History of Italian fashion
The history of Italian fashion is the important events and occasions which marked Italian fashion and how it evolved to being as it is today.
Clothing in Italy became the most fashionable in Europe since the 11th century and powerful cities of the time, such as Venice, Milan, Florence, Naples, Vicenza and Rome began to produce robes, jewelry, textiles, shoes, fabrics, ornaments and elaborate dresses. Italian fashion reached its peak during the Renaissance. Art, music, education, finance and philosophy flourished in Italy, and along with these, Italian fashion designs became immensely popular, especially those worn by the Medicis in Florence. The fashions of Queen Catherine de' Medici of France were considered amongst the most fashionable in Europe.
Italian fashion in the 15th and 16th centuries was mainly influenced by the art of the time, especially by the masterpieces of Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Botticelli. Italian designs were well known for their extravagance, and their expensive accessories, such as velvets, brocades, ribbons and jewels. Also, Italian fashion for ladies changed dramatically around 1460, where skirts were gathered or pleated, and would often be split at the front and the sides to show a sleeved underdress.
During the Italian Renaissance, men wore closely fitted waistcoats underneath pleated overcoats called giornea, which had wide, puffy mutton sleeves and were often made from brocade. They wore different kinds of hats, ranging from caps to berets.
They also had an overcoat called cioppa. Its lining was of a different colour than the main fabric which was a feature of the Italian Renaissance. They also wore hose or tights to emphasize their lower bodies. As hair styles, anything from short to shoulder-length hair was common; it was often curled inwards.
Women's dress consisted of fitted garments worn underneath a belted dress which was also called giornea. Unlike the men's version, the women's reached the ground and covered their feet. Women's giorneas, originally evolved from the houppelande, had separate skirts and bodices. The skirts were tight at the waist and the lower part of the dress was often pleated. They were cut at the front, and in later years at the sides, to display the rich undergarments. Underneath the giornea women wore a dress called gamurra, which was a high-waisted long dress which could have detachable sleeves. The underdress worn underneath this was a simple linen dress called camicia.
Men and women would wear outer clothes with detachable, and often slashed, sleeves of varied designs. Rich people would own many different pairs of sleeves to match with their overcoats and dresses.
The Renaissance was a turning point for people's attitude regarding clothes and their appearance. People had a desire to wear tighter fitted clothes to emphasize body shape, particularly in men's clothing. Merchants expanded the market for items of clothing, creating accessories such as hats, hairnets, bags, or gloves. The spread of mirrors led to people becoming more interested in their self-image, and people were increasingly trying to look good and care about how they appeared to others.
- Lenza: Leather chord worn around the head; it served the function of keeping hair flat.
- Trinzale: Sheer sort of hair-net worn at the back of the head, sometimes it was beaded.
- Coazzoni: The hair was center-parted and smoothed to the head with a long braid at the back; ribbons or netting was added.
- Hair tapping: Uses long strips of ribbon to secure the hair and tied it into a bun.
Women during the Italian Renaissance used wigs and false braids to tie onto their hair.
In the 17th century, Italian fashion fell into decline when the designs of the Spanish, English and French courts took the lead. In France, French fashion became the most popular in Europe.
Despite this decline, however, there was some fashion and clothing activity, especially in Rome, Milan and Florence. In the mid-19th century cheaper silk began to be imported to Milan from Asia and the pest phylloxera damaged silk and wine production. More land was subsequently given over to industrialisation. Textile production was followed by metal and mechanical and furniture manufacture.
Some of the first Italian fashion houses such as Bulgari, Prada, Gucci and Ferragamo were founded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was not until the 1950s and 60s that Italian fashion retook its position of importance in the fashion world.
On 12 February 1951, Italian businessman Giovanni Battista Giorgini held a fashion show in Florence, as he wanted to re-make Italy the international trendsetter for designs. Prior to his 1951–53 soirées, Italy had been exporting luxury fashion goods and handbags to other nations and the USA. His fashion shows were a huge success,[clarification needed] and saw the possibility of Italy returning to its original position. In the 1960s, the designer handbags produced by Gucci drew the attention of numerous stars and celebrities, such as Grace Kelly, Peter Sellers, Audrey Hepburn and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, and Gucci's "GG" monogram logo became synonymous with Hollywood chic. American First Lady Jackie Kennedy became a close friend of Italian designer Valentino Garavani, and was well known for having worn his clothes ever since 1965, and at her marriage to Aristotle Onassis. Even though Florence was Italy's fashion capital in the 50s and 60s, Milan led the way in the 70s and 80s, with then-new labels, such as Versace, Armani and Dolce & Gabbana opening up and setting up their first boutiques and emporia. Until the 1970s, Italian fashion was mainly designed for rich and famous people, more or less like the French "Haute Couture". Yet, in the 1970s and 80s, Italian fashion started to concentrate on ready-to-wear clothes, such as jeans, jumpers and miniskirts. Milan became more affordable and stylish for shoppers, and Florence was deposed of its position as the Italian fashion capital. In the 1990s, also, new clothing labels, such as Miu Miu and Geox, started to appear around the world. Today, and during that period, many famous celebrities, such as Beyoncé, Axl Rose, Elton John, Naomi Campbell, Elizabeth Hurley, Lady Gaga, Victoria Beckham, Madonna, Britney Spears, Rihanna, Alexandra Burke, Christina Aguilera, and even Diana, Princess of Wales, are or were famous clients of numerous Italian fashion brands, such as Dolce & Gabbana, Gucci and Versace.
Today, Milan and Rome are Italy's fashion capitals, and are major international centres for fashion design, competing with other cities such as Tokyo, Los Angeles, London, Paris and New York. Also, other cities such as Venice, Florence, Naples, Vicenza, Bologna, Genoa and Turin are important centres. The country's main shopping districts are the Via Montenapoleone fashion district and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele (Milan), Via dei Condotti (Rome), and Via de' Tornabuoni (Florence).
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