History of Telangana
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The history of Telangana, located in the Deccan region, includes its governance by many rulers. It was ruled by the Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE), the Telinga Kakatiya Dynasty (1083–1323), the Musunuri Nayaks (1326–1356) the Delhi Sultanate, the Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1509) and Vijayanagara Empire (1509–1529). Later, the Telangana region became part of the Golconda Sultanate (1529–1687) and Hyderabad State (1724-1948).
On 2 June 2014, Telangana became the 29th state of India, consisting of the thirty-one districts, with Hyderabad as its capital. The city of Hyderabad will continue to serve as the joint capital for Andhra Pradesh and the successor state of Telangana for a period of ten years.
- 1 Early history
- 2 Kakatiya dynasty
- 3 Bahmani and Deccan Sultanates
- 4 Mughal conquest and rule
- 5 Nizams of Hyderabad
- 6 Post-Independence
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
The Satavahanas rose to a political power, after the fall of the Mauryan Empire. Koti Lingala seems to be one of the 30 cities of Satavahana dynasty. Excavations revealed brick wells, coins belonging to a pre-Satavahana period, namely, Gobhada and Samagopa. It is believed that the place is the site of the hermitage of sage Bhavari. Several coins of Simukha, the founder of the Satavahana dynasty, and those of other early rulers like Kanha and Satakarni I were found.
The Deccan, during this period, was an emporium of inland and maritime trade. The region between the rivers of Godavari and Krishna was full of ports and throbbing with activity. There was plentiful of currency to facilitate trade and the people entered upon a period of great industrial, commercial and maritime activity. Buddhism flourished throughout the period and the rulers were also devoted to Vedic ritualism. They constructed several Buddhist Stupas, Viharas and Chaityas. Satavahanas were able rulers and loved literacy and architecture. The 17th ruler of this dynasty, Hāla was a great poet and his “Gathasaptasati” in Prakrit was well received by all. Gunadhya, the minister of Hala was the author of “Brihatkadha”. According to Matsya Purana, there were 29 rulers of this dynasty. They ruled over for about 456 years, from the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD. The empire included most of the southern peninsula and some southern parts of the present Indian states of Maharashtra, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. The court language used by the Satavahanas was Prakrit.
The decline and fall of the Satavahana Empire left the state in a political chaos. Local rulers, as well as invaders, tried to carve out small kingdoms for themselves and to establish many dynasties. Such instability continued to prevail until the rise of the Western Chalukyas.
The 12th and 13th centuries saw the emergence of the Kakatiya dynasty. The Kakatiyas are known for their famous architecture such as Warangal Fort, Ramappa Temple, Thousand Pillar Temple and Kota Gullu.
At first they were feudatories of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani, ruling over a small territory near Warangal. A ruler of this dynasty, Prola II (1110–1158), extended his sway to the south and declared his independence. His successor Rudra (1158–1195) pushed the kingdom to the east up to the Godavari delta. He built Warangal Fort to serve as a second capital and faced the invasions of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri. The next ruler, Mahadeva, extended the kingdom to the coastal area. Ganapati Deva succeeded him in 1199. He was the greatest of the Kakatiyas and the first after the Satavahanas to bring almost the entire Telugu area under one unified empire. Ganapati put an end to the rule of the Velanati Cholas in 1210 and extended his empire to Anakapalle in the north.
The most prominent ruler in this dynasty was Rani Rudrama Devi (1262–1289), one of the few queens in Indian history. An able fighter and ruler, Rudrama defended the kingdom against the Cholas and the Seuna Yadavas, earning their respect. Marco Polo visited India during her reign and made note of her rule in flattering terms.
On the death of Rudrama at the beginning of 1290, her grandson Prataparudra II ascended the throne. Prataparudra had to fight battles throughout his reign against either internal rebels or external foes. Prataparudra expanded his borders to the west to Raichur and in the south to Ongole and the Nallamala Hills, whilst introducing many administrative reforms, some of which were also later adopted in the Vijayanagar empire.
In 1309, the Sultan of Delhi, Alauddin Khilji sent his general Malik Kafur on an expedition to the Kakatiya kingdom. Kafur's army reached the Kakatiya capital Warangal in January 1310, and breached its outer fort after a month-long siege. The Kakatiya ruler Prataparudra decided to surrender and agreed to pay tribute. Kafur returned to Delhi in June 1310 with a huge amount of wealth obtained from the defeated king. The Koh-i-Noor diamond was said to be among the loot.
