History of Sindh

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The history of Sindh refers to the history of the modern-day Pakistani province of Sindh, as well as neighboring regions that periodically came under its sway.

Sindh was the site of one of the Cradle of civilizations, the bronze age Indus Valley civilisation that flourished from about 3000 B.C. and declined rapidly 1,000 years later, following the Indo-Aryan migrations that overran the region in waves between 1500 and 500 B.C.[1] The migrating Indo-Aryan tribes gave rise to the Iron age vedic civilization, which lasted till 500 BC. During this era, the Vedas were composed. In 518 BC, the Achaemenid empire conquered Indus valley and established Hindush satrapy in Sindh. After Alexander the Great's invasion, Punjab became part of the Mauryan Empire. After its decline, Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians and Indo-Parthians ruled in Sindh.

Sindh is sometimes referred to as the Bab-ul Islam (transl. 'Gateway of Islam'), as it was one of the first regions of the Indian subcontinent to fall under Islamic rule. Parts of the modern-day province were intermittently subject to raids by the Rashidun army during the early Muslim conquests, but the region did not fall under Muslim rule until the Arab invasion of Sind occurred under the Umayyad Caliphate, headed by Muhammad ibn Qasim in 712 CE.[2][3] Afterwards, Sindh was ruled by a series of dynasties including Habbaris, Soomras, Sammas, Arghuns and Tarkhans. The Mughal empire conquered Sindh in 1591 and organized it as Subah of Thatta, the first-level imperial division. Sindh again became independent under Kalhora dynasty. The British conquered Sindh in 1843 AD after Battle of Hyderabad from the Talpur dynasty. Sindh became separate province in 1936, and after independence became part of Pakistan.

Sindh is home to two UNESCO-designated World Heritage Sites: the Makli Necropolis and Mohenjo-daro.[4]

Etymology[edit]

The Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great referred to the Indus River as Indós, hence the modern Indus. The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind.[5][6] The word Sindh is a Persian derivative of the Sanskrit term Sindhu, meaning "river" - a reference to Indus River.[7] Southworth suggests that the name Sindhu is in turn derived from Cintu, a Dravidian word for date palm, a tree commonly found in Sindh.[8][9]

The previous spelling "Sind" (from the Perso-Arabic سند) was discontinued in 1988 by an amendment passed in Sindh Assembly,[10] and is now spelt "Sindh."

Bronze age[edit]

Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1300 BC)[edit]

The "Priest King" sculpture is carved from steatite.
The Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-daro.
Excavated ruins of the Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro in Sindh.

Sindh and surrounding areas contain the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilization. There are remnants of thousand-year-old cities and structures, with a notable example in Sindh being that of Mohenjo Daro. Built around 2500 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus civilisation or Harappan culture, with features such as standardized bricks, street grids, and covered sewerage systems.[11] It was one of the world's earliest major cities, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Minoan Crete, and Caral-Supe. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, and the site was not rediscovered until the 1920s. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.[12] The site is currently threatened by erosion and improper restoration.[13]

The cities of the ancient Indus were noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, clusters of large non-residential buildings, and techniques of handicraft and metallurgy.[a] Mohenjo-daro and Harappa very likely grew to contain between 30,000 and 60,000 individuals,[15] and the civilisation may have contained between one and five million individuals during its florescence.[16] A gradual drying of the region during the 3rd millennium BCE may have been the initial stimulus for its urbanisation. Eventually it also reduced the water supply enough to cause the civilisation's demise and to disperse its population to the east.[b]

Iron age (c. 1300 – c. 516 BC)[edit]

Sindhu-Sauvera kingdoms[edit]

The Sindhu-Sauvīra kingdom and the Mahājanapadas in the Post Vedic period

Sindhu-Sauvīra (Sanskrit: Sindhu-Sauvīra; Pāli: Sindhu-Sovīra) was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of western South Asia whose existence is attested during the Iron Age. The inhabitants of Sindu were called the Saindhavas, and the inhabitants of Sauvīra were called Sauvīrakas.

The territory of Sindhu-Sauvīra covered the lower Indus Valley,[17] with its southern border being the Indian Ocean and its northern border being the Pañjāb around Multān.[18]

Sindhu was the name of the inland area between the Indus River and the Sulaiman Mountains, while Sauvīra was the name for the coastal part of the kingdom as well as the inland area to the east of the Indus river as far north as the area of modern-day Multan.[18]

The capital of Sindhu-Sauvīra was named Roruka and Vītabhaya or Vītībhaya, and corresponds to the mediaeval Arohṛ and the modern-day Rohṛī.[18][19][20]

Ancient history[edit]

Achaemenid Era (516–326 BC)[edit]

Eastern territories of the Achaemenid Empire.[21][22][23]

Achaemenid empire may have controlled parts of present-day Sindh as part of the province of Hindush. The territory may have corresponded to the area covering the lower and central Indus basin (present day Sindh and the southern Punjab regions of Pakistan).[24] To the north of Hindush was Gandāra (spelt as Gandāra by the Achaememids). These areas remained under Persian control until the invasion by Alexander.[25]

Alternatively, some authors consider that Hindush may have been located in the Punjab area.[26]

Hellenistic era (326–317 BC)[edit]

Alexander conquered parts of Sindh after Punjab for few years and appointed his general Peithon as governor. Alexander's death gave rise to Seleucid Empire which was defeated by the Mauryan empire.

Mauryan Era (316–180 BC)[edit]

Chandragupta Maurya had established his empire around 320 BC. The early life of Chandragupta Maurya is not clear. Janapadas of Punjab and Sindh, he had gone on to conquer much of the North West. He then defeated the Nanda rulers in Pataliputra to capture the throne. Chandragupta Maurya fought Alexander's successor in the east, Seleucus I Nicator, when the latter invaded. In a peace treaty, Seleucus ceded all territories west of the Indus River and offered a marriage, including a portion of Bactria, while Chandragupta granted Seleucus 500 elephants.[27]

Indo-Greek era (180–90 BC)[edit]

Silver coin depicting Demetrius I of Bactria (reigned c. 200–180 BC), wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquests of areas in what is now Pakistan's Sindh region.

Following a century of Mauryan rule which ended by 180 BC, the region came under the Greco-Bactrians based in what is today Afghanistan and these rulers would also convert to and proliferate Buddhism in the region. The Buddhist city of Siraj-ji-Takri is located along the western limestone terraces of the Rohri Hills in the Sukkur district of Upper Sindh, along the road that leads to Sorah. Its ruins are still visible on the top of three different mesas, in the form of stone and mud-brick walls and small mounds, whilst other architectural remains were observed along the slopes of the hills in the 1980s.

Indo Scythians (90–20 BC)[edit]

Bhanbhore port city dates from 1st century BC from Scytho-Parthian era.

Indo Scythians ruled Sindh for a short period of time until they were thrown out by Kushans.

Kushan Empire (30–375 AD)[edit]

Kushans ruled Sindh and called the land ''Scythia''.[citation needed]

Gupta Empire[edit]

Buddha from Kahu-jo-Daro stupa

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed from the early 4th century CE to late 6th century CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 467 CE, it covered much of the Indian subcontinent.[28] This period is considered as the Golden Age of India by historians.[29][note 1] The ruling dynasty of the empire was founded by the king Sri Gupta; the most notable rulers of the dynasty were Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II, also known as Vikramaditya. The 5th-century CE Sanskrit poet Kalidasa credits the Guptas with having conquered about twenty-one kingdoms, both in and outside India, including the kingdoms of Parasikas, the Hunas, the Kambojas, tribes located in the west and east Oxus valleys, the Kinnaras, Kiratas, and others.[31][32][33]

Sassanian Empire (325–480 AD)[edit]

Gold coins of Sasanian Empire ruler Shapur III (r. 383-388), minted in Sindh, modern Pakistan. Obverse: Portrait of Shapur III, Brahmi script character Śrī Gupta allahabad shrii.jpg ("Lord") in front of the King. Degraded Pahlavi legend around. Reverse: Fire altar with attendants.[34][35]

Sasanian rulers from the reign of Shapur I claimed control of the Sindh area in their inscriptions. Shapur I installed his son Narseh as "King of the Sakas" in the areas of Eastern Iran as far as Sindh.[36] Two inscriptions during the reign of Shapur II mention his control of the regions of Sindh, Sakastan and Turan.[37] Still, the exact term used by the Sasanian rulers in their inscription is Hndy, similar to Hindustan, which cannot be said for sure to mean "Sindh".[34] Al-Tabari mentioned that Shapur II built cities in Sind and Sijistan.[38][39]

Gurjaradesa[edit]

Gurjaradēśa, or Gurjara country, is first attested in Bana's Harshacharita (7th century AD). Its king is said to have been subdued by Harsha's father Prabhakaravardhana (died c. 605 AD).[40] The bracketing of the country with Sindha (Sindh), Lāta (southern Gujarat) and Malava (western Malwa) indicates that the region including the northern Gujarat and Rajasthan is meant.[41]

Rai Dynasty (c. 489 – 632 AD)[edit]

Map of the Rai dynasty, circa 550-600 CE.[42]

The Rai dynasty of Sindh was the first dynasty of Sindh and at its height of power ruled much of the Northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent. The dynasty reigned for a period of 144 years c. 489 - 632 A.D, concurrent with the Huna invasions of North India.[43] The names of rulers might have been corruptions of Sanskrit names — Devaditya, Harsha, and SInhasena.[43][44] The origins of the dynasty, caste status, and how they rose to power remains unknown.[43][44] They apparently had familial ties with other rulers of South Asia including Kashmir, Kabul, Rajasthan, Gujarat etc. — Aror is noted to be the capital of both Hind and Sindh.[43][45] Alexander Cunningham had proposed an alternate chronology (? - >641 A.D.) — primarily on the basis of numismatic and literary evidence[c] — identifying the first two Rais as Hunas and the later three as rulers of Zabulistan and Khorasan.[44][d] However, there exists little historical evidence to favor the proposition of Hunas ever making to Sindh and the individual bases of his hypothesis stands discredited in modern scholarship.[44] Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya supported Cunningham's chronology (? - >641 A.D.) but held the Rais to be descendants of Mauryas and Shudra, by caste.[44][e]

Harsha Empire[edit]

Harshacharitta, a biography written by Banabhatta mentions King Harsha badly defeated the ruler of Sindh and took possession of his fortunes.[46]

Brahmin dynasty (c. 632 – c. 724 AD)[edit]

Territory of the Chach dynasty circa 600-650 CE.[47]

The Brahmin dynasty of Sindh (c. 632– 712),[48] also known as the Chacha dynasty,[49] were the Brahmin Hindu ruling family of the Chacha Empire. The Brahmin dynasty were successors of the Rai dynasty. The dynasty ruled on the Indian subcontinent which originated in the region of Sindh, present-day Pakistan. Most of the information about its existence comes from the Chach Nama, a historical account of the Chach-Brahmin dynasty.

After the Chacha Empire's fall in 712, though the empire had ended, its dynasty's members administered parts of Sindh under the Umayyad Caliphate's Caliphal province of Sind.[48] These rulers include Hullishāh and Shishah.[48]

Medieval era[edit]

Arab Sindh (711–854 AD)[edit]

Map of Arab Sind under the Abbasid Caliphate, c. 750 CE[50]

After the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the Arab expansion towards the east reached the Sindh region beyond Persia. An initial expedition in the region launched because of the Sindhi pirate attacks on Arabs in 711–12, failed.[51][52]

The first clash with the Hindu kings of Sindh took place in 636 (15 A.H.) under Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab with the governor of Bahrain, Uthman ibn Abu-al-Aas, dispatching naval expeditions against Thane and Bharuch under the command of his brother, Hakam. Another brother of his, al-Mughira, was given the command of the expedition against Debal.[53] Al-Baladhuri states they were victorious at Debal but doesn't mention the results of other two raids. However, the Chach Nama states that the raid of Debal was defeated and its governor killed the leader of the raids.[54]

These raids were thought to be triggered by a later pirate attack on Umayyad ships.[55] Uthman was warned by Umar against it who said "O brother of Thaqif, you have put the worm on the wood. I swear, by Allah that if they had been smitten, I would have taken the equivalent (in men) from your families." Baladhuri adds that this stopped any more incursions until the reign of Uthman.[56]

