List of historical earthquakes
Historical earthquakes is a list of significant earthquakes from before the 20th century. As the events listed here occurred before routine instrumental recordings, they rely mainly on the analysis of written sources. There is often significant uncertainty in location and magnitude and sometimes date for each earthquake. The number of fatalities is also often highly uncertain, particularly for the older events.
|1831 BC||Xia China
see Mount Tai earthquake
|?||?||Listed in the Bamboo Annals|||
|464 BC||Sparta, Greece
see 464 BC Sparta earthquake
|?||7.2 (approx)||Ms Led to a helot uprising and strained relations with Athens, one of the factors that led to the Peloponnesian War|||
|226 BC||Rhodes, Greece
see 226 BC Rhodes earthquake
|?||–||Destroyed Colossus of Rhodes and city of Kameiros|||
|60 BC||Portugal and Galicia coasts||?||8.5||Caused a tsunami|||
|17 AD||At night||Asia minor
see 17 AD Lydia earthquake
|37.85||27.3||?||Destroyed 13 cities in Asia (minor)||Described by the historians Tacitus and Pliny the Elder|
|February 5, 62||Bay of Naples, Italy
see 62 Pompeii earthquake
|?||5–6||Brought down a large part of Pompeii, caused severe damage in Herculaneum and Nuceria.||Seneca describes it in his "Quaestiones Naturales VI" |
|110||Dian Kingdom, Yunnan, southwestern China||probably thousands||-||Flooded administrative centre of the Dian Kingdom|||
|December 13, 115||Antioch
see 115 Antioch earthquake
|May 18, 363||Syria
see 363 earthquake
|"thousands"||~7||Destruction also in "The Holy Land", Petra||Ammianus Marcellinus and numerous other late Antiquity writers|
|July 21, 365||Crete (Greece)
see 365 Crete earthquake
|"thousands"||XI||Destruction also in Cyrene & Alexandria (by tsunami). Uplifted Crete by 9 metres.||Ammianus Marcellinus and numerous other late Antiquity writers|
|382||Cape St. Vincent, Portugal||7.5||According to Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus, the earthquake and corresponding tsunami sank two islets that were situated near Cape St. Vincent.||Ammianus Marcellinus|
|May 19, 526||Antioch, Turkey
see 526 Antioch earthquake
|250,000||VIII||The city of Antioch was greatly damaged, and some decades later the city's population was just 300,000.||Procopius, II.14.6; sources based on John of Ephesus|
|July 6, 551||Beirut, Tyre, Tripoli
see 551 Beirut earthquake
|33.9||35.5||30,000||7.5||Mw Triggered a devastating tsunami, all the cities of the Phoenician coast from Tyre to Tripoli were reduced to ruins|||
|January 18, 749||The Levant
see 749 Galilee earthquake
|7 to 7.5 (approx)||The cities of Tiberias, Beit She'an, Hippos and Pella were largely destroyed while many other cities across the Levant region were heavily damaged.|||
|November 24, 847||Damascus, Syria
see 847 Antioch earthquake
|December 856||Corinth, Greece||37.9||22.9||45,000||–|||
|December 22, 856 (aftershocks for about a year)||Qumis, Iran. From Khuvar to Bustam and Gurgan. The town of Damghan hardest hit.
