Брянская область (Russian)
|— Oblast —|
|Established||July 5, 1944|
|Government (as of November 2014)|
|• Governor (acting)||Alexander Bogomaz|
|• Legislature||Oblast Duma|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|• Total||34,900 km2 (13,500 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Density||36.63/km2 (94.9/sq mi)|
|Population (January 2015 est.)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
Bryansk Oblast (Russian: Бря́нская о́бласть, Bryanskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Bryansk. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,278,217.
Bryansk Oblast lies in western European Russia in the central to western parts of the East European Plain, on the divide between the Desna and Volga basins. The oblast borders with Smolensk in the north, Kaluga Oblast in the northeast, Oryol Oblasts in the east, Kursk Oblast in the southeast, Chernihiv and Sumy Oblasts of Ukraine in the south, and with Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts of Belarus in the west.
The relief is a typical East European Plain landscape, with alternating rolling hills and shallow lowlands, although lowlands dominate in the western and central parts. A total of 125 rivers flow through Bryansk Oblast, with the longest one, at 1,187 kilometers (738 mi), being the Desna (a tributary of the Dnieper). Other major rivers include the Bolva, Navlya, Nerussa, Sudost (all tributaries of the Desna), Besed, and Iput. There are forty-nine major lakes, with Lake Kozhany being the largest.
Climate is temperate continental. The average temperature in January is −7 to −9 °C (19 to 16 °F). The average July temperature is +18 to +19 °C (64 to 66 °F). Average annual precipitation varies from 560 to 600 millimeters (22 to 24 in).
Natural resources include deposits of peat, sand, clay, chalk, marl, and other building materials, as well as phosphorite. About a quarter of the total area of the oblast is covered by forests, mainly coniferous, mixed, and deciduous, as well as forest-steppe.
As a result of the Chernobyl disaster on April 26, 1986, part of the territory of Bryansk Oblast has been contaminated with radionuclides (mainly Klimovsky, Klintsovsky, Krasnogorsky, Surazhsky, and Novozybkovsky Districts). In 1999, some 226,000 people lived in areas with the contamination level above 5 Curie/km2, representing approximately 16% of the oblast's population.
The territory of what now is Bryansk Oblast has been inhabited since ancient times by Slavic tribes. In the 9th to 11th centuries, they lived along the banks of the Desna River and in the forests of the land between the Desna and the Oka. The city of Bryansk was established in 985.
Bryansk remained poorly attested until the Mongol invasion of Russia. It was the northernmost of the Severian cities in the possession of the Chernigov Rurikids and the principality of Novgorod-Seversky. After Mikhail of Chernigov was murdered by the Mongols and his capital was destroyed, his son moved his seat to Bryansk. In 1310, when the Mongols sacked the town again, it belonged to the principality of Smolensk. After the demise of Chernigov by the Mongols, the Principality of Bryansk was formed. In 1356 Bryansk territory was under the authority of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Great Duchy of Moscow conquered Bryansk following the Battle of Vedrosha in 1503. The town was turned into a fortress which played a major role during the Time of Troubles. In 1618 the Deulino Armistice saw the southern and western area of the Bryansk region temporarily ceded to Poland. Peter the Great incorporated Bryansk into Kiev Governorate, but Catherine the Great deemed it wise to transfer the town to the Oryol Governorate in 1779. She also promulgated the town's coat of arms. Bryansk became the duchy's south-western outpost in the fight against Lithuania, Poland and Crimean Khanate.
After the expulsion of the Poles and reunification with Russia in 1654, all the left bank of the Dnieper (Malorossiya), including the south-western area of Bryansk, was divided into hundreds of administrative regiments. One of the largest was Starodubaka. In 1781, these regiments merged into districts and several territories.
The 17th and 18th centuries were a period of significant regional economic development. The industrial revolution began in the 18th century, particularly in the eastern part of Bryansk and due to its reserves of sand and saw the growth of the glass industry.
On April 1, 1920, Bryansk Oblast was established but on October 1, 1929 it was incorporated into the Western Oblast. On September 27, 1937, the Central Executive Committee decided to abolish the Western Krai, dividing it into Smolensk and Oryol Oblasts. The current territory of Bryansk Oblast became a part of Oryol Oblast.