In 712, when Mohammed Bin Qasim invaded Sindh with 8000 cavalry while also receiving reinforcements, Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf instructed him not to spare anyone in Debal. The historian al-Baladhuri stated that after conquest of Debal, Qasim kept slaughtering its inhabitants for three days. The custodians of the Buddhist stupa were killed and the temple was destroyed. Qasim gave a quarter of the city to Muslims and built a mosque there.[57] According to the Chach Nama, after the Arabs scaled Debal's walls, the besieged denizens opened the gates and pleaded for mercy but Qasim stated he had no orders to spare anyone. No mercy was shown and the inhabitants were accordingly thus slaughtered for three days, with its temple desecrated and 700 women taking shelter there enslaved. At Ror, 6000 fighting men were massacred with their families enslaved. The massacre at Brahamanabad has various accounts of 6,000 to 26,000 inhabitants slaughtered.[58]

60,000 slaves, including 30 young royal women, were sent to al-Hajjaj. During the capture of one of the forts of Sindh, the women committed the jauhar and burnt themselves to death according to the Chach Nama.[58] S.A.A. Rizvi citing the Chach Nama, considers that conversion to Islam by political pressure began with Qasim's conquests. The Chach Nama has one instance of conversion, that of a slave from Debal converted at Qasim's hands.[59] After executing Sindh's ruler, Raja Dahir, his two daughters were sent to the caliph and they accused Qasim of raping them. The caliph ordered Qasim to be sewn up in hide of a cow and died of suffocation.[60]

Habbari Arab dynasty (854–1024)[edit]

Map of the Habbarid Emirate circa 900 CE

The third dynasty, Habbari dynasty ruled much of Greater Sindh, as a semi-independent emirate from 854 to 1024. Beginning with the rule of 'Umar bin Abdul Aziz al-Habbari in 854 CE, the region became semi-independent from the Abbasid Caliphate in 861, while continuing to nominally pledge allegiance to the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.[61][62] The Habbari ascension marked the end of a period of direct rule of Sindh by the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates, which had begun in 711 CE. The Habbaris were based in the city of Mansura, and ruled central and southern Sindh south of Aror,[63] near the modern-day metropolis of Sukkur. The Habbaris ruled Sindh until they were defeated by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi in 1026, who then went on to destroy the old Habbari capital of Mansura, and annex the region to the Ghaznavid Empire, thereby ending Arab rule of Sindh.

Ghaznavids[edit]

Some of the territory in Sindh found itself under raids from the Turkic ruler, Mahmud Ghaznavi in 1025, who ended Arab rule of Sindh.[64] During his raids of northern Sindh, the Arab capital of Sindh, Mansura, was largely destroyed.[65]

Soomra dynasty (1011–1333)[edit]

The Soomra dynasty a Sindhi Jat was the fourth dynasty of Sindh that ruled between early 11th century and late 1300s - initially as vassals of the Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad.[66] The Soomra re-established native Sindhi rule over Sindh after a period of several centuries of Arab rule,[67] and extended their rule to Multan and Balochistan.[citation needed]

The tomb of Isa Khan Hussain II dating from Soomra Period at Makli Necropolis

Sindhi culture experienced a revival during Soomra rule, while Arab language and traditions continued to deeply impact Sindh. Under their rule, Shia Ismailism and Sunni Sufism became widespread in Sindh and coexisted peacefully alongside one another.[66] Despite their fall, Soomra culture and traditions continued to deeply impact Sindh for the next several centuries.[68]

Samma dynasty and Delhi sultanate (1333–1520)[edit]

14th to 18th century shows Gujarati, Persian and Mughal architectural influences

The Samma dynasty was a dynasty that ruled over Sindh, parts of Kutch, parts of Punjab and Balochistan in the Indian subcontinent from c. 1351 to c. 1524 AD, with their capital at Thatta as the fifth dynasty of Sindh; before being replaced by the Arghun dynasty. Under the Samma dynasty, Sindh was a vassal of the Delhi sultanate, following the conquest by Firuz Shah Tughlaq, the Turkic ruler of Delhi in 1361–62. Sindh remained a vassal of Delhi until the rule of the Turkic Sayyid dynasty in Delhi.

Jam Nizamuddin II's tomb features a jharoka that displays Gujarati influences. Samma Period

The Samma dynasty has left its mark in Sindh with magnificent structures including the Makli Necropolis of its royals in Thatta.[69][70]

Arghun dynasty (1520–1554)[edit]

The Arghun dynasty were a dynasty of either Mongol,[71] Turkic or Turco-Mongol ethnicity,[72] who ruled over the area between southern Afghanistan, and Sindh from the late 15th century to the early 16th century as the Sindh's sixth dynasty. They claimed their descent and name from Ilkhanid-Mongol Arghun Khan.[73]

Tarkhan dynasty (1554–1591)[edit]

Arghun rule was divided into two branches: the Arghun branch of Dhu'l-Nun Beg Arghun that ruled until 1554, and the Tarkhan branch of Muhammad 'Isa Tarkhan that ruled until 1591 as the seventh dynasty of Sindh.[72]

Early modern era[edit]

Mughal Era (1591–1701)[edit]

Administrative map of Sindh, 1608~1700

Dynasties came and went for several hundred years until the late 16th century, when Sindh was brought into the Mughal Empire by Akbar, himself born in the Hindu Rajput kingdom of Umerkot in Sindh. Mughal rule from their provincial capital of Thatta was to last in lower Sindh until the early 18th century. Upper Sindh was a different picture, however, with the indigenous Kalhora dynasty holding power, consolidating their rule until the mid-18th century, when the Persian sacking of the Mughal throne in Delhi allowed them to grab the rest of Sindh. Akbar, unlike his predecessors, was renowned for his religious freedom.

Early in his reign in 1563, the emperor abolished taxes on Hindu pilgrims and allowed Hindu temples to be built and repaired. In 1564 he abolished the jizya, the tax paid by all non-Muslims.

Kalhora dynasty (1701–1783)[edit]

The Kalhora dynasty was a Sunni dynasty based in Sindh.[74][75][76] This dynasty as the eighth dynasty of Sindh ruled Sindh and parts of the Punjab region between 1701 and 1783 from their capital of Khudabad, before shifting to Hyderabad from 1768 onwards.

Kalhora rule of Sindh began in 1701 when Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro was invested with title of Khuda Yar Khan and was made governor of Upper Sindh sarkar by royal decree of the Mughals.[77] Later, he was made governor of Siwi through imperial decree. He founded a new city Khudabad after he obtained from Aurangzeb a grant of the track between the Indus and the Nara and made it the capital of his kingdom. Thenceforth, Mian Yar Muhammad became one of the imperial agents or governors. Later he extended his rule to Sehwan and Bukkur and became sole ruler of Northern and central Sindh except Thatto which was still under the administrative control of Mughal Empire.[77]

During the rule of Kalhora dynasty Sindh progressed and developed very fast,a few of their landmark achievements are listed below 1- Got digged the network of new canals to irrigate barren land of Sindh,2-they built new city Hyderabad and also made two forts to protect the city from outsider invaders,3-they defined geographical boundaries of Sindh,4-built the mesouleum of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, 5-improved the literature and worked on ordering Sindhi alphabetical latters,6-built many mosques and schools.

Talpur dynasty (1783–1843)[edit]

The Talpur dynasty (Sindhi: ٽالپردور‎; Urdu: سلسله تالپور‎) were rulers based in Sindh, in what is now the modern-day Pakistan. It was the ninth and last of the dynasties of Sindh. Four branches of the dynasty were established following the defeat of the Kalhora dynasty at the Battle of Halani in 1743. one ruled lower Sindh from the city of Hyderabad, another ruled over upper Sindh from the city of Khairpur, a third ruled around the eastern city of Mirpur Khas, and a fourth was based in Tando Muhammad Khan.

Tombs of Talpur Rulers

The Talpurs were ethnically Baloch. They ruled from 1783, until 1843, when they were in turn defeated by the British at the Battle of Miani and Battle of Dubbo.

Modern era[edit]

British Rule (1843–1947)[edit]

The British conquered Sindh in 1843. General Charles Napier is said to have reported victory to the Governor General with a one-word telegram, namely "Peccavi" – or "I have sinned" (Latin).

The British had two objectives in their rule of Sindh: the consolidation of British rule and the use of Sindh as a market for British products and a source of revenue and raw materials. With the appropriate infrastructure in place, the British hoped to utilise Sindh for its economic potential.[78]

The British incorporated Sindh, some years later after annexing it, into the Bombay Presidency. Distance from the provincial capital, Bombay, led to grievances that Sindh was neglected in contrast to other parts of the Presidency. The merger of Sindh into Punjab province was considered from time to time but was turned down because of British disagreement and Sindhi opposition, both from Muslims and Hindus, to being annexed to Punjab.[78]

The British desired to increase their profitability from Sindh and carried out extensive work on the irrigation system in Sindh, for example, the Jamrao Canal project. However, the local Sindhis were described as both eager and lazy and for this reason, the British authorities encouraged the immigration of Punjabi peasants into Sindh as they were deemed more hard-working. Punjabi migrations to Sindh paralleled the further development of Sindh's irrigation system in the early 20th century. Sindhi apprehension of a ‘Punjabi invasion’ grew.[78]

In his backdrop, desire for a separate administrative status for Sindh grew. At the annual session of the Indian National Congress in 1913, a Sindhi Hindu put forward the demand for Sindh's separation from the Bombay Presidency on the grounds of Sindh's unique cultural character. This reflected the desire of Sindh's predominantly Hindu commercial class to free itself from competing with the more powerful Bombay's business interests.[78] Meanwhile, Sindhi politics was characterised in the 1920s by the growing importance of Karachi and the Khilafat Movement.[79] A number of Sindhi pirs, descendants of Sufi saints who had proselytised in Sindh, joined the Khilafat Movement, which propagated the protection of the Ottoman Caliphate, and those pirs who did not join the movement found a decline in their following.[80] The pirs generated huge support for the Khilafat cause in Sindh.[81] Sindh came to be at the forefront of the Khilafat Movement.[82]

Although Sindh had a cleaner record of communal harmony than other parts of India, the province's Muslim elite and emerging Muslim middle class demanded separation of Sindh from Bombay Presidency as a safeguard for their own interests. In this campaign, local Sindhi Muslims identified ‘Hindu’ with Bombay instead of Sindh. Sindhi Hindus were seen as representing the interests of Bombay instead of the majority of Sindhi Muslims. Sindhi Hindus, for the most part, opposed the separation of Sindh from Bombay.[78] Sindh's Hindu and Muslim communities lived in close proximity to each other and extensively influenced each other's culture. Scholars have discussed that it was found that Hindu practices in Sindh differed from orthodox Hinduism in the rest of India. Hinduism in Sindh was to a large extent influenced by Islam, Sikhism and Sufism. Sindh's religious syncretism was a result of Sufism. Sufism was a vital component of Sindhi Muslim identity and Sindhi Hindus, more than Hindus in any other part of India, came under the influence of Sufi thought and practices and the majority of them were murids (followers) of Sufi Muslim saints.[83]

However, both the Muslim landed elite, waderas, and the Hindu commercial elements, banias, collaborated in oppressing the predominantly Muslim peasantry of Sindh who were economically exploited. In Sindh's first provincial election after its separation from Bombay in 1936, economic interests were an essential factor of politics informed by religious and cultural issues.[84] Due to British policies, much land in Sindh was transferred from Muslim to Hindu hands over the decades.[85] Religious tensions rose in Sindh over the Sukkur Manzilgah issue where Muslims and Hindus disputed over an abandoned mosque in proximity to an area sacred to Hindus. The Sindh Muslim League exploited the issue and agitated for the return of the mosque to Muslims. Consequentially, a thousand members of the Muslim League were imprisoned. Eventually, due to panic the government restored the mosque to Muslims.[84]

The separation of Sindh from Bombay Presidency triggered Sindhi Muslim nationalists to support the Pakistan Movement. Even while the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province were ruled by parties hostile to the Muslim League, Sindh remained loyal to Jinnah.[86] Although the prominent Sindhi Muslim nationalist G.M. Syed left the All India Muslim League in the mid-1940s and his relationship with Jinnah never improved, the overwhelming majority of Sindhi Muslims supported the creation of Pakistan, seeing in it their deliverance.[79] Sindhi support for the Pakistan Movement arose from the desire of the Sindhi Muslim business class to drive out their Hindu competitors.[87] The Muslim League's rise to becoming the party with the strongest support in Sindh was in large part linked to its winning over of the religious pir families. Although the Muslim League had previously fared poorly in the 1937 elections in Sindh, when local Sindhi Muslim parties won more seats,[88] the Muslim League's cultivation of support from the pirs and saiyids of Sindh in 1946 helped it gain a foothold in the province.[89]

