History of Maharashtra

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Maharashtra is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.Although the present day state in India was only formed in 1960,the region that comprises the state has a long history dating back to the 4th century BCE.

From the 4th century BCE until 875, Maharashtri Prakrit and its Apabhraṃśas were the dominant languages of the region. Marathi, which evolved from Maharashtri Prakrit, has been the lingua franca from the 9th century onwards.The oldest stone inscriptions in Marathi language can be seen at Shravana Belgola in modern-day Karnataka at the foot of the Bahubali Statue. In the course of time, the term Maharashtra was used to describe a region which consisted of Aparanta, Vidarbha, Mulak, Assaka(Ashmaka) and Kuntal. Tribal communities of Naga, Munda and Bhil peoples inhabited this area, also known as Dandakaranya, in ancient times. The name Maharashtra is believed to be originated from rathi, which means "chariot driver". Maharashtra entered the recorded history in the 2nd century BC, with the construction of its first Buddhist caves. The name Maharashtra first appeared in the 7th century in the account of a contemporary Chinese traveler, Huan Tsang. According to the recorded History[clarification needed], the first Hindu King ruled the state during the 6th century, based in Badami.

History of Maharashtra
Location of Maharashtra in India
Location of Maharashtra in India
Coordinates: 18°58′12″N 72°49′12″E / 18.97°N 72.820°E / 18.97; 72.820Coordinates: 18°58′12″N 72°49′12″E / 18.97°N 72.820°E / 18.97; 72.820

Prehistoric[edit]

Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture (ca. 1300–700 BCE) have been discovered throughout the state.[1][2]

Maharashtra during 4th century BC-12th century AD[edit]

Late Harappa figure from Daimabad hoard, Indus Valley Civilization

The region that is present day Maharashtra was part of a number of empires in the first millennium. These include the Maurya empire, Satavahana dynasty, the Vakataka dynasty, the Chalukya dynasty and the Rashtrakuta dynasty. Most of these empires extended over a large swathes of Indian territory. Some of the greatest monuments in Maharashtra such as the Ajantha and Ellora Caves were built during the time of these empires. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the 4th and 3rd century BCE. Around 230 BCE Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty which ruled the region for 400 years.[3] The greatest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni who defeated the Scythian invaders. The Vakataka dynasty ruled from c. 250–470 CE. The Satavahana dynasty mainly used Prakrit rather than Sanskrit or Dravidian languages.[4] while the Vakataka dynasty patronized Prakrit and Sanskrit[citation needed].

Pravarapura-Nandivardhana dynasty[edit]

The Pravarapura-Nandivardhana branch ruled from various sites like Pravarapura (Paunar) in Wardha district and Mansar and Nandivardhan (Nagardhan) in Nagpur district. This branch maintained matrimonial relations with the Imperial Guptas Vatsagulma branch:The Vatsagulma branch was founded by Sarvasena, the second son of Pravarasena after his death. King Sarvasena made Vatsagulma, the present day Washim in Washim district of Maharashtra his capital.[6] The territory ruled by this branch was between the Sahydri Range and the Godavari River. They patronized some of the Buddhist caves at Ajanta. Prabhavati gupta was queen and regent of the Vākāṭaka Empire. Her father was Chandragupta II of the Gupta Empire and her mother was Kuberanaga, of the Naga. She married Rudrasena II of the Vākāṭaka. After his death in 385, she ruled as regent for her two young sons, Divakarasena and Damodarasena, for twenty years[citation needed]

The Chalukya and Rashtrakuta[edit]

The Chalukya dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the 6th century to the 8th century and the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha, and Vikramaditya II who defeated the Arab invaders in the 8th century. The Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the 8th to the 10th century.[5] The Arab traveler Sulaiman called the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty (Amoghavarsha) as "one of the 4 great kings of the world".[6] The Chalukya dynasty and Rashtrakuta Dynasty had their capitals in modern-day Karnataka and they used Kannada and Sanskrit as court languages. From the early 11th century to the 12th century the Deccan Plateau was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty.[7] Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I and Vikramaditya VI.[8]

Between 800-1200 CE, parts of Western Maharashtra including the Konkan region of Maharashtra were ruled by different Shilahara houses based in North Konkan South Konkan and Kolhapur respectively.[9] At different periods in their history, the Shilaharas served as the vassals of either the Rashtrakutas or the Chalukyas.

