a "Stonewall".

Lamar, Lucius Q. C.[edit]

(HFR)

Lucius Lamar is the vice president of the Confederate States under his cousin James Longstreet. It is mentioned that Lamar would have acted as president should anything have happened to President Longstreet while he visited the war front in Kentucky.

Lee, Robert E.[edit]

(GW:AF)

Robert E. Lee is the Confederacy's military hero. It is his decision to invade Maryland, and the complete failure of Union general George McClellan to respond that allows the CS to gain military victory, and receive recognition as a country from Britain and France.

Lee appears briefly in the prologue of GW:AF, which is set in 1862. He is heavily referenced throughout the series.

In AE:CCH, we learn that a man named 'Lee' was president. As Robert E. Lee was never said to have been president in the prior volumes, nor so described in subsequent volumes, a debate has developed among fans of the series, with some arguing that Robert E. was president, while others favor his more political nephew, Fitzhugh Lee.

There is one apparent difference between Turtledove's character and the historic Lee. In our timeline, Lee became the president of Washington College in Lexington, Virginia immediately after the Civil War. He served in that role until his death in 1870, at which time the college adopted its current name of Washington and Lee University. In the Southern Victory Series, the college never added Lee's name—it is referenced in several books in the series as Washington University.

Long, Earl[edit]

(AE:VO)

After the assassination of their sibling, we learn that one of Governor Huey Long's brothers is involved in some sort of machine gun "accident" and the other is imprisoned at "Camp Dependable" outside Alexandria, Louisiana for his brother's non-Freedom Party politics. Although in our timeline Huey Long had three brothers, George, Julius and Earl Long, in the Southern Victory Series he has only two.

Long, Huey[edit]

(AE:CCH-AE:VO)

In this timeline, Huey Long was a Radical Liberal governor of Louisiana in the Confederate States. Like Jake Featherston, he used strong-arm tactics to suppress opposition and control that state, erected prison camps for political opponents, but did not resort to anti-black racist demagoguery. He proved to be a danger to the Freedom Party in the 1932 elections and afterwards, where the Freedom Party was under attack in his state, and planned to run for president once Featherston ended his term (at the time, the clause in the Confederate constitution restricting a president to a single term was still in force). He was later killed by an assassin of the Freedom Party in 1938 after getting a warning about not following Jake Featherston's orders from Anne Colleton. (He lived 3 years longer than he did in our timeline.) This assassination allowed Featherston to have the entire Confederacy under his control. The conquest of Louisiana from Long and his followers is roughly the analogue of Hitler's Austrian Anschluss.

Longstreet, James[edit]

(HFR)

James Longstreet was a victorious Confederate general turned president of the CSA serving 1880-1886. Although having a reputation as being an opportunist, his term was known for the second defeat of the United States in the Second Mexican War and the manumission of the slaves as the price of British and French alliance for help in the Second Mexican War. Longstreet also prevented, with Stonewall Jackson's help, a planned rebellion by Wade Hampton III.

Mahon, George[edit]

(AE:VO)

George Mahon was a Freedom Party Congressman from the State of Houston who was among the Congressmen (from Houston and Kentucky) who demanded that plebiscites be held in order to return to the Confederate States (Houston had joined the U.S. in 1917). He eventually got his wish, and on January 7, 1941, Houston, along with Kentucky, was returned to the CSA by popular vote, and was restored to the state of Texas.

McReynolds, James Clark[edit]

(AE:CCH-AE:VO)

James Clark McReynolds was the last Chief Justice of the Confederate Supreme Court. He played a key role in the ruling allowing Burton Mitchel to run again out of fear of the Freedom Party after the Hampton assassination. Later he was noted for his battles in the early months of the first Jake Featherston administration, most importantly the "torpedoing" of the River and Dam Act. (This is roughly analogous to the opposition of McReynolds to much of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal legislation in our timeline.) This led to the Featherston Administration finding a way to abolish the Supreme Court before it could strike down any more Freedom laws, (analogous to FDR's "Court Packing" plan in our timeline) and because Featherston wanted to settle accounts with the Court for its allowing Mitchel to run for re-election.

Attorney General Ferdinand Koenig pounced on the precedent of the CSA not having a Supreme Court for the first five years of existence, and forced McReynolds to admit to the legality of that precedent as prelude to having the Supreme Court knocked down, to great fanfare across the Confederacy's white population. Threatened with his life by Featherston if he trifled with the abolition of the Supreme Court, McReynolds retired into private life. The Confederate president then went on the radio to declare: "James McReynolds has made his decision, now let him enforce it!" (echoing a quote attributed to Andrew Jackson following an 1832 U.S. Supreme Court decision).