Partition (1947)[edit]

In 1947, violence did not constitute a major part of the Sindhi partition experience, unlike in Punjab. There were very few incidents of violence on Sindh, in part due to the Sufi-influenced culture of religious tolerance and in part that Sindh was not divided and was instead made part of Pakistan in its entirety. Sindhi Hindus who left generally did so out of a fear of persecution, rather than persecution itself, because of the arrival of Muslim refugees from India. Sindhi Hindus differentiated between the local Sindhi Muslims and the migrant Muslims from India. A large number of Sindhi Hindus travelled to India by sea, to the ports of Bombay, Porbandar, Veraval and Okha.[90]

See Also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Quddus, Syed Abdul (1992). Sindh, the Land of Indus Civilisation. Royal Book Company. ISBN 978-969-407-131-2.
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  4. ^ "Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List (Pakistan)". UNESCO. UNESCO. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
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  14. ^ Wright 2009, pp. 115–125.
  15. ^ Dyson 2018, p. 29 "Mohenjo-daro and Harappa may each have contained between 30,000 and 60,000 people (perhaps more in the former case). Water transport was crucial for the provisioning of these and other cities. That said, the vast majority of people lived in rural areas. At the height of the Indus valley civilization the subcontinent may have contained 4-6 million people."
  16. ^ McIntosh 2008, p. 387: "The enormous potential of the greater Indus region offered scope for huge population increase; by the end of the Mature Harappan period, the Harappans are estimated to have numbered somewhere between 1 and 5 million, probably well below the region's carrying capacity."
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  1. ^ These covered carnelian products, seal carving, work in copper, bronze, lead, and tin.[14]
  2. ^ Brooke (2014), p. 296. "The story in Harappan India was somewhat different (see Figure 111.3). The Bronze Age village and urban societies of the Indus Valley are some-thing of an anomaly, in that archaeologists have found little indication of local defense and regional warfare. It would seem that the bountiful monsoon rainfall of the Early to Mid-Holocene had forged a condition of plenty for all, and that competitive energies were channeled into commerce rather than conflict. Scholars have long argued that these rains shaped the origins of the urban Harappan societies, which emerged from Neolithic villages around 2600 BC. It now appears that this rainfall began to slowly taper off in the third millennium, at just the point that the Harappan cities began to develop. Thus it seems that this "first urbanisation" in South Asia was the initial response of the Indus Valley peoples to the beginning of Late Holocene aridification. These cities were maintained for 300 to 400 years and then gradually abandoned as the Harappan peoples resettled in scattered villages in the eastern range of their territories, into the Punjab and the Ganges Valley....' 17 (footnote):
    (a) Giosan et al. (2012);
    (b) Ponton et al. (2012);
    (c) Rashid et al. (2011);
    (d) Madella & Fuller (2006);
    Compare with the very different interpretations in
    (e) Possehl (2002), pp. 237–245
    (f) Staubwasser et al. (2003)
  3. ^ The end-date arrived as a result of equating Sindhu with the Sin tu kingdom, described in the Great Tang Records on the Western Regions during 641 A.D. Modern scholars reject this claim.
  4. ^ Diwaji and Sahiras were respectively Toramana and Mihirakula. Rai Sahasi was held to be Tegin Shah, Rai Sahiras II to be Vasudeva, and Rai Sahasi II, an anonymous successor.
  5. ^ This descent from Mauryas was proposed on the basis of Rai Mahrit, then ruler of Chittor claiming to be Sahasi II's brother. Rulers of pre-Sisodia Rajasthan usually claimed a descent from Mauryas and this identification went perfectly with Xuanzang's noting the King of Sin-tu to be a Sudra.
  1. ^ Although this characterisation has been disputed by D. N. Jha.[30]

Sources[edit]