Yadav dynasty 12th-14th century[edit]

The Yadavas of Devagiri Dynasty was an Indian dynasty, which at its peak ruled a kingdom stretching from the Tungabhadra to the Narmada rivers, including present-day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh, from its capital at Devagiri (present-day Daulatabad in modern Maharashtra). The Yadavas initially ruled as feudatories of the Western Chalukyas.[10] The founder of the Suena dynasty was Dridhaprahara, the son of Subahu. According to Vratakhanda, his capital was Shrinagara. However, an early inscription suggests that Chandradityapura (modern Chandwad in the Nasik district) was the capital.[11] The name Seuna comes from Dridhaprahara's son, Seunachandra, who originally ruled a region called Seunadesha (present-day Khandesh). Bhillama II, a later ruler in the dynasty, assisted Tailapa II in his war with the Paramara king Munja. Seunachandra II helped Vikramaditya VI in gaining his throne. Around the middle of the 12th century, as the Chalukya power waned, they declared independence and established rule that reached its peak under Singhana II. The Yadavas of Devagiri patronised Marathi[12] which was their court language.[13][14] Kannada may also have been a court language during Seunachandra's rule, but Marathi was the only court-language of Ramchandra and Mahadeva Yadavas. The Yadava capital Devagiri became a magnet for learned scholars in Marathi to showcase and find patronage for their skills. The origin and growth of Marathi literature is directly linked with rise of Yadava dynasty.[15]

According to scholars such as George Moraes,[16] V. K. Rajwade, C. V. Vaidya, A.S. Altekar, D. R. Bhandarkar, and J. Duncan M. Derrett,[17] the Seuna rulers were of Maratha descent who patronized the Marathi language.[12] Digambar Balkrishna Mokashi noted that the Yadava dynasty was "what seems to be the first true Maratha empire".[18]

Islamic Rule[edit]

In the early 14th century, the Yadava dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Later, Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, and temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughluqs in 1347, the breakaway Bahmani Sultanate governed the region for the next 150 years from Gulbarga and later from Bidar .[19] After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate in 1518, the Maharashtra region was split ibetween five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Elichpur.[20] These kingdoms often fought with each other. United, they decisively defeated the Vijayanagara Empire of the south in 1565.[21] The present area of Mumbai was ruled by the Sultanate of Gujarat before its capture by Portugal in 1535 and the Faruqi dynasty ruled the Khandesh region between 1382 and 1601 before finally getting annexed by the Mughal Empire. Malik Ambar, the regent of the Nizamshahi dynasty of Ahmednagar from 1607 to 1626[22] increased the strength and power of Murtaza Nizam Shah and raised a large army. Malik Ambar was a proponent of guerilla warfare in the Deccan region. Malik Ambar assisted Mughal prince Khurram (who later became emperor Shah Jahan) in his struggle against his stepmother, Nur Jahan, who had ambitions of getting the Delhi throne for her son-in-law.[23] The Deccan kingdoms were eventually swallowed by the Mughal Empire or by the emerging Maratha forces in the second half of the 17th Century.

The early period of Islamic rule saw atrocities such as imposition of Jaziya tax on non-Muslims, temple destruction and forcible conversions.[24][25] However, the mainly Hindu population and the Islamic rulers over time came to an accommodation. For most of this period Brahmins were in charge of accounts whereas revenue collection was in the hands of Marathas who had watans (Hereditary rights) of Patilki ( revenue collection at village level) and Deshmukhi ( revenue collection over a larger area). A number of families such as Bhosale, Shirke, Ghorpade, Jadhav, More, Mahadik, and Ghatge and Nimbalkar loyally served different sultans at different periods in time. All watandars considered their watan a source of economic power and pride and were reluctant to part with it. The Watandars were the first to oppose Shivaji because that hurt their economic interests.[20] Since most of the population was Hindu and spoke Marathi, even the sultans such as Ibrahim Adil Shah I adopted Marathi as the court language, for administration and record keeping.[20][26][27]

The decline of Islamic rule in Deccan started when Shivaji founded the Maratha Empire by annexing a portion of the Bijapur Sultanate in 1674. Shivaji later led rebellions against the Mughal rule, thus becoming a symbol of Hindu resistance and self-rule.[28] Maratha Empire went on to end the Mughal rule and ruled over a vast empire stretching from Attock to Cuttack.[29]

Maratha Empire[edit]

The Maratha Empire (1795 map) was the paramount power in the Indian subcontinent in the 18th and early 19th century until it was usurped by the East India Company.

The Marathas dominated the political scene in India from the middle of the 17th century to the early 19th century as the Maratha Empire. The term Maratha here is used in a comprehensive sense to include all Marathi-speaking people rather than the distinct community with the same name to which Shivaji, the founder of the maratha empire belonged.

Chhatrapati Shivaji maharaj[edit]

Chhatrapati Shivaji maharaj is considered the founder of the modern Marathi empire; his policies were instrumental in forging a distinct Maharashtrian identity[citation needed]. Shivaji Bhosale c. 1627/1630[30] – 3 April 1680), also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, was a member of the Bhonsle clan. Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire. In 1674, he was formally crowned as the Chhatrapati (Monarch) of his realm at Raigad. Shivaji was an able warrior and established a government that included such modern concepts as a cabinet (ashtapradhana mandala), foreign affairs (dabir) and internal intelligence. Shivaji established an effective civil and military administration. He also built a powerful navy and erected new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijayadurg on the west coast of Maharashtra.

Expansion of Maratha Influence in 18th Century under Shahu I and Peshwa rule[edit]

Shaniwar Wada palace fort in Pune, the seat of the Peshwa rulers of the Maratha Empire until 1818.

The death of Aurangzeb in 1707, after an exhausting 27 years of war against the Marathas, led to the swift decline of the Mughal Empire. During much of this era, the Peshwas, belonging to the (Bhat) Deshmukh Marathi Chitpavan Brahmin family, controlled the Maratha army and later became the hereditary heads of the Maratha Empire from 1749 to 1818.[31] During their rein, the Maratha empire reached its zenith in 1760, dominating most of the Indian subcontinent.[32] Bajirao I, the second Peshwa from the Bhat family was only 20 when appointed Peshwa. For his campaigns in North India, he actively promoted young leaders of his own age such as Ranoji Shinde, Malharrao Holkar, the Puar brothers and Pilaji Gaekwad. These leaders also did not come from the traditional aristocratic families of Maharashtra.[33] Separate from Bajirao I, Raghoji Bhonsle expanded Maratha rule in central and East India.[34] All these military leaders or their descendants later became rulers in their own right during the Maratha Confederacy era.

One of the tools of the empire was collection of Chauth or 25% of the revenue from states that submitted to Maratha power. The Marathas also had an elaborate land revenue system which was retained by the British East India company when they gained control of Maratha territory[35]

The areas controlled by the Peshwa were annexed by the East India Company in 1818.

Hyderabad state in 1956 (in yellowish green). After reorganization in 1956, Regions of the state west of Red and Blue lines merged with Bombay and Mysore states respectively and rest of the state (Telangana) was merged with Andhra State to form the state of Andhra Pradesh.

The Maratha Navy[edit]

Shivaji developed a potent Naval force during his rule. Later the navy under the leadership of Kanhoji Angre, in the early part of 1700s dominated the territorial waters of the western coast of India from Bilimora, Gujarat[36] to Savantwadi.[37] It would engage in attacking the British, Portuguese, Dutch, and Siddi Naval ships and kept a check on their naval ambitions. The Maratha Navy dominated until around the 1730s, was in a state of decline by the 1770s, and ceased to exist by 1818.[38]

Maharashtra under British rule and The Freedom Movement[edit]

The East India company controlled Mumbai since the 17th century as one of their main trading post. The Company slowly expanded areas under its rule during the 18th century. Their conquest of Maharashtra was completed in 1818 with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II in the Third Anglo-Maratha War.[39]

The British ruled for more than a century and brought huge changes, in every aspect of life, for the people who resided in the Maharashtra region. Areas that correspond to present day Maharashtra were under direct or indirect British rule, first under the East India Company and then under the British crown from 1858. The Maharashtra region during this era was divided in to Bombay presidency, Berar, Central provinces, Hyderabad state and various Princely states such as Kolhapur, Miraj etc.

The British colonial period saw standardisation of Marathi grammar through the efforts of the Christian missionary William Carey. Carey also published the first dictionary of Marathi in devanagari script.The most comprehensive Marathi-English dictionary was compiled by Captain James Thomas Molesworth and Major Thomas Candy in 1831. The book is still in print nearly two centuries after its publication.[40]Molesworth also worked on standardizing Marathi. He used Brahmins of Pune for this task and adopted the Sanskrit dominated dialect spoken by this caste in the city as the standard dialect for Marathi.[41][42]

Gateway of India, built in the early 20th century in the Indo-Saracenic style of Architecture which combines British, Indo-Islamic and Hindu temple architectural styles.

People from Maharashtra played an important part in the social and religious reform movements as well as the nationalist movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Notable Civil society bodies founded by Marathi leaders during 19th century include the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, the Prarthana samaj, the Arya Mahila Samaj and the Satya Shodhak Samaj.The Sarvajanik sabha took active part in relief efforts during the famine of 1875-76. The Sabha is considered the forerunner of the Indian National Congress established in 1885.[43][44] The most prominent personalities of Indian Nationalism in the late 19th and early 20th century, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Bal Gangadhar Tilak on opposite side of political spectrum were both from Pune.Tilak was instrumental in using Shivaji and Ganesh worship in forging a collective Maharashtrian identity for Marathi people.[45] The Marathi social reformers of the colonial era include Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, and his wife Savitribai Phule, Justice Ranade, feminist Tarabai Shinde, Dhondo Keshav Karve, Vitthal Ramji Shinde, and Pandita Ramabai.[46] Jyotirao Phule was the pioneer in opening schools for girls and Marathi dalits castes.

The non-Brahmin Hindu castes of Maharashtra started organizing at the beginning of the 20th century with the blessing of Chhatrapati Shahu of Kolhapur. The campaign took off in the early 1920s under the leadership of Keshavrao Jedhe and Baburao javalkar. Both belonged to the Non-Brahmin party.Capturing the Ganpati and Shivaji festivals from Brahmin domination were their early goals.[47] They combined nationalism with anti-casteism as the party's aims.[48] Later on in the 1930s, Jedhe merged the non-Brahmin party with the Congress party and changed that party from an upper-caste dominated body to a more broadly based but also Maratha-dominated party.[49] Early 20th century also saw the rise of Dr Ambedkar who led the campaign for the rights of Dalits caste that included his own Mahar caste. Ambedkar disagreed with mainstream leaders like Gandhi on issues including untouchability, government system and the partition of India. This did not prevent him from struggling for the rights of his brethren among the lower castes of the country. His leadership of dalit or Depressed Classes led to the Dalit movement that still endures. Ambedkar most importantly played the pivotal role in writing the constitution of India and hence he is considered as the father of the Indian Constitution.

The ultimatum in 1942 to the British to "Quit India" was given in Mumbai, and culminated in the transfer of power and the independence of India in 1947. Raosaheb and Achutrao Patwardhan, Nanasaheb Gore, Shreedhar Mahadev Joshi, Yeshwantrao Chavan, Swami Ramanand Bharti, Nana Patil, Dhulappa Navale, V.S. Page, Vasant Patil, Dhondiram Mali, Aruna Asif Ali, Ashfaqulla Khan and several others leaders from Maharashtra played a prominent role in this struggle. B.G. Kher was the first Chief Minister of the tri-lingual Bombay Presidency in 1937.

Although the British originally regarded India a place for supply of raw materials for the factories of England, by the end of 19th century modern manufacturing industry was developing in the city of Mumbai.[50] The main product was cotton and the bulk of work force in these mills was from[51] Western Maharashtra but more specifically from the coastal Konkan region.[52] The census recorded for the city in the first half of the 20th century showed nearly half of the population of city listed Marathi as their mother tongue.[53][54]

During the period of 1835-1907, a large number of Indians including people from Maharashtra were taken to the island of Mauritius as indentured labourers to work on sugarcane plantations.[55]

The States Reorganisation[edit]

Present day State of Maharashtra

After India's independence, the Deccan States, including Kolhapur were integrated into Bombay State, which was created from the former Bombay Presidency in 1950.[56] In 1956,the States Reorganisation Act reorganised the Indian states along linguistic lines, and Bombay Presidency State was enlarged by the addition of the predominantly Marathi-speaking regions of Marathwada (Aurangabad Division) from erstwhile Hyderabad state and Vidarbha region from the Central Provinces and Berar. The southernmost part of Bombay State was ceded to Mysore.From 1954 to 1955 the people of Maharashtra strongly protested against bilingual Bombay state and the Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti, was formed to fight for a United Maharashtra for Marathi people.[57][58] The Mahagujarat Movement was started, seeking a separate Gujarat state. Keshavrao Jedhe, S.M. Joshi, Shripad Amrit Dange, Pralhad Keshav Atre and Gopalrao Khedkar fought for a separate state of Maharashtra with Mumbai as its capital under the banner of Samyukta Maharashtra Movement. On 1 May 1960, following mass protests and 105 deaths, the separate Marathi-speaking state was formed by dividing earlier Bombay State into the new states of Maharashtra and Gujarat.[59] The state continues to have a dispute with Karnataka regarding the region of Belgaum and Karwar.[60][61][62][63] Some Marathi majority talukas were also transferred to Adilabad, Medak, Nizamabad and Mahaboobnagar districts of new Telugu State (now Telangana)in 1956. Even today, the old town names of all these regions are Marathi names.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Upinder Singh (2008), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, p.232
  2. ^ P. K. Basant (2012), The City and the Country in Early India: A Study of M', pp.92-96
  3. ^ India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic: p.440
  4. ^ Sailendra Nath Sen 1999, pp. 172–176.
  5. ^ Indian History - page B-57
  6. ^ A Comprehensive History Of Ancient India (3 Vol. Set): p.203
  7. ^ The Penguin History of Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300 by Romila Thapar: p.365-366
  8. ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen: p.383-384
  9. ^ Sovani, N.V., 1951. Social Survey Of Kolhapur City Vol. Ii-Industry, Trade And Labour,pp=2-4
  10. ^ Keay, John (2001-05-01). India: A History. Atlantic Monthly Pr. pp. 252–257. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0. The quoted pages can be read at Google Book Search.
  11. ^ "Nasik District Gazetteer: History – Ancient period". Archived from the original on 2006-11-07. Retrieved 2006-10-01.
  12. ^ a b Kulkarni, Chidambara Martanda (1966). Ancient Indian History & Culture. Karnatak Pub. House. p. 233.
  13. ^ "India 2000 – States and Union Territories of India" (PDF). Indianembassy.org. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
  14. ^ "Yadav – Pahila Marathi Bana" S.P. Dixit (1962)
  15. ^ "Marathi - The Language of Warriors". Archived from the original on 21 January 2007. Retrieved 3 January 2007.
  16. ^ Professor George Moraes. "Pre-Portuguese Culture of Goa". International Goan Convention. Archived from the original on 2006-10-15. Retrieved 2006-10-01.
  17. ^ Murthy, A. V. Narasimha (1971). The Sevunas of Devagiri. Rao and Raghavan. p. 32.
  18. ^ Mokashi, Digambar Balkrishna (1987-07-01). Palkhi: An Indian Pilgrimage. SUNY Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-88706-461-2.
  19. ^ "Kingdoms of South Asia – Indian Bahamani Sultanate". The History Files, United Kingdom. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  20. ^ a b c Kulkarni, G.T. (1992). "DECCAN (MAHARASHTRA) UNDER THE MUSLIM RULERS FROM KHALJIS TO SHIVAJI : A STUDY IN INTERACTION, PROFESSOR S.M KATRE Felicitation". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 51/52,: 501–510. JSTOR 42930434.
  21. ^ Bhasker Anand Saletore (1934). Social and Political Life in the Vijayanagara Empire (A.D. 1346-A.D. 1646). B.G. Paul.
  22. ^ A Sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India. E. Keys. 1883. pp. 26–28.
  23. ^ "Malik Ambar (1548–1626): the rise and fall of military slavery". British Library. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  24. ^ Paranjape, Makarand (19 January 2016). Cultural Politics in Modern India: Postcolonial prospects, colourful cosmopolitanism, global proximities. Routledge India. pp. 34, 35. ISBN 1138956929.
  25. ^ Haidar, Navina Najat; Sardar, Marika (27 December 2011). Sultans of the South: Arts of India's Deccan Courts, 1323-1687. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 186. ISBN 0300175876.
  26. ^ Gordon, Stewart (1993). Cambridge History of India: The Marathas 1600-1818. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7.
  27. ^ Kamat, Jyotsna. "The Adil Shahi Kingdom (1510 CE to 1686 CE)". Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  28. ^ Chary, Manish Telikicherla. India: Nation on the Move: An Overview of India's People, Culture, History, Economy, IT Industry, & More. iUniverse. p. 96. ISBN 1440116350.
  29. ^ Chandorkar, Avinash. "From The Capital Of India To A Divisional Headquarter: Pune's Long Journey". Swarajya. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  30. ^ Indu Ramchandani, ed. (2000). Student’s Britannica: India (Set of 7 Vols.) 39. Popular Prakashan. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5.
  31. ^ Shirgaonkar, Varsha S. "Eighteenth Century Deccan: Cultural History of the Peshwas." Aryan Books International, New Delhi (2010). ISBN 978-81-7305-391-7
  32. ^ Shirgaonkar, Varsha S. "Peshwyanche Vilasi Jeevan." (Luxurious Life of Peshwas) Continental Prakashan, Pune (2012). ISBN 8174210636
  33. ^ Gordon, Stewart (2008). The Marathas 1600-1818 (Digitally print. 1. pbk. version. ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ Pr. pp. 117–121. ISBN 978-0521033169.
  34. ^ "Forgotten Indian history: The brutal Maratha invasions of Bengal".
  35. ^ Wink, A., 1983. Maratha revenue farming. Modern Asian Studies, 17(04), pp.591-628.
  36. ^ 280 years ago, Baroda had its own Navy. Times of India.
  37. ^ Sridharan, K. Sea: Our Saviour. New Age International (P) Ltd. ISBN 81-224-1245-9.
  38. ^ Sharma, Yogesh. Coastal Histories: Society and Ecology in Pre-modern India. Primus Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-93-80607-00-9.
  39. ^ Omvedt, G.in 1973. Development of the Maharashtrian Class Structure, 1818 to 1931. Economic and Political Weekly, pp.1417-1432..
  40. ^ James, Molesworth, Thomas Candy, Narayan G Kalelkar (1857). Molesworth's, Marathi-English dictionary (2nd ed.). Pune: J.C. Furla, Shubhada Saraswat Prakashan. ISBN 81-86411-57-7.
  41. ^ Chavan, Dilip (2013). Language politics under colonialism : caste, class and language pedagogy in western India (first ed.). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. pp. 136–184. ISBN 978-1443842501. Retrieved 13 December 2016.,