In August–October 1941, the region was occupied by Nazi troops. From the first days of occupation, the struggle against the invaders took the character of a popular movement. In the Bryansk there were about 60,000 guerrillas from the guerrilla compounds of SA Kovpak, AF Fedorov and AN Saburov. It resulted in the destruction and burning of many towns and villages, affecting some 111,000 homes and many important industrial enterprises. After the liberation of territory (August–September 1943), extensive restoration work commenced.
The modern Bryansk Oblast was established by the Decree Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on July 5, 1944.
A large railway junction is located in the capital of Bryansk. Most rail lines in the oblast are electrified, using AC power. In connection with the border situation, Bryansk there are several major customs terminals.
The oblast is crossed by the M3 Moscow—Kiev highway and the M13 Bryansk-Novozybkov-Boundary Belarus—(Kobrin), and fourteen kilometers from the administrative center of the oblast is the Bryansk International Airport.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Bryansk CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Bryansk Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Bryansk Oblast Duma is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
- Births (2012): 14 376 (11.4 per 1000)
- Deaths (2012): 20 356 (16.1 per 1000)
- Total fertility rate: 2009 - 1.49 | 2010 - 1.42 | 2011 - 1.46 | 2012 - 1.56 | 2013 - 1.53 | 2014 - 1.56(e)
- Russians - 96.7%
- Ukrainians - 1.1%
- Belarusians - 0.4%
- Armenians - 0.4%
- Romani people - 0.3%
- Jews - 0.1%
- Others - 1%
- 26,825 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
There are seventeen museums in Bryansk Oblast. The main cities have many major architectural and archeological monuments. In Bryansk is the Svenski monastery, Chashin mound (the birthplace of Bryansk), the ancient Kremlin of Bryansk on Pokrovskaya Mountain, Peter and Paul monastery etc. Main churches include the Voksresenskaya, Vvedenskaya and Spaso-Grobovskaya, Pokrovskaya and Gorne-Nikolskaya.
Klintsy is the second largest city of Bryansk oblast and was one of the Old Believers’ centers, now known for its textile industry and its ancient temples. Trubchevsk is noted for its archeological and architectural monuments, in particular the Trinity Cathedral of the 13th-19th centuries with its tomb. The museum contains some valuable items dated to the 6th-7th centuries.
The Flag of Bryansk Oblast represents a panel burgundy with a ratio of 1:1,5. In the center of the cloth is placed coat of arms of the Bryansk region. The coat of arms is a blue shield representing Slavic unity between the states of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. In the upper part of the shield is a stylized golden spruce with a three-tiered crown representing the forests of Bryansk. The flag is burgundy in color, representing the color of the banners under which the army and guerrillas fought for the liberation of Bryansk.
According to a 2012 official survey 49.5% of the population of Bryansk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, and 1% to Slavic Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism). In addition, 36% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 5% is atheist, and 2.5% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bryansk Oblast.|
- Law #47-Z
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- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Decree of July 5, 1944
- Official website of Bryansk Oblast. Alexander Vasilyevich Bogomaz, Acting Governor of Bryansk Oblast (Russian)
- Charter of Bryansk Oblast, Article 39
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
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- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Bryansk Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность и распределение населения по основным возрастным группам (Russian)
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
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- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
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- Брянская областная Дума. №91-З 20 декабря 2012 г. «Устав Брянской области», в ред. Закона №25-З от 6 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 45 Устава Брянской области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования (1 января 2013 г.). Опубликован: Информационный бюллетень "Официальная Брянщина", №20, 21 декабря 2012 г. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #91-Z of December 20, 2012 Charter of Bryansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #25-Z of April 6, 2015 On Amending Article 45 of the Charter of Bryansk Oblast. Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication (January 1, 2013).).
- Брянская областная Дума. Закон №47-З от 20 ноября 1998 г. «О символах Брянской области», в ред. Закона №5-З от 9 февраля 2009 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Брянской области "О символах Брянской области"». Вступил в силу с момента официального опубликования (28 ноября 1998 г.). Опубликован: "Брянский рабочий", №303, 25 ноября 1998 г. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #47-Z of November 20, 1998 On the Symbols of Bryansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #5-Z of February 9, 2009 On Amending the Law of Bryansk Oblast "On the Symbols of Bryansk Oblast". Effective as of the moment of official publication (November 28, 1998).).
- Президиум Верховного Совета СССР. Указ от 5 июля 1944 г. «Об образовании Брянской области в составе РСФСР». (Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Decree of July 5, 1944 On Establishing Bryansk Oblast Within the RSFSR. ).