Patman, Wright[edit]

(SA:ID)

Wright Patman was the Governor of Texas during the Second Great War. In 1944, with the U.S. close to defeating the C.S., Patman seceded his state from the Confederacy and declared an independent Republic of Texas with himself as President. His first act was to obtain an armistice with the U.S., who immediately recognized his nation, although they continued stationing large numbers of soldiers there. To win brownie points with his new overlords, he turned over all Confederate war criminals that could be found in Texas, including Jefferson Pinkard, for crimes against humanity trials.

Patton, George S.[edit]

(SA:RE-SA:ID)

General George S. Patton, C.S. Army, was in charge of the Confederate armored forces (Army of Kentucky) in Operation Blackbeard in Ohio and the attack on Pittsburgh. He had many of the same character traits as our timeline's Patton: strict attention to detail in a soldier's appearance, high standards and a short temper, highly-effective use of armor, and a seemingly-limitless drive and energy that inspired great confidence among the soldiers serving under him and made him an outstanding commander. But Patton in this timeline is also a different man known to us: instead of being the first American general to integrate his combat formations, this Patton is an unabashed racist and strong supporter of the Freedom Party.

Patton was evacuated from the pocket at Pittsburgh before it fell in February 1943. He unsuccessfully tried to hold the U.S. Army out of Kentucky and Tennessee. This included an incident where he slapped a soldier suffering from battle fatigue. He would have shot the soldier save that other soldiers around them threatened to shoot Patton on the spot. He was reprimanded for this incident by President Jake Featherston, who promised the average soldier a fair shake. Patton intensely disliked Brigadier General Clarence Potter and would have fought him in a duel had Featherston not forbidden it.

Patton was a fierce and aggressive commander, but as the war turned against the Confederate States, Patton's instincts to attack every chance he got largely succeeded only in squandering men and materiel that the Confederacy could not easily replace. Patton's aggressiveness was checked by General Irving Morrell, a punning reference to the real Patton's African contest with Erwin Rommel. When he switched tactics to fight a delaying action in Chattanooga, he was bypassed by a U.S. airborne assault on the hills overlooking the city. Because of this, the U.S. drove to Atlanta, disgracing him in Jake Featherston's eyes.

By 1944, Patton was forced to flee Atlanta and head into Alabama. With the U.S. ravaging his army, Patton was eventually forced to surrender in Birmingham. After giving a farewell address to his forces, his men crowded around to say their own goodbyes, an act which moved Patton to tears. He was subsequently taken in as a prisoner of war.

Note: Though a Virginian in the Southern Victory timeline, in our timeline Patton was born in California. In our timeline, General Patton's father, George William Patton, was born in Virginia before Civil War, later moved to California in 1877. General Patton's grandfather, George S. Patton, Sr. was a Confederate colonel from Virginia killed in 1864 (an event which would not have happened in the alternate timeline). Because of Confederate won the Civil War in this timeline, General Patton's father wasn't likely to move to California, which is a Northern territory. With a Virginian military family background, it is highly possible that General Patton play the role as a Confederate General in an alternative world which Confederate won.

Russell, Richard Brevard Jr.[edit]

(AE:VO)

Richard Brevard Russell, Jr. was the Confederate Ambassador to the United States before the Second World War. He was kicked out of the U.S. after President Jake Featherston kicked out the Confederacy's U.S. ambassador Jerry Voorhis from the C.S. as well.

Satchmo[edit]

(AE:VO, SA:RE-SA:G)

Known in the Southern Victory world as Sennacherib ("Satchmo"), Louis Armstrong in the Confederate States, during the rise of the Freedom Party and the Featherston Administration, was the leader of the popular band "Satchmo and the Rhythm Aces". He was forced by the Confederate government during Second Great War to play for Confederate troops in Ohio. Satchmo and his band were able to escape to U.S. lines at night after one of their shows. In Drive to the East, Satchmo and his band share the horrors of the Featherston government's treatment of African-Americans with Flora Blackford. Subsequently, Satchmo and the Rhythm Aces produce propaganda for the U.S., although their style of music, unknown outside of the C.S., is a bit of a mystery to the average U.S. citizen.

Stuart, James Ewell Brown[edit]

(HFR)

Because of the CSA's victory in 1862, Jeb Stuart did not die in 1864 as he did in history. During the Second Mexican War, General Stuart arrived in the former Mexican provinces of Sonora and Chihuahua in order to ease their transition into C.S. territories (later states). After joining forces with Geronimo for raids on western New Mexico, Stuart was killed by an Apache sniper near the close of the war in 1882. His son Jeb Stuart Jr. (a person who had never known his father in real life) later became head of the Confederate War Department, and his (fictionalized) grandson Jeb Stuart III was a battery command officer on the Virginia front in the Great War.

