Shaivism

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Shiva (above) is the primary deity of Shaivism.

Shaivism (IAST: Śaivism) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being or its metaphysical concept of Brahman.[1][2][note 1] The followers of Shaivism are called "Shaivas" or "Saivas".[3] Like much of Hinduism, the Shaiva have many sub-traditions, ranging from devotional dualistic theism such as Shaiva Siddhanta to yoga-oriented monistic non-theism such as Kashmiri Shaivism.[4][5][6] It considers both the Vedas and the Agama texts as important sources of theology.[7][8][9]

Shaivism has ancient roots, traceable in the Vedic literature of 2nd millennium BCE, but this is in the form of the Vedic deity Rudra.[10] The ancient text Shvetashvatara Upanishad dated to late 1st millennium BCE mentions terms such as Rudra, Shiva and Maheshwaram,[11][12] but its interpretation as a theistic or monistic text of Shaivism is disputed.[13][14] In the early centuries of the common era is the first clear evidence of Pāśupata Shaivism.[10] Both devotional and monistic Shaivism became popular in the 1st millennium CE, rapidly becoming the dominant religious tradition of many Hindu kingdoms.[10] It arrived in Southeast Asia shortly thereafter, leading to thousands of Shaiva temples on the islands of Indonesia as well as Cambodia and Vietnam, co-evolving with Buddhism in these regions.[15][16] In the contemporary era, Shaivism is one of the major aspects of Hinduism.[10]

Shaivism theology ranges from Shiva being the creator, preserver, destroyer to being the same as the Atman (self, soul) within oneself and every living being. It is closely related to Shaktism, and some Shaiva worship in Shiva and Shakti temples.[6] It is the Hindu tradition that most accepts ascetic life and emphasizes yoga, and like other Hindu traditions encourages an individual to discover and be one with Shiva within.[4][5][17] Shaivism is one of the largest traditions within Hinduism.[18][19]

Etymology and nomenclature[edit]

Shiva (IAST: śiva, Sanskrit: शिव) literally means kind, friendly, gracious, or auspicious.[20][21] As a proper name, it means "The Auspicious One".[21]

The word Shiva is used as an adjective in the Rig Veda, as an epithet for several Rigvedic deities, including Rudra.[22] The term Shiva also connotes "liberation, final emancipation" and "the auspicious one", this adjective sense of usage is addressed to many deities in Vedic layers of literature.[23][24] The term evolved from the Vedic Rudra-Shiva to the noun Shiva in the Epics and the Puranas, as an auspicious deity who is the "creator, reproducer and dissolver".[23][25]

The Sanskrit word śaiva or Shaiva means "relating to the god Shiva",[26] while the related beliefs, practices, history, literature and sub-traditions constitute Shaivism.[27]

Overview[edit]

The reverence for Shiva is one of the pan-Hindu traditions, found widely across India, Sri Lanka and Nepal.[28][29] While Shiva is revered broadly, Hinduism itself is a complex religion and a way of life, with a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions. It has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic or humanist.[30][31][32]

Shaivism is a major tradition within Hinduism, with a theology that is predominantly related to the Hindu god Shiva. Shaivism has many different sub-traditions with regional variations and differences in philosophy.[33] Shaivism has a vast literature with different philosophical schools, ranging from nondualism, dualism, and mixed schools.[34]

Origins and history[edit]

See also: Shiva
The Pashupati seal from the 3rd millennium BCE Indus Valley civilization.

The origins of Shaivism are unclear and a matter of debate among scholars. Some trace the origins to the Indus Valley civilization, which reached its peak around 2500–2000 BCE.[35][36] Archeological discoveries show seals that suggest a deity that somewhat appears like Shiva. Of these is the "Pashupati seal", which early scholars interpreted as someone seated in a meditating yoga pose surrounded by animals, and with horns.[37] This "Pashupati" (Lord of Animals, Sanskrit paśupati)[38] seal has been interpreted by these scholars as a prototype of Shiva. Gavin Flood characterizes these views as "speculative", saying that it is not clear from the seal if the figure has three faces, or is seated in a yoga posture, or even that the shape is intended to represent a human figure.[39][40]

Other scholars state that the Indus Valley script remains undeciphered, and the interpretation of the Pashupati seal is uncertain. According to Srinivasan, the proposal that it is proto-Shiva may be a case of projecting "later practices into archeological findings".[41][42] Similarly, Asko Parpola states that other archaeological finds such as the early Elamite seals dated to 3000-2750 BCE show similar figures and these have been interpreted as "seated bull" and not a yogi, and the bull interpretation is likely more accurate.[40][43]

Vedic evidence[edit]

The Rigveda (~1500–1200 BCE) has the earliest clear mention of Rudra and Shiva in its hymns such as 2.33, 1.43 and 1.114. The text also includes a Satarudriya, an influential hymn with embedded hundred epithets for Rudra, that is cited in many medieval era Shaiva texts as well as recited in major Shiva temples of Hindus in contemporary times. Yet, the Vedic literature only present scriptural theology, but does not attest to the existence of Shaivism.[40]

The Shvetashvatara Upanishad, likely composed before the Bhagavad Gita about the 4th-century BCE, contains the theistic foundations of Shaivism wrapped in a monistic structure. It contains the key terms and ideas of Shaivism, such as Shiva, Rudra, Maheswara, Guru, Bhakti, Yoga, Atman, Brahman and self-knowledge.[40][44]

Emergence of Shaivism[edit]

See also: Rudra and Shiva

According to Gavin Flood, "the formation of Śaiva traditions as we understand them begins to occur during the period from 200 BC to 100 AD."[45] According to Chakravarti, Shiva rose to prominence as he was identified to be the same as Purusha, Rudra, Agni, Indra, Prajāpati, Vāyu, among others.[46]

2nd century CE Kushan coins with one side showing a deity with a bull. Some scholars consider the deity as Shiva because he holds a trident, is in ithyphallic state and next to Nandi bull his mount, as in Shaivism.[47][48][49] Others suggest him to be Zoroastrian Oesho, not Shiva.[48]

Patanjali's Mahābhasya, dated to the 2nd century BCE, mentions the term Shiva-bhagavata in section 5.2.76. Patanjali, while explaining Panini's rules of grammar, states that this term refers to a devotee clad in animal skins and carrying an ayah sulikah (iron spear, trident lance)[50] as an icon representing his god.[51][52][53]

The Mahabharata is another ancient Sanskrit text that mentions Shaiva ascetics, such as in chapters 4.13 and 13.140.[54] Other evidence that is possibly linked to the importance of Shaivism in ancient times are in epigraphy and numismatics, such as in the form of prominent Shiva-like reliefs on Kushan Empire era gold coins. However, this is controversial, as an alternate hypothesis for these reliefs is based on Zoroastrian Oesho. According to Flood, coins dated to the ancient Greek, Saka and Parthian kings who ruled parts of the Indian subcontinent after the arrival of Alexander the Great also show Shiva iconography, but this evidence is weak and subject to competing inferences.[52][55]

The inscriptions found in the Himalayan region, such as those in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal suggest that Shaivism (particularly Pashupata monism) was established in this region during the Mauryas and the Guptas reign of the Indian subcontinent, by the 5th century. These inscriptions have been dated by modern techniques to between 466 and 645 CE.[56]

Puranic Shaivism[edit]

During the Gupta Dynasty (c. 320 - 500 CE) the genre of Purana literature developed in India, and many of these Puranas contain extensive chapters on Shaivism – along with Vaishnavism, Shaktism, Smarta traditions of Brahmins and other topics – suggesting the importance of Shaivism by then.[40][51] The most important Shaiva Puranas of this period include the Shiva Purana and the Linga Purana.[40][55]

Shaiva icons and a Hindu woman praying in River Narmada, Maheshwar, Madhya Pradesh.

In early 7th century the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang (Huen Tsang) visited India and wrote a memoir in Chinese that mentions the prevalence of Shiva temples all over North Indian subcontinent, including in the Hindu Kush region such as Nuristan.[57][58] Between the 5th and 11th century CE, major Shaiva temples had been built in central, southern and eastern regions of the subcontinent, including those at Badami cave temples, Aihole, Elephanta Caves, Ellora Caves (Kailasha, cave 16), Khajuraho, Bhuvaneshwara, Chidambaram, Madurai, Conjeevaram.[57]

Major scholars of competing Hindu traditions from the second half of the 1st millennium CE, such as Adi Shankara of Advaita Vedanta and Ramanuja of Vaishnavism, mention several Shaiva sects, particularly the four groups: Pashupata, Lakulisha, tantric Shaiva and Kapalika. The description is conflicting, with some texts stating the tantric, puranic and Vedic traditions of Shaivism to be hostile to each other while others suggest them to be amicable sub-traditions. Some texts state that Kapalikas reject the Vedas and are involved in extreme experimentation,[note 2] while others state the Shaiva sub-traditions revere the Vedas but are non-Puranic.[61]

South India[edit]

Shaivism was likely the predominant tradition in South India, co-existing with Buddhism and Jainism, before the Vaishnava Alvars launched the Bhakti movement in the 7th-century and influential Vedanta scholars such as Ramanuja developed a philosophical and organizational framework that helped Vaishnava expand. Though both traditions of Hinduism have ancient roots, given their mention in the Epics such as the Mahabharata, Shaivism flourished in South India much earlier.[62]

The Mantramarga of Shaivism, according to Alexis Sanderson, provided a template for the later though independent and highly influential Pancaratrika treatises of Vaishnava. This is evidenced in Hindu texts such as the Isvarasamhita, Padmasamhita and Paramesvarasamhita.[62]

The 7th to 8th-century Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram is a UNESCO World Heritage site. It features thousands of Shaivism-related sculptures.[63]

Along with the Himalayan region stretching from Kashmir through Nepal, the Shaiva tradition in South India has been one of the largest sources of preserved Shaivism-related manuscripts from ancient and medieval India.[64] The region was also the source of Hindu arts, temple architecture, and merchants who helped spread Shaivism into southeast Asia in early 1st millennium CE.[65][66][67]

There are tens of thousands of Hindu temples where Shiva is either the primary deity or reverentially included in anthropomorphic or aniconic form (lingam, or svayambhu).[68][69] Numerous historic Shaiva temples have survived in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.[70] Certain regions have a greater density of Shiva temples, such as in the Thanjavur region of Tamil Nadu, where numerous Shaiva temples were built during the Chola empire era, between 800 and 1200 CE.[citation needed] Gudimallam is the oldest known lingam and has been dated to between 3rd to 1st-century BCE. It is a carved five feet high stone lingam with an anthropomorphic image of Shiva on one side. This ancient lingam is in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh.[71][72][73]

Southeast Asia[edit]

An image collage of 1st millennium CE Shaivism icons and temples from Southeast Asia (top left): Shiva in yoga pose, Nandi, Prambanan temple, Yoni-Linga and Hindu temple layout.

Shaivism arrived in a major way in southeast Asia from south India, and to much lesser extent into China and Tibet from the Himalayan region. It co-developed with Buddhism in this region, in many cases.[65] For example, in the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas, a few caves include Shaivism ideas.[74][note 3] The epigraphical and cave arts evidence suggest that Shaiva Mahesvara and Mahayana Buddhism had arrived in Indo-China region in the Funan period, that is in the first half of the 1st millennium CE.[66][67] In Indonesia, temples at archaeological sites and numerous inscription evidence dated to the early period (400 to 700 CE), suggest that Shiva was the highest god. This co-existence of Shaivism and Buddhism in Indonesian islands continued through about 1500 CE when both Hinduism and Buddhism were replaced with Islam.[76]

Beliefs and practices[edit]

Shaivism centers around Shiva, but it has many sub-traditions whose theological beliefs and practices vary significantly. They range from dualistic devotional theism to monistic meditative discovery of Shiva within oneself. Within each of these theologies, there are two sub-groups. One sub-group is called Vedic-Puranic, who use the terms such as "Shiva, Mahadeva, Maheshvara and others" synonymously, and they use iconography such as the Linga, Nandi, Trishula (trident), as well as anthromorphic statues of Shiva in temples to help focus their practices.[77] Another sub-group is called esoteric, which fuses it with abstract Sivata (feminine energy) or Sivatva (neuter abstraction), wherein the theology integrates the goddess (Shakti) and the god (Shiva) with Tantra practices and Agama teachings. There is a considerable overlap between these Shaivas and the Shakta Hindus.[77]

Vedic, puranic and esoteric Shavism[edit]

Scholars such as Alexis Sanderson discuss Shaivism in three categories: vedic, puranic and non-puranic (esoteric, tantric).[78][79] They place Vedic and Puranic together given the significant overlap, while placing Non-Puranic esoteric sub-traditions as a separate category.[79]

Two female Shaiva ascetics (18th century painting)
  • Vedic-Puranic. The majority within Shaivism follow the Vedic-Puranic traditions. They revere the Vedas, the Puranas and have beliefs that span dualistic theism style Shiva Bhakti (devotionalism) to monistic non-theism dedicated to yoga and meditative lifestyle sometimes with renouncing householder life for monastic pursuits of spirituality.[80] The Yoga practice is particularly pronounced in nondualistic Shaivism, with the practice refined into a methodology such as four-fold upaya: being pathless (anupaya, iccha-less, desire-less), being divine (sambhavopaya, jnana, knowledge-full), being energy (saktopaya, kriya, action-full) and being individual (anavopaya).[81][note 4]
  • Non-Puranic. These are esoteric, minority sub-traditions wherein devotees are initiated (dīkṣa) into a specific cult they prefer. Their goals vary, ranging from liberation in current life (mukti) to seeking pleasures in higher worlds (bhukti). Their means also vary, ranging from meditative atimarga or "outer higher path" versus those who means is recitation-driven mantras. The atimarga sub-traditions include Pashupatas and Lakula. According to Sanderson, the Pashupatas[note 5] have the oldest heritage, likely from the 2nd century CE, as evidenced by ancient Hindu texts such as the Shanti Parva book of the Mahabharata epic.[78][79] The tantric sub-tradition in this category is traceable to post-8th to post-11th century depending on the region of Indian subcontinent, paralleling the development of Buddhist and Jain tantra traditions in this period.[82] Among these are the dualistic Saiva Siddhanta and Bhairava Shaivas (non-Saiddhantika), based on whether they recognize any value in vedic orthopraxy.[83] These sub-traditions cherish secrecy, special symbolic formulae, initiation by a teacher and the pursuit of siddhi (special powers). Some of these traditions also incorporate theistic ideas, elaborate geometric yantra with embedded spiritual meaning, mantras and rituals.[82][84][85]

Shaivism versus other Hindu traditions[edit]

Shaivism sub-traditions subscribe to various philosophies, are similar in some aspects and differ in others. These traditions compare with Vaishnavism, Shaktism and Smartism as follows:

Comparison of Shaivism with other traditions
Shaiva Traditions Vaishnava Traditions Shakta Traditions Smarta Traditions References
Scriptural authority Vedas, Upanishads and Agamas Vedas, Upanishads and Agamas Vedas and Upanishads Vedas and Upanishads [86][87]
Supreme deity god Shiva god Vishnu goddess Devi None [88][89]
Creator Shiva Vishnu Devi Brahman principle [88][90]
Avatar Minor Key concept Significant Minor [86][91][92]
Monastic life Recommends Accepts Accepts Recommends [86][93][94]
Rituals, Bhakti Optional Affirms Affirms Optional[95] [96]
Ahimsa and Vegetarianism Optional Affirms Optional Recommends, Optional [97][98]
Free will, Maya, Karma Affirms Affirms Affirms Affirms [88]
Metaphysics Brahman (Shiva) and Atman (Soul, Self) Brahman (Vishnu), Atman Brahman (Devi), Atman Brahman, Atman [88]
Epistemology
(Pramana)
1. Perception
2. Inference
3. Reliable testimony
4. Self-evident[99]
1. Perception
2. Inference
3. Reliable testimony
1. Perception
2. Inference
3. Reliable testimony
1. Perception
2. Inference
3. Comparison and analogy
4. Postulation, derivation
5. Negative/cognitive proof
6. Reliable testimony
[100][101][102]
Philosophy Dvaita, qualified advaita, advaita Dvaita, qualified advaita, advaita Shakti-advaita Advaita [103][104]
Salvation
(Soteriology)
Jivanmukta,
Shiva is soul,
Yoga, champions monastic life
Videhamukti, Yoga,
champions householder life
Bhakti, Tantra, Yoga Jivanmukta, Advaita, Yoga,
champions monastic life
[105][106]

Texts[edit]

Shaiva manuscripts that have survived
(post-8th century)

Nepal and Himalayan region = 140,000
South India = 8,600
Others (Devanagiri) = 2,000
Bali and SE Asia = Many

—Alexis Sanderson, The Saiva Literature[64][107]

Over its history, Shaivism has been nurtured by numerous texts ranging from scriptures to theological treatises. These include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Agamas, and the Bhasya. According to Gavin Flood – a professor at Oxford University specializing in Shaivism and phenomenology, Shaiva scholars developed a sophisticated theology, in its diverse traditions.[108] Among the notable and influential commentaries by dvaita (dualistic) theistic Shaivism scholars were the 8th century Sadyajoti, the 10th century Ramakantha, 11th century Bhojadeva.[108] The dualistic theology was challenged by the numerous scholars of advaita (nondualistic, monistic) Shaivism persuasion such as the 8th/9th century Vasugupta,[note 6] the 10th century Abhinavagupta and 11th century Kshemaraja, particularly the scholars of the Pratyabhijna, Spanda and Kashmiri Shaivism schools of theologians.[108][110][111]

Vedas and Principal Upanishads[edit]

The Vedas and Upanishads are shared scriptures of Hinduism, while the Agamas are sacred texts of specific sub-traditions.[8] The surviving Vedic literature can be traced to the 1st millennium BCE and earlier, while the surviving Agamas can be traced to 1st millennium of the common era.[8] The Vedic literature, in Shaivism, is primary and general, while Agamas are special treatise. In terms of philosophy and spiritual precepts, no Agama that goes against the Vedic literature, states Mariasusai Dhavamony, will be acceptable to the Shaivas.[8] According to David Smith, "a key feature of the Tamil Saiva Siddhanta, one might almost say its defining feature, is the claim that its source lies in the Vedas as well as the Agamas, in what it calls the Vedagamas".[7] This school's view can be summed as,

The Veda is the cow, the true Agama its milk.

— Umapati, Translated by David Smith[7]

The Śvetāśvatara Upanishad (400 - 200 BCE)[112] is the earliest textual exposition of a systematic philosophy of Shaivism.[113]

Shaiva minor Upanishads[edit]

Shaivism-inspired scholars authored 14 Shiva-focussed Upanishads that are called the Shaiva Upanishads.[114] These are considered part of 95 minor Upanishads in the Muktikā Upanishadic corpus of Hindu literature.[114][115] The earliest among these were likely composed in 1st millennium BCE, while the last ones in the late medieval era.[116]

The Shaiva Upanishads present diverse ideas, ranging from bhakti-style theistic dualism themes to a synthesis of Shaiva ideas with Advaitic (nondualism), Yoga, Vaishnava and Shakti themes.[117]

Shaivism Upanishads
Shaiva Upanishad Composition date Topics Reference
Kaivalya Upanishad 1st millennium BCE Shiva, Atman, Brahman, Sannyasa, Self-knowledge [118][119][120]
Atharvashiras Upanishad 1st millennium BCE Rudra, Atman, Brahman, Om, monism [121][122][123]
Atharvashikha Upanishad 1st millennium BCE Shiva, Om, Brahman, chanting, meditation [124]
Brihajjabala Upanishad Late medieval, post-12th century Shiva, sacred ash, prayer beads, Tripundra tilaka [125]
Kalagni Rudra Upanishad Unknown Meaning of Tripundra (three lines tilaka), Ritual Shaivism [126][127]
Dakshinamurti Upanishad Unknown Dakshinamurti as an aspect of Shiva, Atman, monism [128]
Sharabha Upanishad Unknown Shiva as Sharabha [129]
Akshamalika Upanishad Late medieval, post-12th century AD Rosary, japa, mantras, Om, Shiva, symbolism in Shaivism iconography [130]
Rudrahridaya Upanishad Unknown Rudra-Uma, Male-Female are inseparable, nondualism [131]
Bhasmajabala Upanishad Late medieval, post-12th century Shiva, sacred ash, body art, iconography, why rituals and Varanasi are important [132][133]
Rudrakshajabala Upanishad After 10th century Shiva, Bhairava, Rudraksha beads and mantra recitation [114]
Ganapati Upanishad 16th or 17th century Ganesha, Shiva, Brahman, Atman, Om, Satcitananda [134]
Pancabrahma Upanishad About 7th century AD Shiva, Sadashiva, nondualism, So'ham, Atman, Brahman, self-knowledge [135][136]
Jabali Upanishad unknown Shiva, Pashupata theology, significance of ash and body art [137]

Shaiva Agamas[edit]

The Agama texts of Shaivism are another important foundation of Shaivism theology.[138] These texts include Shaiva cosmology, epistemology, philosophical doctrines, precepts on meditation and practices, four kinds of yoga, mantras, meanings and manuals for Shaiva temples, and other elements of practice.[139][140] These canonical texts exist in Sanskrit[139] and in south Indian languages such as Tamil.[141]

The Agamas present a diverse range of philosophies, ranging from theistic dualism to absolute monism.[142][143] In Shaivism, there are ten dualistic (dvaita) Agama texts, eighteen qualified monism-cum-dualism (bhedabheda) Agama texts and sixty four monism (advaita) Agama texts.[9] The Bhairava Shastras are monistic, while Shiva Shastras are dualistic.[144][145]

The Agama texts of Shaiva and Vaishnava schools are premised on existence of Atman (soul, self) and the existence of an Ultimate Reality (Brahman which is consider identical to Shiva in Shaivism.[5] The texts differ in the relation between the two. Some assert the dualistic philosophy of the individual soul and Ultimate Reality being different, while others state a Oneness between the two.[5] Kashmir Shaiva Agamas posit absolute oneness, that is God (Shiva) is within man, God is within every being, God is present everywhere in the world including all non-living beings, and there is no spiritual difference between life, matter, man and God.[5] While Agamas present diverse theology, in terms of philosophy and spiritual precepts, no Agama that goes against the Vedic literature, states Dhavamony, has been acceptable to the Shaivas.[8]

Sub-traditions[edit]

Shaivism is ancient, and over time it developed many sub-traditions. These are broadly studied in three groups: theistic dualism, nontheistic monism, and those that combine features or practices of the two.[146]

Theism[edit]

In theistic dialism sub-traditions of Shaivism, Shiva is envisioned as separate supreme, all living beings and nature separate and derived from him.[146][147]

Shaiva Siddhanta[edit]

Shaiva Siddhanta: has been a devotional theistic Shaiva tradition, with its own religious and philosophical texts, more common in South India which worships Shiva as supreme.[148] The tradition emphasizes loving devotion to Shiva, uses 5th to 9th-century hymns called Tirumurai. A key philosophical text of this sub-tradition was composed by 13th-century Meykandar.[148] This theology presents three universal realities: the pashu (individual soul), the pati (lord, Shiva), and the pasha (soul’s bondage) through ignorance, karma and maya. The tradition teaches ethical living, service to the community and through one's work, loving worship, yoga practice and discipline, continuous learning and self-knowledge as means for liberating the individual soul from bondage.[148][149]

The philosophy of Shaiva Siddhanta, is particularly popular in south India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Singapore.[150] The tradition may have originated in Kashmir where it developed a sophisticated theology propagated by theologians Sadyojoti, Bhatta Nārāyanakantha and his son Bhatta Rāmakantha (c. 950–1000).[151]

Nayanmars[edit]

By the 7th century, the Nayanmars, a tradition of poet-saints in the bhakti tradition developed in South India with a focus on Shiva, comparable to that of the Vaisnava Alvars.[152] The devotional poems of the Nayanmars are divided into eleven collections together known as "Thirumurai", along with a Tamil Purana called the "Perilya puranam". The first seven collections are known as the Thevaram and are regarded by Tamils as equivalent to the Vedas.[153] They were composed in the 7th century by Sambandar, Appar, and Sundarar.[154]

1008 Lingas carved in Hampi on a rock surface during Vijayanagara Empire era, India.

Tirumular (also spelled Tirumūlār or Tirumūlar), the author of the Tirumantiram (also spelled Tirumandiram) is considered by Tattwananda to be the earliest exponent of Shaivism in Tamil areas.[155] Tirumular is dated as 7th or 8th century by Maurice Winternitz.[156] The Tirumantiram is a primary source for the system of Shaiva Siddhanta, being the tenth book of its canon.[157] The Tiruvacakam by Manikkavacagar is an important collection of hymns.[158]

Tantric Shaivism[edit]

Shaivism has sub-traditions that are esoteric, tantric. These provide the normative rites, cosmology and theological categories of tantric Shaivism.[159] These are dualistic theism, and contrast with Shaivism ideas of Thirumular and his paramparai (guru lineage) which is strictly non-dualistic, and proclaims the soul to be at all times one with Shiva.[160] This tradition was once practiced all over India. For example, the theologians Sadyojoti, Bhatta Nārāyanakantha and his son Bhatta Rāmakantha (ca. 950-1000 AD) developed a sophisticated Siddhanta theology in Kashmir.[151] However, after the arrival of Islamic rulers in north India, it thrived in the south.[161]

Region more Shaiva Siddhanta is found

A part of this older tradition evolved with the bhakti poetry of the Nayanars (600 C.E. and 1100 C.E) and continues in the contemporary times to be significant in the Southern regions of India.[162] According to Gavin Flood, in Tamil Nadu, the Shaiva tantra tradition co-exists with a separate and distinct Vaishnava tantra tradition, but in Kerala's Hindu tantra tradition, Shiva is co-worshipped with Vishnu, Ganesha and other deities.[163]

Monism[edit]

Region more Shiva Advaita is found

Shaivism has had strong nondualistic (advaita) sub-traditions.[164][165] Its central premise has been that the Atman (soul, self) of every being is identical to Shiva, its various practices and pursuits directed at understanding and being one with the Shiva within. This monism is close but differs somewhat from the monism found in Advaita Vedanta of Adi Shankara. Unlike Shankara's Advaita, Shaivism monist schools consider Maya as Shakti, or energy and creative primordial power that explains and propels the existential diversity.[164] Srikantha (ca 1050) formulated Shiva Vishishtadvaita.[citation needed] In this theology, Atman (soul) is not identical with Brahman, but shares with the Supreme all excellent qualities. Appaya Dikshita (1554–1626), an Advaita scholar, proposed pure monism, and his ideas influenced Shaiva in the Karnataka region.[citation needed]

Kashmir Shaivism[edit]

Region more Kashmir Shaivism is found

Kashmir Shaivism is an influential tradition within Shaivism that emerged in Kashmir in the 1st millennium CE and thrived in early centuries of the 2nd millennium before the region was overwhelmed by the Islamic invasions from the Hindu Kush region.[166] It consists of several monistic and tantric-theistic religious sub-traditions. The Kashmir Shaivism traditions became nearly extinct except for their preservation by Kashmiri Pandits.[167][168]

The Kashmir Shaivism is distinct from the dualistic Shaiva Siddhānta tradition that also existed in medieval Kashmir. A notable philosophy of monistic Kashmiri Shaivism has been the Pratyabhijnā ideas, particularly those by the 10th century scholar Utpaladeva and 11th century Abhinavagupta and Kshemarāja.[169] Their works established the Shaiva theology and philosophy in an advaita (monism) framework.[167][170] The Siva Sutras of 9th century Vasugupta and his ideas about Spanda have also been influential to this and other Shaiva sub-traditions, but it is probable that much older Shaiva texts once existed.[170][171] Another notable feature of Kashmir Shaivism was its openness and integration of ideas from Shaktism, Vaishnavism and Vajrayana Buddhism.[167] For example, one sub-tradition of Kashmir Shaivism adopts Goddess worship (Shaktism) by stating that the approach to god Shiva is through goddess Shakti. Another idea of this school was Trika, or modal triads of Shakti and cosmology as developed by Somananda in early 10th century.[167][172]

Kashmir Shaivism co-existed with the dualistic Shaiva Siddhanta in north India and Himalayan region.[173][170]

Pashupata Shaivism[edit]

Region more Pashupata Shaivism is found

Pashupata Shaivism: The Pashupatas (Sanskrit: Pāśupatas) are the oldest named Shaivite group.[174] The Pashupatas were ascetics.[175] Noted areas of influence (clockwise) include Gujarat, Kashmir and Nepal.[citation needed] But there is plentiful evidence of the existence of Pāśupata groups in every area of the Indian subcontinent. In the far South, for example, a dramatic farce called the Mattavilāsanaprahasana ascribed to a seventh-century Pallava king centres around a Pāśupata ascetic in the city of Kāñcīpuram who mistakes a Buddhist mendicant's begging bowl for his own skull-bowl. Inscriptions of comparable date in various parts of South East Asia attest to the spread of Pāśupata forms of Śaivism before the arrival there of tantric schools such as the Shaiva Siddhanta.[176]

Nath[edit]

Nath: a Shaiva subtradition that emerged from a much older Siddha tradition based on Yoga.[177] The Nath consider Shiva as "Adinatha" or the first guru, and it has been a small but notable and influential movement in India whose devotees were called "Yogi or Jogi", given their monastic unconventional ways and emphasis on Yoga.[178][179][180]

Nath theology integrated philosophy from Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism traditions. Their unconventional ways challenged all orthodox premises, exploring dark and shunned practices of society as a means to understanding theology and gaining inner powers. The tradition traces itself to 9th or 10th century Matsyendranath and to ideas and organization developed by Gorakshanath.[177] They combined both theistic practices such as worshipping goddesses and their historic Gurus in temples, as well monistic goals of achieving liberation or jivan-mukti while alive, by reaching the perfect (siddha) state of realizing oneness of self and everything with Shiva.[181][177]

They formed monastic organisations,[177] and some of them metamorphosed into warrior ascetics to resist persecution during the Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent.[182][183][184]

Lingayatism[edit]

Region more Lingayatism is found

Lingayatism, also known as Vira Shaivism: is a distinct Shaivite religious tradition in India.[185][186][187] It was founded by the 12th-century philosopher and statesman Basava and spread by his followers, called Sharanas.[188] Lingayatism emphasizes qualified monism and bhakti (loving devotion) to Shiva, with philosophical foundations similar to those of the 11th–12th-century South Indian philosopher Ramanuja.[185] Its worship is notable for the iconographic form of Ishtalinga, which the adherents wear.[189][190] Large communities of Lingayats are found in the south Indian state of Karnataka and nearby regions.[191][185][192]

They were influential in the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire that reversed the territorial gains of Muslim rulers, after the invasions of the Deccan region first by Delhi Sultanate and later other Sultanates. Langayats consider their scripture to be Basava Purana, which was completed in 1369 during the reign of Vijayanagara ruler Bukka Raya I.[193][194] Lingayat (Veerashaiva) thinkers rejected the custodial hold of Brahmins over the Vedas and the shastras, but they did not outright reject the Vedic knowledge.[195][196] The 13th-century Telugu Virashaiva poet Palkuriki Somanatha, the author of the scripture of Lingayatism, for example asserted, "Virashaivism fully conformed to the Vedas and the shastras."[195][196]

Demography[edit]

There is no census data available on demographic history or trends for Shaivism or other traditions within Hinduism. Estimates vary on the relative number of adherents in Shaivism compared to other traditions of Hinduism. According to a 2010 estimate by Johnson and Grim, the Shaivism tradition is the second largest group with 252 million or 26.6% of Hindus.[18] In contrast, according to Jones and Ryan, Shaivism is the largest tradition of Hinduism.[19]

Shaivism and Buddhism have co-developed in many regions. Above a syncretic image of Yoni-Linga with four reliefs of the Buddha in a Vajrayana temple.

According to Galvin Flood, that Shaivism and Shaktism traditions are difficult to separate, as many Shaiva Hindus revere the goddess Shakti regularly.[197] The denominations of Hinduism, states Julius Lipner, are unlike those found in major religions of the world, because Hindu denominations are fuzzy with individuals revering gods and goddesses polycentrically, with many Shaiva and Vaishnava adherents recognizing Sri (Lakshmi), Parvati, Saraswati and other aspects of the goddess Devi. Similarly, Shakta Hindus revere Shiva and goddesses such as Parvati (such as Durga, Radha, Sita and others) and Saraswati important in Shaiva and Vaishnava traditions.[198]

Influence[edit]

Shiva is a pan-Hindu god and Shaivism ideas on Yoga and as the god of performance arts (Nataraja) have been influential on all traditions of Hinduism.

Shaivism was highly influential in southeast Asia from the late 6th century onwards, particularly the Khmer and Cham kingdoms of Indo-China, and across the major islands of Indonesia such as Sumatra, Java and Bali.[199] This influence on classical Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand continued when Mahayana Buddhism arrived with the same Indians.[200][201] As Bhakti movement ideas spread in the south India, Shaivite devotionalism became a potent movement in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Shaivism was adopted by several ruling Hindu dynasties as the state religion (though other Hindu traditions, Buddhism and Jainism continued in parallel), including the Chola and the Rajputs. A similar trend was witnessed in early medieval Indonesia with the Majapahit empire and pre-Islamic Malaya.[202][203] In the Himalayan Hindu kingdom of Nepal, Shaivism remained a popular form of Hinduism and co-evolved with Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism.

A seated Ardhanarishvara symbolically presenting the feminine Shakti as inseparable part of masculine Shiva.

Shaktism[edit]

The goddess tradition of Hinduism called Shaktism is closely related to Shaivism. In many regions of India, not only did the ideas of Shaivism influence the evolution of Shaktism, Shaivism itself got influenced by it and progressively subsumed the reverence for the divine feminine (Devi) as an equal and essential partner of divine masculine (Shiva).[204] The goddess Shakti in eastern states of India is considered as the inseparable partner of god Shiva. According to Galvin Flood, the closeness between Shaivism and Shaktism traditions is such that these traditions of Hinduism are at times difficult to separate.[197] Some Shaiva worship in Shiva and Shakti temples.[6]

Smarta Tradition[edit]

Shiva is a part of the Smarta Tradition, sometimes referred to as Smartism, another tradition of Hinduism.[205] The Smarta Hindus are associated with the Advaita Vedanta theology, and their practices include an interim step that incorporates simultaneous reverence for five deities, which includes Shiva along with Vishnu, Surya, Devi and Ganesha. This is called the Panchayatana puja. The Smartas thus accept the primary deity of Shaivism as a means to their spiritual goals.[28]

Philosophically, the Smarta tradition emphasizes that all idols (murti) are icons of saguna Brahman, a means to realizing the abstract Ultimate Reality called nirguna Brahman. The five or six icons are seen by Smartas as multiple representations of the one Saguna Brahman (i.e., a personal God with form), rather than as distinct beings.[206][207] The ultimate goal in this practice is to transition past the use of icons, then follow a philosophical and meditative path to understanding the oneness of Atman (soul, self) and Brahman (metaphysical reality) – as "That art Thou".[205][208][209]

Panchayatana puja that incorporates Shiva became popular in medieval India and is attributed to 8th century Adi Shankara,[208][205] but archaeological evidence suggests that this practice long predates the birth of Adi Shankara. Many Panchayatana mandalas and temples have been uncovered that are from the Gupta Empire period, and one Panchayatana set from the village of Nand (about 24 kilometers from Ajmer) has been dated to belong to the Kushan Empire era (pre-300 CE).[210] According to James Harle, major Hindu temples from 1st millennium CE commonly embedded the pancayatana architecture, from Odisha to Karnataka to Kashmir. Large temples often present multiple deities in the same temple complex, while some explicitly include fusion deities such as Harihara (half Shiva, half Vishnu).[209]

Vaishnavism[edit]

Shaivism iconography in Cambodia, at Kbal Spean river site. As in India, the site also co-features Vaishnavism-related iconography.[211]

Vaishnava Puranas and other texts reverentially mention Shiva. For example, the Vishnu Purana primarily focuses on the theology of Hindu god Vishnu and his avatars such as Krishna, but it praises Brahma and Shiva and asserts that they are one with Vishnu.[212] Reverential inclusion of Shaiva ideas and iconography are very common in major Vaishnava temples, such as Dakshinamurti symbolism of Shaiva thought is often enshrined on the southern wall of the main temple of major Vaishnava temples in peninsular India.[213]

Sauraism (Sun deity)[edit]

The sun god called Surya is an ancient deity of Hinduism, and several ancient Hindu kingdoms particularly in the northwest and eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent revered Surya. These devotees called Sauras once had a large corpus of theological texts, and Shaivism literature reverentially acknowledges these.[214] For example, the Shaiva text Srikanthiyasamhita mentions eighty five Saura texts, almost all of which are believed to have been lost during the Indo-Islamic invasion and rule period, except for large excerpts found embedded in Shaiva manuscripts discovered in the Himalayan mountains. Shaivism incorporated Saura ideas, and the surviving Saura manuscripts such as Saurasamhita acknowledge the influence of Shaivism, according to Alexis Sanderson, assigning "itself to the canon of Shaiva text Vathula-Kalottara.[214]

Yoga movements[edit]

Many Shaiva temples present Shiva in yoga pose.

Yoga and meditation has been an integral part of Shaivism. Many major Shiva temples and Shaiva tritha (pilgrimage) centers depict anthropomorphic iconography of Shiva as a giant statue wherein Shiva is a loner yogi meditating,[215] as do Shaiva texts.[216]

Many Yoga-emphasizing Shaiva traditions emerged in medieval India, who refined yoga methods such as by introducing Hatha Yoga techniques. One such movement had been the Nath Yogis, a Shaivism sub-tradition that integrated philosophy from Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism traditions. It was founded by Matsyendranath and further developed by Gorakshanath.[217][218][180] The texts of these Yoga emphasizing Hindu traditions present their ideas in Shaiva context.[note 7]

Dancing Shiva Nataraja at the 6th century Badami cave temples.

Hindu performance arts[edit]

Shiva is the lord of dance and dramatic arts in Hinduism.[220][221][222] This is celebrated in Shaiva temples as Nataraja, which typically shows Shiva dancing in one of the poses in the ancient Hindu text on performance arts called the Natya Shastra.[221][223][224]

Dancing Shiva as a metaphor for celebrating life and arts is very common in ancient and medieval Hindu temples. For example, it is found in Badami cave temples, Ellora Caves, Khajuraho, Chidambaram and others. The Shaiva link to the performance arts is celebrated in Indian classical dances such as Bharatanatyam and Chhau.[225][226][227]

Buddhism[edit]

Buddhism and Shaivism have interacted and influenced each other since ancient times, in both South Asia and Southeast Asia. Their Siddhas and esoteric traditions, in particular, have overlapped to an extent where Buddhists and Hindus would worship in the same temple such as in the Seto Machindranath. In southeast Asia, the two traditions were not presented in competitive or polemical terms, rather as two alternate paths that lead to the same goals of liberation, with theologians disagreeing which of these is faster and simpler.[228] Scholars disagree whether a syncretic tradition emerged from Buddhism and Shaivism, or it was a coalition with free borrowing of ideas, but they agree that the two traditions co-existed peacefully.[229]

The earliest evidence of a close relationship between Shaivism and Buddhism comes from the archaeological sites and damaged sculptures from the northwest Indian subcontinent, such as Gandhara. These are dated to about the 1st-century CE, with Shiva depicted in Buddhist arts.[230][note 8] The Buddhist Avalokiteshvara is linked to Shiva in many of these arts,[231] but in others Shiva is linked to Bodhisattva Maitreya with he shown as carrying his own water pot like Vedic priests.[230] According to Richard Blurton, the ancient works show that the Bodhisattva of Compassion in Buddhism has many features in common with Shiva in Shaivism.[231]

Jainism[edit]

Jainism co-existed with Shaiva culture since ancient times, particularly in western and southern India where it received royal support from Hindu kings of Chaulukya, Ganga and Rashtrakuta dynasties.[232] In late 1st millennium CE, Jainism too developed a Shaiva-like tantric ritual culture with Mantra-goddesses.[232][233] These Jain rituals were aimed at mundane benefits using japas (mantra recitation) and making offerings into Homa fire.[232]

According to Alexis Sanderson, the link and development of Shaiva goddesses into Jaina goddess is more transparent than a similar connection between Shaivism and Buddhism.[234] The 11th-century Jain text ‘’Bhairavapadmavatikalpa’’, for example, equates Padmavati of Jainism with Tripura-bhairavi of Shaivism and Shaktism. Among the major goddesses of Jainism that are rooted in Hindu pantheon, particularly Shaiva, include Lakshmi and Vagishvari (Sarasvati) of the higher world in Jain cosmology, Vidyadevis of the middle world, and Yakshis such as Ambika, Cakreshvari, Padmavati and Jvalamalini of the lower world according to Jainism.[232]

Shaiva-Shakti iconography is found in major Jain temples. For example, the Osian temple of Jainism near Jodhpur features Chamunda, Durga, Sitala and a naked Bhairava.[235] While Shaiva and Jain practices had considerable overlap, the interaction between Jain community and Shaiva community differed on the acceptance of ritual animal sacrifices before goddesses. Jain remained strictly vegetarian and avoided animal sacrifice, while Shaiva accepted the practice.[236]

Temples and pilgrimage[edit]

Major Shaiva Hindu temple sites. Orange markers are UNESCO world heritage sites.

Shaiva Puranas, Agamas and other regional literature refer to temples by various terms such as Mandir, Shivayatana, Shivalaya, Shambhunatha, Jyotirlingam, Shristhala, Chattraka, Bhavaggana, Bhuvaneshvara, Goputika, Harayatana, Kailasha, Mahadevagriha, Saudhala and others.[237] In Southeast Asia Shaiva temples are called Candi (Java),[238] Pura (Bali),[239] and Wat (Cambodia and nearby regions).[240][241]

Many of the Shiva-related pilgrimage sites such as Varanasi, Amarnath, Kedarnath, Somnath and others are broadly considered holy in Hinduism. They are called kṣétra (Sanskrit: क्षेत्र[242]). A kṣétra has many temples, including one or more major ones. These temples and its location attracts pilgrimage called tirtha (or tirthayatra).[243]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Along with Vaishnavism, Shaktism, and Smartism
  2. ^ Kapalikas are alleged to smear their body with ashes from the cremation ground, revered the fierce Bhairava form of Shiva, engage in rituals with blood, meat, alcohol, and sexual fluids. However, states David Lorenzen, there is a paucity of primary sources on Kapalikas, and historical information about them is available from fictional works and other traditions who disparage them.[59][60]
  3. ^ The Dunhuang caves in north China built from 4th century onwards are predominantly about the Buddha, but some caves show the meditating Buddha with Hindu deities such as Shiva, Vishnu, Ganesha and Indra.[75]
  4. ^ There is an overlap in this approach with those found in non-puranic tantric rituals.[81]
  5. ^ Pashupatas have both Vedic-Puranic and non-Puranic sub-traditions.[79]
  6. ^ Vasugupta is claimed by two Advaita (Monistic) Shaivism sub-traditions to be their spiritual founder.[109]
  7. ^ For example:

    [It will] be impossible to accomplish one's functions unless one is a master of oneself.
    Therefore strive for self-mastery, seeking to win the way upwards.
    To have self-mastery is to be a yogin (yogitvam). [v. 1-2]
    [...]
    Whatever reality he reaches through the Yoga whose sequence I have just explained,
    he realizes there a state of consciousness whose object is all that that pervades.
    Leaving aside what remains outside he should use his vision to penetrate all [within].
    Then once he has transcended all lower realities, he should seek the Shiva level. [v. 51-53]
    [...]
    How can a person whose awareness is overwhelmed by sensual experience stabilize his mind?
    Answer: Shiva did not teach this discipline (sādhanam) for individuals who are not [already] disaffected. [v. 56-57]
    [...]

    — Bhatta Narayanakantha, Mrigendratantra (paraphrased), Transl: Alexis Sanderson[219]
  8. ^ Some images show proto-Vishnu images.[230]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

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  3. ^ Flood 2003, pp. 200-201.
  4. ^ a b Flood 1996, pp. 162–167.
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  6. ^ a b c Flood 2003, pp. 202-204.
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  14. ^ D Srinivasan (1997), Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes, Brill, ISBN 978-9004107588, pages 96-97 and Chapter 9
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  28. ^ a b Flood 1996, pp. 17.
  29. ^ Keay, p.xxvii.
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  34. ^ Tattwananda, p. 54.
  35. ^ For dating as fl. 2300–2000 BCE, decline by 1800 BCE, and extinction by 1500 BCE see: Flood (1996), p. 24.
  36. ^ Flood 2003, pp. 204-205.
  37. ^ For a drawing of the seal see Figure 1 in: Flood (1996), p. 29.
  38. ^ For translation of paśupati as "Lord of Animals" see: Michaels, p. 312.
  39. ^ Flood 1996, p. 28-29.
  40. ^ a b c d e f Flood 2003, p. 204–205.
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  45. ^ Flood 2003, p. 205
  46. ^ Chakravarti 1994, pp. 70-71.
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  52. ^ a b Flood 2003, p. 205.
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  97. ^ Lisa Kemmerer; Anthony J. Nocella (2011). Call to Compassion: Reflections on Animal Advocacy from the World's Religions. Lantern. pp. 27–36. ISBN 978-1-59056-281-9. 
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  103. ^ McDaniel, June (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls. Oxford University Press. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5. 
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  105. ^ Kim Skoog (1996). Andrew O. Fort; Patricia Y. Mumme, eds. Living Liberation in Hindu Thought. SUNY Press. pp. 63–84, 236–239. ISBN 978-0-7914-2706-4. 
  106. ^ Rajendra Prasad (2008). A Conceptual-analytic Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals. Concept. p. 375. ISBN 978-81-8069-544-5. 
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  108. ^ a b c Flood 2003, pp. 223-224.
  109. ^ Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare (2002). The Pratyabhijñā Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–4, 16–18. ISBN 978-81-208-1892-7. 
  110. ^ Mark S. G. Dyczkowski (1987). The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices Associated with Kashmir Shaivism. State University of New York Press. pp. 17–25. ISBN 978-0-88706-431-9. 
  111. ^ Pathak 1960, pp. 11, 51-52.
  112. ^ For dating to 400-200 BCE see: Flood (1996), p. 86.
  113. ^ For Śvetāśvatara Upanishad as a systematic philosophy of Shaivism see: Chakravarti 1994, p. 9.
  114. ^ a b c Ayyangar, TRS (1953). Saiva Upanisads. Jain Publishing Co. (Reprint 2007). ISBN 978-0895819819. 
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  144. ^ JS Vasugupta (2012), Śiva Sūtras, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0407-4, pages 252, 259
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  146. ^ a b Gonda 1977, pp. 154-162.
  147. ^ For an overview of the Shaiva Traditions, see Flood, Gavin, "The Śaiva Traditions", in: Flood (2003), pp. 200-228. For an overview that concentrates on the Tantric forms of Śaivism, see Alexis Sanderson's article Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions, pp.660--704 in The World's Religions, edited by Stephen Sutherland, Leslie Houlden, Peter Clarke and Friedhelm Hardy, London: Routledge, 1988.
  148. ^ a b c Shaiva Siddhanta, Encyclopedia Britannica (2014)
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  150. ^ S. Arulsamy, Saivism – A Perspective of Grace, Sterling Publishers Private Limited, New Delhi, 1987, pp.1
  151. ^ a b Flood 2003, pp. 209-210
  152. ^ For the emergence of the Nayanmars by the 7th century and comparison with Vaisnava Alvars see: Flood (1996), 131.
  153. ^ For eleven collections, with the first seven (the Thevaram) regarded as Vedic, see: Tattwananda, p. 55.
  154. ^ For dating of Sambandar, Appar, and Sundarar as 7th century see: Tattwananda, p. 55.
  155. ^ Tattwananda, p. 55.
  156. ^ Winternitz, p. 588, note 1.
  157. ^ For the Tirumantiram as the tenth book of the Shaiva Siddhanta canon see Brooks, Douglas Renfrew. "Auspicious Fragments and Uncertain Wisdom", in: Harper and Brown, p. 63.
  158. ^ Tattwananda, p. 56.
  159. ^ Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.120
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  162. ^ Flood 1996, pp. 167-168
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  167. ^ a b c d David Peter Lawrence (2012), Kashmiri Shaiva Philosophy, IEP
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  169. ^ Jaideva Singh (1982). Pratyabhijnahrdayam: The Secret of Self-recognition. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 3–5, 14–33. ISBN 978-81-208-0323-7. 
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  172. ^ Paul E. Muller-Ortega (2010). Triadic Heart of Siva, The: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir. State University of New York Press. pp. 7–8, 17–32. ISBN 978-1-4384-1385-3. 
  173. ^ Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.61-66
  174. ^ For the Pāśupatas as the oldest named Śaiva group, see: Flood (2003), p. 206.
  175. ^ For Pāśupata as an ascetic movement see: Michaels (2004), p. 62.
  176. ^ See Alexis Sanderson's Śaivism among the Khmers Part I, pp. 349--462 in the Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient 90--91 (2003--2004).
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  187. ^ Aya Ikegame (2013). Princely India Re-imagined: A Historical Anthropology of Mysore from 1799 to the present. Routledge. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-136-23909-0. 
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  197. ^ a b Gavin Flood (2008). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-470-99868-7. , Quote: "it is often impossible to meaningfully distinguish between Saiva and Sakta traditions".
  198. ^ Julius J. Lipner (2009), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7, pages 40-41, 302-315, 371-375
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  202. ^ Sastri, K.A. Nilakanta. "A Historical Sketch of Saivism", in: Bhattacharyya (1956), Volume IV pages 63 -78.
  203. ^ For more on the subject of Saivite influence on Indonesia, one could read N.J.Krom, Inleiding tot de Hindoe-Javaansche Kunst/Introduction to Hindu-Javanese Art, The Hague, Martinus Nijhof, 1923
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  207. ^ Diana L. Eck (1998). Darśan: Seeing the Divine Image in India. Columbia University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-231-11265-9. 
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  233. ^ Gray 2016, p. 17.
  234. ^ Sanderson 2009, pp. 243-244.
  235. ^ Sanderson 2009, pp. 245-246.
  236. ^ Sanderson 2009, pp. 245-249.
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  242. ^ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, क्षेत्र "sacred spot, place of pilgrimage".
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Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]