see 856 Damghan earthquake
|36.23||54.14||45,000–200,000.||The city of Damghan was half destroyed and had 45,096 casualties.|||
|July 13, 869||Sendai, Japan
see 869 Jogan Sanriku earthquake
|March 23, 893||Ardabil, Iran
see 893 Ardabil earthquake
|38.28||48.30||150,000||–||–||Regarded as a 'fake earthquake', due to misunderstanding of original Armenian sources for the 893 Dvin event.|
|December 28, 893||Dvin, Armenia
see 893 Dvin earthquake
|40.0||44.6||30,000||–||Mislocated in India|||
|December, 1037||Taizhou, Jiangsu, China||32.0||119.0||22,391|||
|August 12, 1042||Palmyra, Baalbek, Syria||35.1||38.9||50,000||7.2 (>VIII)|||
|March 18, 1068||Near East
see 1068 Near East earthquake
|October 11, 1138||Aleppo, Syria
see 1138 Aleppo earthquake
|August 12, 1157||08:15||Hama, Syria
see 1157 Hama earthquake
|35.1||36.3||"Tens of thousands"||7.2||Ms Largest in a sequence lasting from late 1156 to early 1159|||
|February 4, 1169||Sicily
see 1169 Sicily earthquake
|June 29, 1170||06:29||Eastern Mediterranean||34.4||36.4||5,000-80,000 in Aleppo
25,000 in Hama
|7.3–7.5 -7.7||Syria, Lebanon, central southern Turkey||Numerous sources from Crusader times|
|July 5, 1201 and/or May 20, 1202||Eastern Mediterranean; see 1202 Syria earthquake||1,100,000 (includes famine/disease deaths)||7.6||Damage across a wide area from Syria to Upper Egypt||–|
|May 11, 1222||06:15||Cyprus
see 1222 Cyprus earthquake
|34.7||32.6||7.0–7.5||Caused damage at Paphos, Limassol and Nicosia|||
|1268||Cilicia, Anatolia (Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia)
see 1268 Cilicia earthquake
|September 27, 1290||Chihli (Hopeh), China
see 1290 Chihli earthquake
|May 26, 1293||Kamakura, (now in Kanagawa Prefecture, Kantō region,) Japan||35.2||139.4||23,024||7.1|||
|August 8, 1303, 06:00||1303 Crete earthquake, Greece||35||27||up to 10,000||~8||Triggered a major tsunami that devastated Alexandria in Egypt|||
|January 1, 1341||Crimea, Ukraine||Not known||6|||
|January 25, 1348||15:00||Friuli, Venice, Rome
see Earthquake of 1348
|October 18, 1356||Basel, Switzerland
see 1356 Basel earthquake
|May 21, 1382||Canterbury, UK||?||5.8||Struck during synod – later called "Earthquake Synod" – called to condemn heresy of John Wycliffe – some saw as portentous|||
|February 2, 1428||Catalonia (now Spain)
Catalan earthquake of 1428
|42.4||2.2||1,000s||VIII–IX||Sometimes called the terratrèmol de la candelera because it took place during the Candlemas.|||
|3 May 1481||03:00||Rhodes
see 1481 Rhodes earthquake
|36.0||28.0||30,000||7.1||Largest of a series that lasted 10 months|||
|September 20, 1498||08:00 local time||Honshu
see 1498 Meiō Nankaidō earthquake
|June 6, 1505||Nepal
see 1505 Lo Mustang earthquake
|29.5||83.0||30% of Nepalese population||8.2||-|
|September 10, 1509||22:00||Istanbul, Turkey
see 1509 Istanbul earthquake
|January 26, 1531||04:30||Lisbon, Portugal
see 1531 Lisbon earthquake
|January 23, 1556||Shaanxi, China
see 1556 Shaanxi earthquake
|34.5||109.7||830,000+||8.2–8.3||Deadliest earthquake in recorded history||USGS|
|November 16–17, 1570||19:10||Ferrara, Italy
see 1570 Ferrara earthquake
|44.817||11.633||70–200||5.5||Azariah de Rossi's Kol Elohim |
|December 16, 1575||18:30||Valdivia, Chile
see 1575 Valdivia earthquake
|November 24, 1604||12:30 local time||Arica, Chile||-18.500||-70.400||?||8.5||MI|||
|February 3, 1605||20:00 local time||Shikoku, Honshu, Japan
see 1605 Keichō Nankaido earthquake
|July 13, 1605||Qiongshan, Hainan, China||19.9||110.5||3,000||7.5 (X)|||