J.E.B Stuart III once prevented Army intelligence from interrogating his manservant. Later it was revealed that this servant had been a spy and a communist rebel. Stuart was humiliated, and assured by many that he would never rise above the rank of captain, despite his father's position in the war department. Destroyed, Stuart decided glory was all he had left, and died leading a charge across No Man's land.

This would greatly impact history, because it was Jake Featherston who had reported the man servant, and Stuart's father blamed him for his son's humiliation. He ensured that Featherston also was never promoted, which infuriated Featherston forever after, leading him to write his infamous book Over Open Sights, and later to purge the old military upon his ascension to President of the Confederate States. After that point, promotion and rank in the new army was based solely on talent and loyalty, which unfortunately for the United States, worked very well in the opening months of Operation Blackbeard.

Stuart, James Ewell Brown, Jr.[edit]

(HFR, AE:BI, AE:VO)

It is debatable whether "Jeb Stuart Jr." in this series is a historical character or a fictional one, see his article on a different page.

Thurmond, Strom[edit]

(SA:RE)

Strom Thurmond was a Freedom Party Congressman from South Carolina. He is as conservative in this timeline as he was in ours. His name is never mentioned, but the viewpoint character Anne Colleton thinks of him as "Storm, or something like that." Good on the "Negro question, but weaker elsewhere" was the view expressed of him by Anne, who was killed during the June 1941 U.S. navy raid on Charleston just after Thurmond gave a speech. It is unknown whether Thurmond was killed in the same raid.

Walker, George Herbert[edit]

(SA:DE)

Confederate Secretary of State during the Featherston Administration, George Herbert Walker is probably one of the few remaining old-liners to remain from the Whig Era into the Freedom Regime, since he is not considered to be part of the Freedom Party inner circle by Featherston. Walker is placed in charge of obtaining more soldiers from Mexico to aid the Confederacy after General Morrell's attacks destroyed the first three divisions in the 1942 U.S. offensive in Ohio.

This is a little bit implausible, as Walker was from Missouri and his father David Davis Walker was from Illinois, neither of which were Confederate states in this timeline or ours.

Wilson, Woodrow[edit]

(GW:AF-GW:WH)

Woodrow Wilson was President of the Confederate States from 1910 to 1916 on the Whig Party. He led the CSA to war with the United States in the summer of 1914, following the US declaration of war on the Confederacy.

Native Americans[edit]

Geronimo[edit]

(HFR)

Geronimo led a band of Apache warriors into an alliance with Jeb Stuart's army during the Second Mexican War. The alliance would not outlast the war. He led a rebellion against the Confederates following a dispute in territory occupied in New Mexico. During this, one of Geronimo's men shot and killed Stuart, which consequently led the Confederate Army to all but wipe the Apache tribes out.

Mormons[edit]

Taylor, John[edit]

(HFR)

The Mormon leader John Taylor takes the opportunity to try to force the United States to recognize the believers' right to practice polygamy. However, with the use of the new Gatling gun his rebellion is quickly crushed and he becomes a fugitive, facing death along with the other Mormon leaders if he is caught. The Union army places a price on his head, but he is never captured.

Canada[edit]

Borden, Robert[edit]

(GW:AF)

Robert Borden becomes Prime Minister of Canada during the Great War years in both our history and Turtledove's novels. When Canada was ceded to the U.S. after the war, his government was ejected from the occupied territory.

United Kingdom[edit]

Churchill, Winston[edit]

(AE:VO, SA:RE-SA:ID)

Winston Churchill, in this timeline as in the real one, was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He leads his nation into the Second Great War on what appears to be a platform of rearmament, restoration of the British Empire's former borders, and a military alliance with France and Russia aimed at reversing the German Empire's dominant position in the world.

Although he was a member of the Conservative Party, his government's actions were strongly influenced by Silver Shirt leader Oswald Mosley, who wielded much greater power and influence in the right-leaning revanchist Britain. In our timeline Mosley's British Union of Fascists were known as Blackshirts, though Turtledove may be referencing the American fascist group linked to Bruno Hauptmann and the Lindbergh Baby case. It is unknown how his half-American heritage has influenced his relationship with the U.S. or whether his mother was still Jennie Jerome, born in the Cobble Hill section of Brooklyn.

Churchill authorized the British superbomb attack on Hamburg, and retaliated to the German superbomb attacks on London, Norwich, and Brighton by sending a plane with a second superbomb to attack Germany. However, the plane was shot down over Belgium and landed and detonated harmlessly between Bruges and Ghent, all but ending Britain's chances to defeat Germany. Churchill was then ousted as Prime Minister in a no-confidence vote, and was succeeded by Horace Wilson, who sought a cease-fire with Germany.

Edward VIII[edit]

(SA:ID)

With relations between the U.S. and the United Kingdom so bad in this timeline, Edward VIII never meets Wallis Simpson, and so never abdicates his throne. He is still the king of the United Kingdom when Germany drops a superbomb on London. Sam Carsten guesses that Edward VIII and his family got out of London even before the RAF hit Hamburg, knowing that the Germans would strike back.

George V[edit]

(AE:BI) George V was the King of the United Kingdom during the Great War. He was the last British monarch to hold a number of titles afforded to the ruler of the British Empire, including the King of Ireland and the King of Canada, both of which he was forced to relinquish by the victorious Central Powers.

During the Great War, he relinquished all German titles and styles on behalf of his relatives who were British subjects; and changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor. In the face of the United Kingdom's defeat in 1917, this act was token at best.

Jake Featherston derisively compared Wade Hampton V to the British King during the 1921 Confederate States Presidential Election, a somewhat provocative act considering how staunchly Britain had supported the Confederate States.

Upon his death on 20 January 1936, he was succeeded by his oldest son Edward VIII, who led the United Kingdom to defeat at the hands of the Central Powers in the Second Great War.

Halifax, Lord[edit]

(SA:ID)

Lord Halifax was the British ambassador to the Confederate States during the Second Great War. He presented to C.S. President Jake Featherston materials on the British superbomb project, which possibly helped the Confederacy develop their own superbomb.

Lyons, Richard Bickerton Pemell[edit]

(GW:AF)

Richard Lyons was a British diplomat who was sent to Washington after the Battle of Camp Hill to advise Abraham Lincoln that the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and France were set to offer recognition to the Confederate States, and that if the U.S. did not do the same, Britain would defend the C.S. by use of its military. Lord Lyons also envisioned a time where both the U.S. and C.S. would "stand together, [as] a pair of sturdy brothers," which never happened at any point of the Confederacy's independence between 1861 and 1944.

Mosley, Oswald[edit]

(AE:CCH-AE:VO, SA:ID)

Oswald Mosley is the leader of the Silver Shirts, a fascist movement analogous to the British Union of Fascists (Turtledove conflates two OTL movements: Mosley's historical BUF, also known as the Blackshirts; and the Silver Shirts, an American fascist group linked to Bruno Hauptmann and the Lindbergh Baby case). Mosley and several members of the Union gain seats in the British parliament, creating an influential minority. In an attempt to stifle them, the Conservative Party formed a coalition with the Silver Shirts. However, this actually gave more power to the Silver Shirts. The fact that the Conservatives under the leadership of Winston Churchill had taken a revanchist just insured that the coalition left both parties indistinguishable. Churchill named Mosley Chancellor of the Exchequer to mollify the Silver Shirts. During the later conflict with Germany in 1941, Mosley was also given a position as Minister of War.

Shortly after Germans shot down a British plane carrying the second British superbomb in Belgium in 1944, he was ousted as Chancellor of the Exchequer in a non-confidence vote.

Victoria[edit]

(HFR)

Victoria was the Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Empire from 1837 until her death in 1901.

During her reign, Victoria's Empire intervened twice in North America within 20 years. The first time was in 1862 after the Confederate Army destroyed the Army of the Potomac and occupied Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the British Empire (along with France) extended diplomatic recognition to the Confederate States, ending the War of Succession. The second time was in 1881 when the British Empire once again sided with the Confederacy and France against the United States during the Second Mexican War, after both a promise from the Confederacy to manumit their slaves, and in response to the aggressive behavior from the United States.

Wilson, Horace[edit]

(SA:ID)

Horace Wilson became the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in 1944 in the wake of the ouster of Winston Churchill in a no-confidence vote. His first act as Prime Minister was to ask Germany for a cease-fire.

France[edit]

Duchamp, Marcel[edit]

(GW:AF)

Marcel Duchamp, in this timeline, is still a famous French artist, but this time his appeal in North America is limited to the upper-crust of the Confederacy. He tried to have an affair with Anne Colleton, who exhibited some of his works at Marshlands Plantation. His works were all removed before Marxist rebel Cassius and his gang burned the mansion, and Cassius regretted not being able to destroy any Duchamp paintings, which he saw as eyesores.

Foch, Ferdinand[edit]

(HFR)

Ferdinand Foch is a major, the French Military Attaché to Washington, DC, at the onset of the Second Mexican War. With his German opposite number Alfred von Schlieffen, and an unnamed British army captain, he accompanies U.S. Secretary of State Hannibal Hamlin and Captain Saul Berryman (U.S. Army) under a flag of truce to the Long Bridge outside Washington D.C. The truce, called by C.S. President James Longstreet and C.S. General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, is designed to declare Washington D.C. an open city, sparing its destruction. The Confederate proposal is rejected by Berryman, under the authority of U.S. Commanding General William Rosecrans. The French and British are declared personae non gratae and asked to leave the United States.