Invasion by Delhi Sultanate
In 1323, Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq sent his son Ulugh Khan on an expedition to the Kakatiya capital of Warangal. The ensuing Siege of Warangal resulted in the annexation of Warangal, and the end of the Kakatiya dynasty. Prataparudra was taken captive, and sent to Delhi, but it is believed he died en route. Ulugh Khan ruled briefly as viceroy, until he returned to Delhi to succeed the throne.
As early as 1330, the Musunuri Nayaks who served as army chiefs for Kakatiya kingdom united the various Telugu clans and recovered Warangal from the viceroy of the Delhi Sultanate and ruled for half a century. Surrounded by more significant states, by the 15th century these new entities had ceded to the Bahmani Sultanate and the Sangama dynasty, the latter of which evolved to become the Vijayanagara empire.
Bahmani and Deccan Sultanates
The Bahmani Sultanate ruled the region in the 15th century. In 1463, Sultan Muhammad Shah Bahmani II dispatched Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk to the Telangana region to quell disturbances. Sultan Quli quelled the disturbance and was rewarded as the administrator of the region. He established a base at Kakatiya hill fortress of Golconda which he strengthened and expanded considerably. By the end of the century, Quli ruled from Golconda as the subedar (governor) of the Telangana region. Quli enjoyed virtual independence from Bidar, where the Bahmani Sultanate was then based. In 1518, when the Bahmani Sultanate disintegrated into five different kingdoms, with the others based in Ahmednagar, Berar, Bidar and Bijapur. Sultan Quli declared independence from the Bahmani rule and established the Golconda Sultanate under the title "Sultan Quli Qutub Shah", he rebuilt the mud-fort of Golconda and named the city Muhammad Nagar.
During this period, the city of Hyderabad was established by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah in 1591, on the banks of the Musi River. The Charminar and Mecca Masjid were constructed to form a centerpiece of the city. Over the years, Hyderabad would grow as an important trading center for diamonds, pearls, arms and steel.
The Qutb Shahi rulers were patrons of both Indo-Persian and the local Telugu art and culture. Early Indo-Islamic type of architecture is reflected in the Qutb Shahi buildings. Some examples of it include the Golconda Fort, Qutb Shahi tombs, Char Minar, Mecca Masjid, Khairtabad Mosque, Taramati Baradari and Toli Mosque.
Mughal conquest and rule
Mughal prince Aurangzeb spent most of his time in the Deccan, fighting local Hindu and Muslim kingdoms alike to establish Mughal sovereignty. The Golconda Sultanate faced various attacks by the Mughal prince Aurangzeb, who was appointed Viceroy of the Deccan by his father and Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. It was forced to pay an annual tribute to the Mughal Empire.
In 1656, Aurangzeb attacked Golconda Fort by surprise but was forced to call of the siege on orders of Shah Jahan. Therefore, a treaty was signed between Abdullah Qutb Shah and Aurangzeb, when the former accepted Mughal sovereignty, paid an annual tribute and married his daughter to Aurangzeb's eldest son.
After becoming Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb returned to the Deccan. He captured Hyderabad and besieged Golconda in 1687, and the refused any negotiations. On September 22, 1687, after a nine month long siege, Golconda was captured. Abul Hasan Qutb Shah was taken prisoner, and Hyderabad's diamond trade was all but destroyed.
Nizams of Hyderabad
The Nizams of Hyderabad, also known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty, ruled Hyderabad State,[note 1] which comprised Telangana, Marathwada and Hyderabad-Karnataka from 1724 to 1948. Under this period, Hyderabad State was the largest princely state in British India, and had its own mint, currency, railway and postal system. The Nizam acquired massive amounts of wealth due to the diamond trade.
Asaf Jah I
With the emaciation of the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the Mughal-appointed governors of the Deccan Suba (Deccan province) gained more autonomy from Delhi. In 1714, the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar appointed Mir Qamar-ud-din Siddiqi as the viceroy to the Deccan and gave him the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk (governor of the country). He was well suited for the position as he had fought alongside his father and grandfather who were commanders during the siege of Golconda.