|February 5, 1663||Quebec, Canada
see 1663 Charlevoix earthquake
|47.6||70.1||0||7.3–7.9||Landslides were the primary feature|||
|April 6, 1667||Dubrovnik, Croatia||42.3||18.1||3,000||7.2|||
|November 25, 1667||Shamakhi, Azerbaijan
see 1667 Shamakhi earthquake
|August 17, 1668||Anatolia, Turkey||40||36||8,000||8||USGS|
|October 20, 1687||11:30||Lima, Peru
see 1687 Peru earthquake
|September 13, 1692||11:00||Salta Province, Argentina
see 1692 Salta earthquake
|-25.40||-64.80||~13||7.0||The small village of Talavera del Esteco was completely destroyed.|||
|June 7, 1692||11:43 local time||Port Royal, Jamaica
see 1692 Jamaica earthquake
|17.9||-76.8||2,000+||7 (approx) (X)|||
|January 11, 1693||Catania Province, Sicily
see 1693 Sicily earthquake
|September 5, 1694||11:40||Irpinia, Italy
see 1694 Irpinia–Basilicata earthquake
|January 26, 1700||~21:00||Cascadia subduction zone
see 1700 Cascadia earthquake
|9||M (Satake et al., 1996)||USGS|
|January 14, 1703||18:00||Norcia, Italy
see 1703 Apennine earthquakes
|February 2, 1703||11:05||L'Aquila, Italy
see 1703 Apennine earthquakes
|December 31, 1703||17:00||Kanto region, Japan
see 1703 Genroku earthquake
|October 28, 1707||14:00 local time||Japan
see 1707 Hōei earthquake
|November 18, 1727||Tabriz, Iran
see 1727 Tabriz earthquake
|July 8, 1730||08:45||Valparaiso, Chile
see 1730 Valparaiso earthquake
|September 30, 1730||10:00 local time||Beijing, China||40.0||116.2||100s||6.5|||
|October 16, 1737||15:30 local time||Kamchatka, Russia||51.1||158.0||8.3||Ms See Kamchatka earthquakes|||
|October 28, 1746||22:30 local time||Lima & Callao, Peru
see 1746 Lima–Callao earthquake
|May 25, 1751||1:00 local time||Concepción, Chile
see 1751 Concepción earthquake
|June 7, 1755||Northern Persia||34.0||51.5||1,200
|November 1, 1755||10:16||Lisbon, Portugal
see 1755 Lisbon earthquake
|36||-11||80,000||8.7||Caused a huge tsunami||USGS|
|November 18, 1755||09:11||Boston, Massachusetts, USA
see 1755 Cape Ann earthquake
|November 25, 1759||19:23 local time||Eastern Mediterranean
see Near East earthquakes of 1759
|33.7||35.9||1,000s||7.4||Ms Earthquake in same area on October 30 considered to be a foreshock|||
|April 2, 1762||Northeastern Bay of Bengal
see 1762 Arakan earthquake
|22.0||92.0||200||up to 8.8||Mw|||
|June 28, 1763||05:28||Komárom, Kingdom of Hungary
see 1763 Komárom earthquake
|47.73||18.15||83||6.2 to 6.5||Mw|||
|October 21, 1766||Saint Joseph, Trinidad and Tobago||10.65||-61.43||7.9||Destroyed Spanish colonial capital of San Jose, Trinidad (now St. Joseph)|||
|June 3, 1770||19:15 local time||Port-au-Prince, Haiti||18.7||-72.63||200+||7.5||Mw|||
|July 29, 1773||Guatemala
see 1773 Guatemala earthquake
|January 8, 1780||Iran||38.0||46.2||200,000||7.4||Ms|||
|February 4—5, March 28, 1783||12:00||Calabria, Italy
see 1783 Calabrian earthquakes
|38.15||15.70||35,000||6.9||Mw First in a sequence of five earthquakes Mw ≥ 5.9 to hit Calabria in less than two months|||
|June 1, 1786||04:00 local time||Sichuan, China
see 1786 Kangding-Luding earthquake
|29.9||102.0||~100,000||7.75||Mw Triggered a landslide that blocked the Dadu river – the collapse of the dam during an aftershock and subsequent flood caused most of the casualties|||
|February 4, 1797||12:30||Quito, Ecuador & Cuzco, Peru
see 1797 Riobamba earthquake
|February 10, 1797||Sumatra, East Indies (now Indonesia)
see 1797 Sumatra earthquake
