Ryazan Oblast

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from History of Ryazan Oblast)
Jump to: navigation, search
Ryazan Oblast
Рязанская область (Russian)
—  Oblast  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: none[1]
Coordinates: 54°24′N 40°36′E / 54.400°N 40.600°E / 54.400; 40.600Coordinates: 54°24′N 40°36′E / 54.400°N 40.600°E / 54.400; 40.600
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Central[2]
Economic region Central[3]
Established September 26, 1937[4]
Administrative center Ryazan[5]
Government (as of February 2017)
 • Governor[7] Nikolay Lyubimov[6]
 • Legislature Oblast Duma[7]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[8]
 • Total 39,600 km2 (15,300 sq mi)
Area rank 58th
Population (2010 Census)[9]
 • Total 1,154,114
 • Rank 45th
 • Density[10] 29.14/km2 (75.5/sq mi)
 • Urban 70.9%
 • Rural 29.1%
Population (January 2015 est.)
 • Total 1,135,916[11]
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+03:00)[12]
ISO 3166-2 RU-RYA
License plates 62
Official languages Russian[13]
Official website

Ryazan Oblast (Russian: Ряза́нская о́бласть, tr. Ryazanskaya oblast; IPA: [rʲɪˈzanskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ]) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Ryazan, which is the oblast's largest city. Population: 1,154,114 (2010 Census).[9]

Geography[edit]

Geographical position[edit]

The Ryazan Region is located in the center of the European part of Russia, in a decline between the Central Russian and Volga ravines in the central part of the Russian Plain. It stretched for 220 kilometers from north to south and 259 kilometers from west to east. Distance from the Moscow circumferential road to the border of the region - 147 km Ryazan Oblast borders Vladimir Oblast (N), Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (NE), the Republic of Mordovia (E), Penza Oblast (SE), Tambov Oblast (S), Lipetsk Oblast (SW), Tula Oblast (W), and Moscow Oblast (NW).

Relief and geology[edit]

In the northern part - the Meshchera Lowlands (120–125 m), cut along the border with the Vladimir region by the Kasimov moraine ridge (130–136 m), in the Kasimovsky region the ridge ends on the tectonic Oksko-Tsninsky shaft (the highest point is 171 m), stretching across the whole The eastern part of the region in the meridional direction, in the south-west - spurs of the Central Russian Upland (height up to 236 m). The lowest elevation is located on the banks of the Oka at the border with the Vladimir region - 76 meters. In terms of physical geography, Ryazan Oblast lies in the central part of the Russian Plain between the Central Russian and Volga uplands. The terrain is flat, with a highest point of no more than 300 m above sea level. Soils are podzolic and boggy on the left bank of the Oka, changing southward to more fertile podzolic and leached black-earths (chernozyom).

Minerals[edit]

In the humidified plains north of the region and east of the Moksha River and Tsna River, there are significant reserves of high-quality peat. Explored 1062 deposits with a total reserves of 222 million tons.

In the bowels of the south-western part of the region there are layers of brown coal near the coal basin of the Moscow region. Explored 23 deposits of brown coal with a total reserves of 301.6 million tons. The largest available reserves are in Skopinsky District. Coal mining was carried out from the middle of the XIX century (in 1903 the mines produced more than 144 thousand tons of fuel) and was completely discontinued in 1989.

Sapropel reserves in 52 reservoirs amount to 81 million m³.

The region has explored deposits of phosphorites, gypsum, brown iron ore (low quality in the Kasimov area), glass and quartz sands in the Miloslavsky and Kasimovsky districts.

Of the nonmetallic minerals, there are 25 clay and loam deposits (160 million cubic meters), 19 deposits of construction sands (116 million m³), 4 deposits of carbonate rocks for construction lime (118,000 m³), cement limestone in the Mikhailovskoye area, marl deposits.

Climate[edit]

The climate is temperate continental. The average January temperature is -10.6 °C, July +19.7 °C. Precipitation is about 550 mm per year, maximum in summer, 25-30% of all precipitation falls in the form of snow. The vegetation period lasts about 180 days. In the region, six meteorological stations of Roshydromet (current weather stations). The duration of the heating season is 212 days

Hydrography[edit]

The Oka River near Konstantinovo in Rybnovsky District of Ryazan Oblast

Most of the Ryazan Oblast lies within the , with the the principal river of the area. Most of the rivers belong to the Volga basin. The main river of the region is the Oka with tributaries of Pra, Gus, Pronya (with Ranovoi), Pora, Moksha (with Tznoi). In the south of the region are the sources of the Voronezh River (the Don basin).

There are many lakes in the Meshchera Lowlands. A large group of Klepikovski lakes (Velikoye, Ivankovskoye, Shagara, Beloe, etc.) stands out. On the shores of the Oka, there are a lot of lakes.

Vegetation[edit]

The Ryazan region is located in the subtaiga (the left bank of the Oka) and the forest-steppe (right-bank Oka) zones. Forests occupy about 1/3 of the territory, they are pine in the north-west, broad-leaved-pine in the north and southeast. In the south-west are areas of broad-leaved forests. In the extreme south-west - steppe vegetation.

The total area of the forest fund is 1053 thousand hectares, including coniferous species - 590 thousand hectares. The total timber stock is 130 million m³, the estimated felling area is 1.333 million m³.

On the shores of the Oka, Moksha and Tsna grows more than 1 million m3 of oak

flora[edit]

The wild boar, fox, hare, beaver, common squirrel, sony, deer (spotty, noble, maral), roe deer, mole, steppe polecat, American mink, otter, raccoon dog, mink, black polecat, bats, hedgehogs, Marten, shrew, white-tooth, wolf, bear, hare, badger, Russian muskrat, lynx, weasel, ermine, muskrat, Siberian roe deer and others. Of rodents - mice, rats, vole, sony, speckled ground squirrel, flying squirrel. Gophers, hamsters, jerboa

Among the birds there are chirch, mallard, gray duck, falcon, hawk, eagle, white-tailed eagle, blackbirds, woodpeckers, owls, nightingales, pigeons, corncats, seagulls, chibis, sparrows, crows (raven, gray crow), rooks, Finches, goldfinch, swifts, swallows, magpies, jays, Orioles, waxwings, woodcock, waders, geese, black and white storks, heron, bullfinches, tits, quail, partridges.

nature protection[edit]

On the territory of the Ryazan region, 103.5 thousand hectares of specially protected natural areas, including: the Meshchyorsky National Park , the Oka Nature Reserve, 47 reserves, 57 natural monuments.

History[edit]

Human occupation of the area of the Ryazan Oblast dates from at least the Upper Paleolithic period. Volga Finnic tribes occupied the region prior to assimilation and expulsion by the East Slavs, a process virtually completed by the 13th century CE.

The Ryazan area became part of the Kievan Rus' political system, and came under the domination of the Principality of Chernigov (founded in 988). The Principality of Ryazan operated as a separate entity from 1097 to 1521, when the area became part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, though with the Qasim Khanate district retaining some autonomy until the 1550s.

The Ryazan Governorate became separate from the Moscow Governorate in 1796. The present-day Ryazan Oblast, formed out of the Moscow and Voronezh oblasts, dates from 1937.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Economy[edit]

Ryazan Oblast is a part of the Central economic region. The oblast is in an economically favorable geographical location owing to the water and land routes that pass through it and provide stable domestic and foreign economic ties. It is considered both an industrial and agrarian Oblast. The foundations of agriculture in the oblast are livestock farming and plant cultivation. Livestock farming specializes in raising and fattening cattle and breeding pigs, sheep, and poultry. Beekeeping is also well developed in the oblast.

Transportation[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Population: 1,154,114 (2010 Census);[9] 1,227,910 (2002 Census);[14] 1,345,924 (1989 Census).[15]

2012
  • Births: 12 351 (10.8 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 18 723 (16.3 per 1000) [16]
  • Total fertility rate:[17]
    • 2009 - 1.42 | 2010 - 1.44 | 2011 - 1.45 | 2012 - 1.54 | 2013 - 1.55 | 2014 - 1.60 | 2015 - 1.64 | 2016 - 1.70(e)

Ethnic composition (2010):[9]

  • Russians - 95.1%
  • Ukrainians - 0.8%
  • Armenians - 0.5%
  • Mordvins - 0.5%
  • Tatars - 0.5%
  • Azeris - 0.4%
  • Uzbeks - 0.3%
  • Others - 1.9%
  • 74,419 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[18]

Religion[edit]

Circle frame.svg

Religion in Ryazan Oblast (2012)[19][20]

  Unaffiliated Christian (3%)
  Muslim (1%)
  Rodnover (1%)
  Other Orthodox (1%)
  Spiritual but not religious (15%)
  Atheist (9%)
  Other or undeclared (7%)

According to a 2012 official survey[19] 63% of the population of Ryazan Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to church or belonging to non-Russian Orthodox churches, 1% are Muslims, and 1% are adherents of the Rodnovery (Slavic native faith) movement. In addition, 15% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 9% is atheist, and 7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Article 7 of the Charter of Ryazan Oblast states that the oblast may have an anthem, providing a law is adopted to that effect. As of 2015, no such law is in place. The Symbols section on the Ryazan Oblast's official website also does not include an anthem.
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. ^ Resolution of September 26, 1937
  5. ^ Charter of Ryazan Oblast, Article 9
  6. ^ Official website of Ryazan Oblast. Любимов Николай Викторович (Russian)
  7. ^ a b Charter of Ryazan Oblast, Article 27
  8. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  9. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  10. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  11. ^ Ryazan Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Предварительная оценка численности населения на 1 января 2015 г. и в среднем за 2014 год (Russian)
  12. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  13. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  14. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  15. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  16. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2012/demo/edn12-12.htm
  17. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  18. ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  19. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  20. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), August 27, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012.

Sources[edit]

  • Рязанская областная Дума. №115-ОЗ 18 ноября 2005 г. «Устав (Основной Закон) Рязанской области», в ред. Закона №102-ОЗ от 28 декабря 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав (Основной Закон) Рязанской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования (22 ноября 2005 г.). Опубликован: "Рязанские ведомости", №251–252, 22 ноября 2005 г. (Ryazan Oblast Duma. #115-OZ November 18, 2005 Charter (Basic Law) of Ryazan Oblast, as amended by the Law #102-OZ of December 28, 2015 On Amending the Charter (Basic Law) of Ryazan Oblast. Effective as of the day of official publication (November 22, 2005).).
  • Центральный исполнительный комитет СССР. Постановление от 26 сентября 1937 г. «О разделении Московской области на Тульскую, Рязанскую и Московскую области». (Central Executive Committee of the USSR. Resolution of September 26, 1937 On Splitting Moscow Oblast into Tula, Ryazan, and Moscow Oblasts. ).