In 1724, he defeated Mubariz Khan to establish control over Hyderabad. He received the title of Asaf Jah from Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah in the following year. Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that would rule Hyderabad State until a year after India's independence from Britain.
Successors of Asaf Jah I
When Asaf Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces.
The death of Asaf Jah I in 1748 resulted in a period of political unrest as his sons, backed by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces, contended for the throne. The accession of Asif Jah II, who reigned from 1762 to 1803, ended the instability. In 1768 he signed the Treaty of Machilipatnam, surrendering the coastal region to the East India Company in return for a fixed annual rent.
In 1769 Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams. In response to regular threats from Hyder Ali (Dalwai of Mysore), Baji Rao I (Peshwa of the Maratha Empire), and Basalath Jung (Asaf Jah II's elder brother, who was supported by the Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau), the Nizam signed a subsidiary alliance with the East India Company in 1798, allowing the British Indian Army to occupy Bolarum (modern Secunderabad) to protect the state's capital, for which the Nizams paid an annual maintenance to the British.
When the British and the French spread their hold over the country, successive Nizams won their friendship without bequeathing their power. The Nizams allied themselves with each side at different times, playing a significant role in the Anglo-Mysore Wars.
In 1911, Mir Osman Ali Khan, the seventh and last Nizam of Hyderabad succeeded his father. He was widely known for his wealth and considered one of the wealthiest men of all time. The development of early modern Hyderabad took place during his reign.
In late 1945, there started a peasant uprising in Telangana area, led by the Comrades Association (representing Communist Party of India) also known as The Telangana Rebellion or Vetti Chakiri Udyamam or Telangana Raithanga Sayudha Poratam. The communists drew their support from various quarters.
Among the poor peasants, there were grievances against the jagirdari system, which covered 43% of landholding. Initially, they also drew support from wealthier peasants who also fought under the communist banner, but by 1948, the coalition had disintegrated. According to the Indian intelligence Bureau Deputy Director, the social and economic programs of the communists were "positive and in some cases great... The communists redistributed land and livestock, reduced rates, ended forced labor and increased wages by one hundred percent. They inoculated the population and built public latrines; they encouraged women’s organisations, discouraged sectarian sentiment and sought to abolish untouchability."
Initially, in 1945, the communists targeted zamindars and deshmukhs, but soon they launched a full-fledged revolt against the Nizam. Starting mid-1946, the conflict between the Razakars (a private militia led by Kasim Razvi) and the communists became increasingly violent, with both sides resorting to increasingly brutal methods. The Razakars cordoned off villages, captured suspected communists en masse and engaged in ‘absolutely indiscriminate and organised' (according to one Congressman) looting and massacres. According to an Indian government pamphlet, the communists had killed about 2,000 people by 1948.
India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam of Hyderabad wanted to retain his independence from India, but was forced to cede his state to India in 1948 to form Hyderabad State.
Indian integration of Hyderabad
Operation Polo, the code name of the Hyderabad "Police Action" was a military operation in September 1948 in which the Indian Armed Forces invaded the State of Hyderabad and overthrew its Nizam, annexing the state into the Indian Union.
At the time of the Partition of India, the princely states of India, who in principle had self-government within their own territories, were subject to subsidiary alliances with the British, giving them control of their external relations. In the Indian Independence Act 1947 the British abandoned all such alliances, leaving the states with the option of opting for full independence. However, by 1948 almost all had acceded to either India or Pakistan. One major exception was that of Hyderabad, where the Nizam, a Muslim ruler who presided over a largely Hindu population, chose independence and hoped to maintain this with an irregular army recruited from the Muslim aristocracy, known as the Razakars.:224 The Nizam was also beset by the Telangana uprising, which he was unable to subjugate.:224
The Indian government, anxious to avoid what it termed a Balkanization of what had been the Indian Empire, was determined on the integration of Hyderabad State into the new Indian Union.:223 Amidst atrocities by the Razakars, the Indian Home Minister Sardar Patel decided to annex Hyderabad in what was termed a "police action". The operation itself took five days, in which the Razakars were defeated easily.
The operation led to massive violence on communal lines. The Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru appointed a commission known as the Sunderlal Committee. