History of British film certificates

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This article chronicles the history of British film certificates.

Overview[edit]

The UK's film ratings are decided by the British Board of Film Classification and have been since 1912.[1] Previously, there were no agreed rating standards, and local councils imposed their own – often differing – conditions or restrictions. For cinema releases, the BBFC has no legal power (technically, films do not even have to be submitted for classification), as it falls to councils to decide who should be admitted to a certain film, but they generally apply the BBFC's certificates, effectively making them legally binding. In exceptional cases, councils may impose their own conditions, either raising or lowering the minimum entry age from the certificate, banning a certified film outright, or setting their own minimum entry age for films that have never been submitted for BBFC certification, or which have been refused a certificate by the Board.

Prior to 1985, there were no legally binding ratings on video releases. The Video Recordings Act 1984 introduced new legal powers to certify video releases independently from any existing cinema certificate, with the BBFC being required to rate every new video release (except those exempted from classification) to determine the minimum age of people to whom the recording can be supplied, whether by sale or rental.[2] In August 2009 it was discovered that the Video Recordings Act 1984 never had legal effect, due to a technical error when the terms of the act were not communicated to the European Commission.[3] The relevant provisions were re-enacted by Parliament as the Video Recordings Act 2010.

The following list chronicles the BBFC's ratings system from its inception to the present.[4][5]

In each section, italics indicates when a certificate has changed since the previous system.

History[edit]

1912–1932[edit]

At first, there were just two advisory certificates.[6]

Symbol Name Definition/Notes
U Passed for Universal Exhibition All ages admitted.
A Passed for Public Exhibition to Adult Audiences Some councils ruled that children under 11 must be accompanied by an adult.

In Ireland, following the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922 (now the Republic of Ireland), the Irish Film Censor's Office was created in 1923 in place of the BBFC. This was renamed the Irish Film Classification Office in 2008.

1932–1950[edit]

An H (Horrific for Public Exhibition) certificate was added in 1932 to alert parents to horror-themed material that those aged 16 and older will only be admitted.[6][7]

Symbol Name Definition/Notes
U Passed for Universal Exhibition All ages admitted.
A Passed for Public Exhibition to Adult Audiences Some councils ruled that children under 11 must be accompanied by an adult.
H Horrific for Public Exhibition Some councils ruled that only those aged 16 or over could be admitted.

1950–1963[edit]

For the first time, a compulsory certificate, X (Extremely Limited to Private Exhibition), was introduced allowing only those aged 16 and older to enter. This replaced the H certificate.[8]

Symbol Name Definition/Notes
U Passed for Universal Exhibition Suitable for all ages.
A More suitable for Adult Audiences Not recommended for children under 11 years of age.
X Extremely Limited to Private Exhibition Suitable only for those aged 16 and older. (enforced by all councils)

1963–1970[edit]

The ratings symbol were changed for the first time to become more modernized, replacing the classic look that has been used after 51 years out of it. The ratings were otherwise unchanged.

Symbol Name Definition/Notes
U Passed for Universal Exhibition Suitable for all ages.
A Passed for Public Exhibition, but Adult Supervision is Advised Not recommended for children under 11 years of age.
X Extremely Limited to Private Exhibition Suitable only for those aged 16 and older. (enforced by all councils)

1970–1982[edit]

On 1 July 1970 the A certificate was split into two: the A certificate now allowed those of all ages to be admitted, but warned parents that they may not wish children under 11 to watch the film, while the new AA (Adults Strongly Cautioned) allowed only those aged 14 or over to be admitted.[9] As there was now a mandatory certificate at 14, the X certificate was modified to raise its age from 16 to 18.

Symbol Name Definition/Notes
U For Universal Exhibition Suitable for all ages.
A Adult Supervision Advised For general viewing, but not recommended for children under 11 years of age.
AA Adults Strongly Cautioned Suitable for those aged 14 and older.
X Extremely Limited to Adults Suitable only for those aged 18 and older.

1982–1985[edit]

On 1 November 1982 the ratings system was completely overhauled with only the U certificate remaining unchanged (though its description was slightly modified). The A certificate was replaced by PG, which was now completely advisory. The age of AA was raised a year and the certificate was renamed 15. The X certificate was unchanged but renamed 18 due to the lewd reputation that the letter X had acquired. A new R18 certificate was introduced for sexually explicit films. In order to show R18 films, cinemas must be licensed members-only clubs (previously, a loophole allowed these clubs to show such films unrated).[10]

Symbol[citation needed] Name Definition/Notes
U Universal Suitable for all.
PG Parental Guidance General viewing, but some scenes may be unsuitable for young children.
15 15 Suitable only for persons of 15 years and over.
18 18 Suitable only for persons of 18 years and over.
R18 Restricted 18 To be shown only in licensed cinemas to persons of not less than 18 years.

1985–1989[edit]

The Video Recordings Act 1984 gave the BBFC the legal responsibility to rate all videos. The current certificates were all used and were also modified and coloured. A new Uc certificate was introduced for videos only to indicate a recording that is especially suitable for young children to watch on their own.[10] Those under the age of a certificate could not buy or rent a video with that certificate. Shops wishing to sell or rent R18 videos had to apply for a licence. Video releases in this period often featured unofficial logos with a plain background.

Symbol Name Definition/notes
Cinema Video
N/A Uc Universal Children Particularly suitable for children. (video only)
U U Universal Suitable for all.
PG PG Parental Guidance General viewing, but some scenes may be unsuitable for young children.
15 15 15 Suitable only for persons of 15 years and over. (Not to be supplied or shown to any person below that age)
18 18 18 Suitable only for persons of 18 years and over. (Not to be supplied or shown to any person below that age)
R18 R18 Restricted 18 To be supplied only in sex shops and shown only in licensed cinemas to persons of not less than 18 years.[11]

1989–2002[edit]

Due to the large gap between PG and 15 and industry pressure regarding Batman, a 12 certificate was introduced on 1 August 1989. However, it was for cinema use only and did not cover videos. From this point on video releases featured the official BBFC logos. The 12 certificate was eventually introduced for videos on 1 July 1994.[10] As the 12 certificate did not apply to video releases before July 1994, several films which have been issued a 12 classification for cinema release, a decision had to be made regarding which rating was suitable for a video release and if a 15 certificate was deemed too high a rating for a particular film, a PG certificate was given with possible cuts to fit the rating. Films which received the 12 classification for cinema, and 15 classification for video include Uncle Buck,[12] which later passed with 12 for video on re-submission, and Nuns on the Run,[13] which currently remains 15, with re-submission. All of the symbols were also graphically edited.

In 2002, the cinema 12 certificate was modified and renamed 12A. Those under 12 could now be admitted to 12A films, provided that they were accompanied by an adult aged at least 18 years old, although the BBFC recommends that 12A films are generally unsuitable for children under 12 years old. Contrary to popular belief, the certificate was not introduced for the film Spider-Man, the first film to receive it was actually The Bourne Identity. However, Spider-Man and other films still on general release at the time were reclassified as 12A. Introduction of the 12A followed two years of consultation and a trial period in Norwich, during which time the certificate was known as PG-12 (see below).[14] The video 12 certificate remained unchanged.

Symbol Name Definition/Notes
Uc Universal Children Particularly suitable for children. (video only)
U Universal Suitable for all.
PG Parental Guidance General viewing, but some scenes may be unsuitable for young children.
12
12
12/12A Suitable only for persons of 12 years and over. (Not to be supplied or shown (Until 2002) to any person below that age) (12)
Generally suitable for those aged 12 and over (cinema only); those under 12 admitted, but only if accompanied by an adult (12A)
15 15 Suitable only for persons of 15 years and over. (Not to be supplied or shown to any person below that age)
18 18 Suitable only for persons of 18 years and over. (Not to be supplied or shown to any person below that age)
R18 Restricted 18 To be supplied only in sex shops and shown only in licensed cinemas to persons of not less than 18 years.[11]

2002–2019[edit]

In September 2002, all of the symbols were graphically modernised but retained all their main features (colour, shape, etc.). The Uc certificate was retired in 2009, and replaced with BBFCInsight[definition needed][15] which states where works are 'particularly suitable for pre-school children';[4] however, older DVDs may still carry the Uc certificate.[16] The consumer advice for the U certificate was updated to advise parents to check the film in case of children under the age of 4 and PG in case of children under 8.

Symbol Name Definition/Notes
Uc Universal Children Particularly suitable for children. (video only; eradicated in 2009)
U Universal Suitable for all.
PG Parental Guidance General viewing, but some scenes may be unsuitable for young children.
12
12A
12/12A Suitable only for persons of 12 years and over. (Not to be supplied to any person below that age) (12)
Generally suitable for those aged 12 and over (cinema only); those under 12 admitted, but only if accompanied by an adult. (12A)
15 15 Suitable only for persons of 15 years and over. (Not to be supplied or shown to any person below that age)
18 18 Suitable only for persons of 18 years and over. (Not to be supplied or shown to any person below that age)
R18 Restricted 18 To be supplied only in sex shops and shown only in licensed cinemas to persons of not less than 18 years.[11]

2019–present[edit]

In October 2019, for the first time all of the symbols were redesigned for digital streaming services and theatrical releases. However, the packaged media will still continue to use the previous symbols until at least April 2020.[17] The BBFCInsight was replaced with ratings info.[18]

Symbol Name Definition/Notes
Green triangle with U in centre Universal Suitable for all.[19]
Yellow triangle with PG in centre Parental Guidance General viewing, but some scenes may be unsuitable for young children.[20]
Orange circle with 12 in centre
Orange circle with 12A in centre
12/12A Suitable only for persons of 12 years and over. (Not to be supplied to any person below that age) (12)
Generally suitable for those aged 12 and over (cinema only); those under 12 admitted, but only if accompanied by an adult. (12A)[21]
Pink circle with 15 in centre 15 Suitable only for persons of 15 years and over. (Not to be supplied or shown to any person below that age)[22]
Red circle with 18 in centre 18 Suitable only for persons of 18 years and over. (Not to be supplied or shown to any person below that age)[23]
Blue rectangle with R18 in centre Restricted 18 To be supplied only in sex shops and shown only in licensed cinemas to persons of not less than 18 years.[24]

Non-standard certificates and ratings[edit]

Symbol Name Definition/Notes
PG-12 PG-12 Suitable for those aged 12 and older (cinema only); under 12s admitted, but only if accompanied by an adult.

This experimental certificate was used during a short BBFC trial in Norwich from October 2001 to January 2002, in which all 12 certificate films on release were classed as PG-12. Norwich was chosen due to its relative isolation from other large towns, in order to avoid significant numbers of children travelling there to specifically take advantage of the relaxed controls. The results of the trial led to the adoption of the 12A later in 2002.[25][26]

Between the end of the Norwich trial and the actual introduction of the 12A, a PG-12 rating was used by Tameside Council in June 2002 for Spider-Man, over-ruling the BBFC's 12 certification of the film. In addition, some other councils awarded the film a PG certificate.[27]

Exempt Exempt or 'E certificate' The 'E' in a square, triangle, circle, or similar, is not a BBFC rating certificate, but rather a statement from the distributor certifying that they believe a video recording is exempt from classification under the Video Recordings Act 1984 (e.g. educational material, music and sport).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About the BBFC". BBFC. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
  2. ^ "Video Recordings Act 1984 (c. 39)". Retrieved 2008-01-29.
  3. ^ Petley, Julian (2009-08-26). "Video Recordings Act was a blank tape". London: The Guardian. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
  4. ^ a b "Education Resources: Student Guide – BBFC History (History of the age ratings symbols)". BBFC. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  5. ^ "BBFC Classifications". Screenonline. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  6. ^ a b "Education Resources: Student Guide – BBFC History (1912–1949)". BBFC. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  7. ^ "The H Certificate". Screenonline. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  8. ^ "SBBFC: History - 1950s". BBFC. Archived from the original on 2008-07-04. Retrieved 2008-02-07.
  9. ^ "SBBFC: History - 1970s". BBFC. Archived from the original on 2008-07-04. Retrieved 2008-02-07.
  10. ^ a b c "SBBFC: History - 1980s". BBFC. Retrieved 2015-03-02.
  11. ^ a b c "R18 - British Board of Film Classification". bbfc.co.uk.
  12. ^ "Uncle Buck (1989)". BBFC. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  13. ^ "Nuns on the Run (1990)". BBFC. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  14. ^ "SBBFC: Spider-Man Case Study". BBFC. Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-07.
  15. ^ "Film Classification". prezi.com. Retrieved 2020-01-26.
  16. ^ "About the BBFC: FAQ". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  17. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/age-rating-symbols-guidelines#Packaged%20media%20(DVD%20and%20Blu-ray). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  18. ^ "Ratings info | British Board of Film Classification". bbfc.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
  19. ^ "U | British Board of Film Classification". bbfc.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
  20. ^ "PG | British Board of Film Classification". bbfc.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
  21. ^ "12A and 12 | British Board of Film Classification". bbfc.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
  22. ^ "15 | British Board of Film Classification". bbfc.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
  23. ^ "18 | British Board of Film Classification". bbfc.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
  24. ^ "R18 | British Board of Film Classification". bbfc.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
  25. ^ "Film censor relaxes rules for children". BBC News. 2001-10-29. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
  26. ^ BBFC report on Norwich trial (archived page)
  27. ^ "Parents warned of Spider-Man violence". BBC News. 2002-06-13. Retrieved 2010-05-04.

External links[edit]