Napoleon III[edit]

(HFR and GW:AF)

Napoleon III installed Maximilian I as the Emperor of Mexico in the 1860s, a move opposed by the United States under the Monroe Doctrine. His government was hostile to the United States, and in late 1862, during the War of Secession, despite opposition to slavery, Napoleon III extended diplomatic recognition to the Confederate States and supported British Military protection over that country, thus beginning an alliance between France and the CS that would continue through the Second Great War over eighty years later. This eventually turned out to have been a major strategic blunder for which France paid a heavy price, since it threw the United States into the arms of Germany in a rival alliance which triumphed in both the Great War and the Second Great War.

Ultimately, Napoleon was forced to abdicate in 1870 during the disastrous Franco-Prussian War. He was also the last Monarch of France until King Charles XI under the Action Francaise party restored the monarchy around 1930.

Germany[edit]

Einstein, Albert[edit]

(SA:DE)

Albert Einstein is a German physicist who was believed to have been working on an atomic bomb project in Europe. Along with several other leading German and Austro-Hungarian physicists, Einstein disappeared from public view in 1942. Not long afterwards, the United States, along with Germany and Austria-Hungary, were suspected of beginning atomic bomb programs. Since in this world Germany never became Nazi and there were no persecutions of Jews, he has no problem in contributing to the German war effort, especially as the war begins with Germany being attacked and invaded.

Guderian, Heinz[edit]

(GW:WH, AE:CCH)

Captain Heinz Guderian of the German Imperial Army was an observer attached to Irving Morrell's unit during the 1916 campaign in the Canadian Rockies. He expressed a more strategic view of the fighting than Major Eduard Dietl, noting that fighting is done for a purpose. He then displays his great insight into warfare by adding that the point of battle is to get behind the enemy and "smash him up". (In our timeline, Guderian was one of the masterminds of Germany's Blitzkrieg tactics, in which the main goal is indeed to get behind the enemy and attack where the enemy is more vulnerable.) Due to a desire to stay in the field rather than return to a desk position, Guderian stays with Morrell after Major Dietl returns to Austria, and accompanies him back to Philadelphia, during which they meet Luther Bliss and the new Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky. Guderian makes another appearance, now as a lieutenant colonel, in occupied Canada in 1926, when he shows up in Kamloops, British Columbia, and asks Colonel Morrell for a tour of western Canada. He is accompanied by his aide-de-camp Adolf Hitler, whose anti-Semitic views he does not care for.

Hitler, Adolf[edit]

(AE:CCH)

Because of the German Empire's victory in this world, Adolf Hitler is a sergeant in the German Army. He holds the Iron Cross, First Class. Morrell met him once as an orderly to Colonel Heinz Guderian, who was on an inspection tour in Kamloops, British Columbia, an occupied territory of the United States. Morrell thought that he was very much like Jake Featherston, but with a hatred for Jews and Slavs rather than Africans. Hitler is never mentioned by name in CCH, but the author has acknowledged his identity. (See also Turtledove's short story "Uncle Alf" in the anthology Alternate Generals II, narrated by a similar version of Hitler.)

Marx, Karl[edit]

(HFR-AE:CCH)

Karl Marx was greatly admired by former U.S. President Abraham Lincoln. However, Lincoln did not agree with Marx's belief in violent revolution, and steered the Socialist Party of the United States towards change through the ballot, rather than the bullet at the party's founding 1882.

In the Confederate States, black revolutionaries embraced Marx's call for revolution, staging a revolt during the early years of the Great War. While various socialist republics such as the Black Belt Socialist Republic and Congaree Socialist Republic were created, the uprisings were crushed by the C.S. in short order.

von Schlieffen, Alfred[edit]

(HFR)

Alfred von Schlieffen was a colonel in the German army working as a military attaché before and during the Second Mexican War at the German embassy in the United States. His study of Robert E. Lee's encirclement of Washington, D.C. is said to be the inspiration for the Schlieffen Plan of World War I.

von Schlözer, Kurd[edit]

(HFR)

Kurd von Schlözer remained the German Empire's ambassador to the United States as in our timeline. After U.S President Blaine sued for peace during the Second Mexican War, Schlözer and the German military attaché Alfred von Schlieffen first brought up the idea of an alliance between the United States and the German Empire as a counterpart to the alliance between the United Kingdom, France and the Confederate States, thus forming the foundations for the Central Powers and breaking the United States' policy of nonintervention in European affairs.

Wilhelm II, Kaiser[edit]

(GW:AF-AE:VO)

Kaiser Wilhelm II was the German Emperor and one of the main allies of the United States in World War I. "Kaiser Bill" was a popular character in the U.S. Many men wore a "Kaiser Bill" mustache in imitation of him. He lived until 1941 (as he did in our timeline), where his death and his son's coming to the throne and refusal to give France its lost territory back started the Second Great War. He was the father of Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm V.

Wilhelm III, Kaiser[edit]

(AE:VO, SA:RE-ID)

Friedrich Wilhelm (the Crown Prince of Germany) became Kaiser of the German Empire in 1941, upon the death of his father, Wilhelm II. He refused to return Alsace-Lorraine to the newly revived Kingdom of France and their British allies, which precipitated the Second Great War in Europe. He authorised the destruction of several targets with superbombs, including Petrograd, Paris as well as London, Norwich and Brighton in a deadly triple strike that crippled Britain into defeat. After the war, he entered into a treaty with the new US President Thomas E. Dewey to police the world and prevent further development of superbombs.

This character may be the center of a substantial gaffe on Turtledove's part. Upon his ascension at the end of The Victorious Opposition, he is announced as "Friedrich I of Germany and Friedrich Wilhelm V of Prussia." If this character is indeed the historical figure Wilhelm, Crown Prince of Germany, then he would have reigned as Wilhelm III. While the Crown Prince's first name was Friedrich, even if he chose to call himself that upon his ascension, or, if the character is meant to be the fictional son of Wilhelm II of Germany, he could not have been Friedrich I, but would in fact have been Friedrich IV. There also does not appear to have been a tradition of the German Emperor using a different name in his role as King of Prussia.

As Turtledove only refers to this character as 'the Kaiser' in the Settling Accounts series, there are no additional clues available to the reader as to the character's identity.

Austria-Hungary[edit]

Charles I of Austria[edit]

(SA:G)

Charles I of Austria still holds the throne of Austria-Hungary well into the Second Great War. In 1943, he and Tsar Michael II of Russia trade public insults as to whose country God hates more.

Turtledove does not spend much time on the monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Indeed, the only reference to Charles is the one described above. But with Austria victorious at the end of World War I, Charles would not have abdicated as in real history, and so would have avoided dying of pneumonia in 1922 while living in Portugal.

Dietl, Eduard[edit]

(GW:WH)

Major Eduard Dietl of the Austro-Hungarian army was an observer attached to Irving Morrell's unit during the 1916 campaign in the Canadian Rockies. While Turtledove made him an Austro-Hungarian officer, real-life Dietl was a member of the German army.

Ferdinand, Franz[edit]

(GW:AF)

Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Duchess Sophie through Sarajevo were blown up by an assassin's bomb on June 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary issued a number of ultimata against Serbia, which was supported by Russia. Austria-Hungary was in turn supported by Germany and the United States. Russia invoked its alliances with the United Kingdom, France, and the Confederate States, and the Great War began.

Franz Ferdinand's death inspired Arthur McGregor's last failed attempt to assassinate General George Armstrong Custer in 1922.

Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg[edit]

(GW:AF)

Duchess Sophie and her husband Archduke Franz Ferdinand were killed when a bomb was thrown into their car and exploded, as they rode through the streets of Sarajevo on 28 June 28, 1914. This act helped to spark the Great War.

Denmark[edit]

Bohr, Niels[edit]

There is no mention of Denmark taking any part in either of the Great Wars, and it seems to have succeeded in maintaining its neutrality. However, Niels Bohr is mentioned as having been persuaded by Einstein to come over to Germany and take part in its atomic weapons program.

Russia[edit]

Michael II, Tsar[edit]

(AE:VO-SA:RE, SA:ID)

Michael Alexandrovich is the Grand Duke (and later Emperor) of Russia. With the Red Russian Revolt smashed, and the tsarist government still in control of a post-Great War Russia, "Grand Duke Michael" took the throne as Michael II. He joined Second Great War to help his allies in 1941 to wage war against the Central Powers. He condemned the German atomic bomb attack on Petrograd, the city of which he had escaped prior to the attack, but later was forced to request an armistice from Germany and to relinquish the throne.

Molotov, Vyacheslav ("The Hammer")[edit]

(AE:CCH)

Also known as "The Hammer", this is Vyacheslav Molotov from our world, another Red holdout (in the failed rebellion) in the Volga area, trying to defeat the Tsarist forces. By 1941, the Tsarist forces have all but defeated the Red Russians.

Nicholas II, Tsar[edit]

(GW:AF - GW:B, AE:VO)

In 1914, when Austria-Hungary issued a number of ultimata to Serbia following the assassination of Franz Ferdinand by a Serb in Sarajevo, Nicholas II promised to support the Serbs should they refuse the ultimata. They did, and Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary, which had declared war on Serbia. The Great War followed.

In 1917, Nicholas found himself facing a Red revolution, followed by a protracted civil war, which resulted in Russia backing out of the Great War. Ultimately, Nicholas and his supporters triumphed, and Nicholas remained emperor for the remainder of the 1920s. The destruction resulting from the wars left Russia in such a poor state that in 1929 she was forced to suspend payment of a loan to Austria-Hungary. This caused a chain effect that led in turn to the worldwide stock market crash of that year.