  42. ^ Natarajan, Nalini (editor); Deo, Shripad D. (1996). Handbook of twentieth century literatures of India (1. publ. ed.). Westport, Conn. [u.a.]: Greenwood Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0313287787.
  43. ^ Johnson, Gordon (1973). Provincial Politics and Indian nationalism : Bombay and the Indian National Congress, 1880 - 1915. Cambridge: Univ. Press. p. 92. ISBN 0521202590. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  44. ^ Roy, edited by Ramashray (2007). India's 2004 elections : grass-roots and national perspectives (1. publ. ed.). New Delhi [u.a.]: Sage. p. 87. ISBN 9780761935162. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  45. ^ Kosambi, Meera (Editor); Lane, James (Author) (2000). Intersections : socio-cultural trends in Maharashtra, Chapter 3, A Question of Maharashtrian identity. London: Sangam. pp. 59–70. ISBN 9780863118241.
  46. ^ Ramachandra Guha, "The Other Liberal Light," New Republic 22 June 2012
  47. ^ Hansen, Thomas Blom (2002). Wages of violence : naming and identity in postcolonial Bombay. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0691088402. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  48. ^ Omvedt, G., 1973. Non-Brahmans and Communists in Bombay. Economic and Political Weekly, pp.749-759.
  49. ^ Omvedt, Gail (1974). "Non-Brahmans and Nationalists in Poona". Economic and Political Weekly. 9 (6/8): 201–219. JSTOR 4363419.
  50. ^ Majumdar, Sumit K. (2012), India's Late, Late Industrial Revolution: Democratizing Entrepreneurship, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 1-107-01500-6, retrieved 2013-12-07
  51. ^ Lacina, Bethany Ann (2017). Rival Claims: Ethnic Violence and Territorial Autonomy Under Indian Federalism. Ann arbor, MI, USA: University of Michigan press. p. 129. ISBN 0472130242.
  52. ^ Morris, David (1965). Emergence of an Industrial Labor Force in India: A Study of the Bombay Cotton Mills, 1854-1947. University of California Press. p. 63. ISBN 9780520008854.
  53. ^ Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan (2002). The origins of industrial capitalism in India business strategies and the working classes in Bombay, 1900-1940 (1st pbk. ed.). Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780521525954.
  54. ^ Gugler, edited by Josef (2004). World cities beyond the West : globalization, development, and inequality (Repr. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 334. ISBN 9780521830034.
  55. ^ Watson, James L. (Editor); Benedict, Burton (1980). Asian and African systems of slavery. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. p. 151. ISBN 978-0631110118.
  56. ^ "History of Kolhapur City". Kolhapur Corporation. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  57. ^ Radheshyam Jadhav (30 April 2010). "Samyukta Maharashtra movement". The Times of India. The Times Group. Bennet, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  58. ^ "The Samyukta Maharashtra movement". Daily News and Analysis. Dainik Bhaskar Group. Diligent Media Corporation. 1 May 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  59. ^ Bhagwat, Ramu (3 August 2013). "Linguistic states". The Times of India. The Times Group. Bennet, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  60. ^ Banerjee, S (1997). "The Saffron Wave: The Eleventh General Elections in Maharashtra". Economic and Political Weekly. 32 (40): 2551. doi:10.2307/4405925.
  61. ^ Sirsikar, V.M. (1966). Politics in Maharashtra, Problems and Prospects (PDF). Poona: University of Poona. p. 8.
  62. ^ "Belgaum border dispute". Deccan Chronicle. Deccan Chronicle Holdings Limited. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  63. ^ "The States Reorganisation Act, 1956". Indiankanoon.org. Retrieved 2016-02-27.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

  1. ^ Eaton, Richard M. (2005). The new Cambridge history of India (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 154. ISBN 0-521-25484-1. Retrieved 25 March 2016.