|November 22, 1800||1:30 p.m. local time||San Diego, California, USA||34.00||-117.18||Unknown||6.5||Resulted in varying levels of damage at Mission San Diego de Alcalá, Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, and Mission San Juan Capistrano|||
|October 26, 1802||10:55||Vrancea region, Moldavia, now Romania||45.7||26.6||3 in Bucharest||7.9||Serious damage in the area. All church steeples in Bucharest collapsed, as well as many houses and Colţea bell tower.|||
|February 16, 1810||22:15||Crete, Heraklion
see 1810 Crete earthquake
|December 16, 1811||08:00||New Madrid, Missouri, USA
see 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes
|36.6||-89.6||8.1||MI (Johnston, 1996)||USGS|
|January 23, 1812||15:00||New Madrid, Missouri, USA
see 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes
|36.6||-89.6||7.8||MI (Johnston, 1996)||USGS|
|February 7, 1812||09:45||New Madrid, Missouri, USA
see 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes
|36.6||-89.6||8||MI (Johnston, 1996)||USGS|
|December 8, 1812||9:45 a.m. local time||Wrightwood, California, USA see 1812 Wrightwood earthquake||34.22||-117.39||42||7.0||Destroyed the "Great Stone Church" at Mission San Juan Capistrano||Southern California Earthquake Data Center|
|December 21, 1812||11:00 a.m. local time||Santa Barbara Channel, California, USA||34.12||-119.54||0||7.0||Destroyed the church at Mission Santa Barbara, caused near-total destruction at Mission La Purísima Concepción, and considerable damage at Mission Santa Inés||Southern California Earthquake Data Center|
|June 16, 1819||18:45–18:50 local time||Gujarat, India
see 1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake
|23.0||71.0||>1,543||7.7–8.2||Mw Formed an 80 km long ridge, the Allah Bund ('Dam of God')|||
|June 2, 1823||08:00||south flank of Kīlauea, Hawaii, Kingdom of Hawaii||19.3||-155||7||MI (Klein and Wright, 2000)||USGS|
|November 25, 1833||Sumatra, East Indies (now Indonesia)
see 1833 Sumatra earthquake
|-2.5||100.5||"numerous victims"||8.8–9.2||Mw Huge tsunami flooded all southern part of western Sumatra|||
|June 10, 1836||15:30||south San Francisco Bay region, California, Mexico (now USA)||36.9||-121.5||6.5||MI (Bakun, 1999)||USGS|
|January 1, 1837||16:00 local time||Galilee, Palestine
see Galilee earthquake of 1837
|June 1838||San Francisco Peninsula, California, Mexico (now USA)||37.3||-123.2||6.8||MI (Bakun, 1999)||USGS|
|January 5, 1843||02:45||Marked Tree, Arkansas, USA||35.5||-90.5||6.3||MI (Johnston, 1996)||USGS|
|May 8, 1847||Around Zenkō-ji Temple, (now in Nagano Prefecture, Chūbu region,) Japan||36.7||138.2||more than 8,600||7.4||2,094 houses lost by fire with quake at Nagano|||
|23 December 1854||09:00||Honshu, Japan
see 1854 Tōkai earthquake
|24 December 1854||16:00||Honshu, Japan
see 1854 Nankai earthquake
|January 23, 1855||21:11 local time||Wairarapa, New Zealand
see 1855 Wairarapa earthquake
|-41.4||174.5||4||8.0 (approx)||Raised sections of Wellington coastline by 2 metres||–|
|November 11, 1855||22:00 local time||Edo (now Tokyo, Kantō region), Japan
see 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake
|35.65||139.8||~ 7,000||7.0||Ms 10,000 house destroyed in Edo||安政の大地震 in Japanese|
|January 9, 1857||16:24||Fort Tejon, California, USA (San Andreas fault from Parkfield to Wrightwood)
see 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake
|1||7.9||M (Grant and Sieh, 1993; Stein and Hanks, 1998)||USGS|
|December 16, 1857||21:00||Naples, Italy
see 1857 Basilicata earthquake
|February 16, 1861||Sumatra, East Indies (now Indonesia)
see 1861 Sumatra earthquake
|1.0||97,5||905||8.5||Caused major tsunami.|||