Nicholas was succeeded as Tsar by his younger brother Michael II by the early 1930s.

Stalin, Joseph[edit]

(AE:CCH)

Joseph Stalin is nicknamed "The Man of Steel" in this world. The Red Revolution following the Great War failed and Stalin and the "Hammer" (Vyacheslav Molotov) became holdouts in the Volga area near the city of Tsaritsyn which in our timeline was renamed by him as Stalingrad.

Ottoman Empire[edit]

Abdul Mejid II[edit]

(AE:CCH)

Abdul Mejid II became the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire sometime after the Great War. He was responsible for continuing the Armenian genocide through the 1920s. Despite protests from the United States and Germany, the Sultan continued the killings until there were few remaining Armenians left in Turkey.

Ireland[edit]

Collins, Michael[edit]

(AE:BI)

General Michael Collins led a rebellion against the British Empire during the Great War, supported by the United States and Germany, and became first president of the Republic of Ireland when this country achieved independence shortly after the war ended. In the early 1920s Collins led the Irish Army against a pro-British Protestant uprising in Ulster and suppressed it with the help of American and German warships.

Italy and Vatican City[edit]

Mussolini, Benito[edit]

(SA:RE)

Although not mentioned by name, Flora Blackford tries to recall the Italian politician who had pledged to make all the trains in his country run on time, but had little public support. The real Benito Mussolini claimed to have done this during his rule of Italy; actually, improvements in the train system predated Mussolini, and the trains were as unpunctual as before.

Pope Pius XII[edit]

(SA:G)

Pius XII was Pope in this timeline as well as ours. He was criticized for not condemning the Turkish genocide of Armenians or the Russian pogroms against Jews, and it appeared that he likewise did not care about the Freedom Party's killing of the black population of the Confederate States. One character observes that Pius would have spoken out against human rights violations if the group being persecuted consisted mainly of Catholics. (Yet this argument is faulty, as the killings were also affecting Catholic Haiti.) The criticism of Pius' failure to condemn human rights violations in this timeline echoes the widely held belief that Pope Pius XII didn't condemn the Holocaust in ours.

Given the passage of eight decades between the point of divergence and this part of the story, there's no guarantee that this Pius XII is Eugenio Pacelli, the man who used that numeral in our timeline. For most of history, Popes simply took their regnal names from a fairly short list. However, the plethora of other historical figures in the series suggests that he is the same.

Mentioned Historical Characters from Before the Change[edit]

Adams, John[edit]

John Adams served as the second President of the United States. After the War of Secession, he and the other Northerner Founding Fathers such as Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Hamilton were treated more favorably.

During the 1900s, Adams's portrait was used on the five dollar bill.

Brown, John[edit]

(AE:BI)

Following the U.S. defeat in the Second Mexican War, John Brown became a national hero. He was not seen so after the War of Secession. Many towns raised memorials to John Brown because of his attacks on the 'slavocrats' in Virginia ("He saw the coiled serpent and attacked it!"), particularly in Kansas.

Calhoun, John Caldwell[edit]

(GW:AF) (SA:G)

Although John C. Calhoun died over a decade before the Confederate States was created by the secession of eleven US states in 1860-61, the secession of the CS's founding states was a direct descendant of his nullification doctrine, and Calhoun was therefore seen as a founding father of the Confederacy along with Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, and even George Washington. His picture appeared on the Confederate dollar bill, for example. Naturally, the U.S. felt differently about Calhoun.

The towns of Calhoun, Kentucky and Calhoun, Georgia were named in Calhoun's honor in this timeline. (In our timeline, only the Georgia town was unquestionably named in honor of Calhoun. The Kentucky town had several names before being incorporated in 1852, after Calhoun's OTL death in 1850, as Calhoon, honoring Kentucky congressman John Calhoon. There is no historic record that definitively states whether the later spelling change to "Calhoun" was specifically in honor of John C. Calhoun.)

Franklin, Benjamin[edit]

As a Pennsylvanian man, Benjamin Franklin remained a favorite Founding Father after the War of Secession along with John Adams and Alexander Hamilton. A profile of Franklin's face was printed on stamps issued in American Occupied Canada after the Great War.

Flora Hamburger once quoted Franklin's warning "Those who would trade essential liberty for a little temporary security deserve neither liberty nor security" in a floor debate in the House of Representatives—which incidentally met in Independence Hall.

Former president Abraham Lincoln also quoted Franklin to his host when he visited Salt Lake City in 1881.