|October 8, 1865||20:46||San Jose, California, USA||37.2||-121.9||6.5||MI (Bakun, 1999)||USGS|
|April 3, 1868||02:25||Kau, southeast Hawaii, Hawaii, Kingdom of Hawaii
see 1868 Hawaii earthquake
|19.2||-155.5||77||7.9||MI (Klein and Wright, 2000)||USGS|
|August 13, 1868||16:45 local time||Arica, Chile
see 1868 Arica earthquake
|October 21, 1868||15:53||Hayward, California, USA, Hayward Fault Zone
see 1868 Hayward earthquake
|37.7||-122.1||30||6.8||MI (Bakun, 1999)||USGS|
|February 20, 1871||08:42||Molokai, Hawaii, Kingdom of Hawaii||21.2||-156.9||6.8||MI (Klein and Wright, 2000)||USGS|
|March 26, 1872||10:30||Owens Valley, California, USA
see 1872 Lone Pine earthquake
|36.5||-118||27||7.6||M (Beanland and Clark, 1994)||USGS|
|December 15, 1872||05:40||North Cascades, Washington, USA
see 1872 North Cascades earthquake
|47.9||-120.3||7.3||MI (Malone and Bor, 1979; Rogers et al., 1983)||USGS|
|May 10, 1877||21:16 local time||Iquique, Chile
see 1877 Iquique earthquake
|September 9, 1880||7:04 local time||Zagreb, Croatia
see 1880 Zagreb earthquake
|3 April 1881||11:30||Chios, Çeşme, Alaçatı
see 1881 Chios earthquake
|December 31, 1881||01:49||India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands
see 1881 Nicobar Islands earthquake
|August 31, 1886||02:51||Charleston, South Carolina, USA
see 1886 Charleston earthquake
|32.9||-80||60||7.3||MI (Johnston, 1996)||USGS|
|September 1, 1888||04:10 local time||North Canterbury, New Zealand
see 1888 North Canterbury earthquake
|-42.6||172.4||7.0–7.3||First earthquake observed to be associated with mainly horizontal fault displacement||–|
|July 28, 1889||23:40||Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan
see 1889 Kumamoto earthquake
|October 27, 1891||21:38||Mino-Owari (Gifu-Aichi Prefectures), Tōkai region, Japan
see Nōbi earthquake
|April 19, 1892||10:50||Vacaville, California, USA||38.5||-121.8||1||6.4||MI (Bakun, 1999)||USGS|
|April 21, 1892||17:43||Winters, California, USA||38.6||-122||6.4||MI (Bakun, 1999)||USGS|
|November 17, 1893||15:06||Quchan, Iran
see 1893 Quchan earthquake
|October 31, 1895||11:08||Charleston, Missouri, USA||37||-89.4||6.6||MI (Johnston, 1996)||USGS|
|June 15, 1896||19:32||Off the Pacific coast of Sanriku, Iwate Prefecture, Tōhoku region, Japan
see 1896 Sanriku earthquake
|June 12, 1897||11:06||Assam, India
see 1897 Assam earthquake
|September 21, 1897||05:12||Mindanao, Philippines
see 1897 Mindanao earthquakes
|September 4, 1899||00:22||Cape Yakataga, Alaska, USA||60||-142||7.9||MS||USGS|
|September 10, 1899||21:41||Yakutat Bay, Alaska, USA||60||-142||8||MS||USGS|
|October 9, 1900||12:28||Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA||57.1||-153.5||7.7||MS||USGS|
Source for all events with 'USGS' labelled as the source United States Geological Survey (USGS)  Note: Magnitudes are generally estimations from intensity data. When no magnitude was available, the maximum intensity, written as a Roman numeral from I to XII, is given.
- List of 20th-century earthquakes
- List of 21st-century earthquakes
- List of historical tsunamis
- Lists of earthquakes
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- Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)
- Earthquakes Canada
- Historical earthquakes in Europe
- IRIS Seismic Monitor, Recent earthquakes around the world
- Recent New Zealand earthquakes
- SeismoArchives, Seismogram Archives of Significant Earthquakes of the World
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