Jefferson, Thomas[edit]

Thomas Jefferson was the third President of the United States. Following the War of Secession, Thomas Jefferson's status as a Virginian (and more substantively, his insistence on a weak central government) tarnished his memory considerably in the United States. Northern Founding Fathers such as John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and Alexander Hamilton were viewed much more favorably.

Madison, James[edit]

(SA:ID)

Despite his contributions to the Federalist papers with Alexander Hamilton, James Madison later developed anti-Federalist sentiments and allied himself with Hamilton's archrival, Thomas Jefferson. For this reason as well as his Virginian heritage, Madison was generally remembered unfavorably in the version of US history advanced under the Remembrance tradition.

In 1944, many in the U.S. presumed that Cassius Madison, the man who killed Jake Featherston, had taken his surname name to honor the fourth President. In fact Cassius had taken the surname from the Georgia town nearest to where he'd gunned Featherston down. He had never even heard of President Madison before his tour of the U.S.

Monroe, James[edit]

(HFR)

Despite being from Virginia (a trait which other presidents and Founding Fathers such as Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and even George Washington to being remembered in a mixed or negative light by US historians after the War of Secession), James Monroe was looked on kindly in US history books for his attempt to promote U.S. security and international prestige with the Monroe Doctrine—a doctrine which was eviscerated in 1862 when, thanks to the Confederate States, the U.S. was powerless to prevent France from installing Maximilian I as the Emperor of Mexico.

Napoleon[edit]

(HFR)

Napoleon had been a military genius, achieving an almost mythological stature in the eyes of the world. All those who were masters on the battlefield were often compared to him. He was also an uncle of Napoleon III who, in turn, was the Emperor of France from 1852 to 1870.

Only in Germany was he not admired as his victory over Prussia was remembered. In the aftermath of France's defeat in the Great War, this made him even more of a hero to the people of France.

During his youth, US President Theodore Roosevelt counted Napoleon as one of his personal heroes, along with George Washington and Zachary Taylor.

In 1881, Alfred von Schlieffen noted that Kaiser Wilhelm I was one of the last surviving men to have fought under Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.

Polk, James Knox[edit]

(SA:ID)

James Knox Polk had served as the eleventh President of the United States. He was born in what became Pineville, North Carolina. A monument erected on the spot of his birth was site of the 1944 meeting between U.S. General Irving Morrell and Confederate President Don Partridge at which Partridge signed away Confederate sovereignty and ended the Second Great War. Both men deemed it a fit location for the meeting because Polk had been President before the United States was divided by the War of Secession.

Taylor, Zachary[edit]

(HFR)

Despite his southern roots, Zachary Taylor was appreciated in the United States for his military success during the First Mexican War (the last which the United States would see until the Great War).

In his youth, Theodore Roosevelt was a great admirer of Taylor's, viewing him as a conqueror and leader ranking with George Washington and Napoleon.

Washington, George[edit]

As a military hero and the first President of the United States, George Washington was universally revered as a major Founding Father and one of the most memorable presidents in American history. Also after it broke into two mutually antagonistic nations, U.S. historians continued to so regard Washington, alongside Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt as the most memorable of presidents.

Before 1920, the Confederacy esteemed Washington as a Founding Father, but generally preferred their own founding fathers such as John C. Calhoun, Jefferson Davis, and Robert E. Lee. In 1914, then-President Woodrow Wilson invoked George Washington in his speech asking for Congress for a declaration of war against the U.S. while speaking in Richmond.

In the Union, however, Washington was remembered on mixed terms. The general public did not always remember kindly. Washington came from Virginia, and after the War of Secession his popularity in the U.S. suffered because of it - as did that of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Northern people in general preferred to remember Northern Founding Fathers such as John Adams, Alexander Hamilton and Benjamin Franklin (whose picture appeared on stamps issued by the U.S. occupation authorities in Canada). Despite this, the U.S. Government would rebuild the Washington Monument after it was destroyed during the Great War. As a young man, Theodore Roosevelt admired Washington as a great leader along with Zachary Taylor and Napoleon.

The Freedom Party in its earliest phase, while still under Anthony Dresser, used George Washington's picture as an emblem, with the slogan "We need a New Revolution". Jake Featherston, who considered Washington to have "sold out the South to the damnyankees" stopped that custom when he took over the party. Many Confederates did view Washington with some suspicion in the years after the Great War, but still thought of him as a Virginian first, and President of the United States second. Washington University in Lexington, Virginia, home of the Confederacy's effort to build a superbomb, retained its name, and the statue of Washington that stood in Richmond survived both Great Wars.

Webster, Daniel[edit]

(GW:B)

As a northern abolitionist, Daniel Webster became a hero to the United States during the Remembrance era between the Second Mexican War and the Great War. His image was on the U.S. quarter. In the Confederate States, he was vilified for thwarting the interests of the ante-bellum South.

See also[edit]

References[edit]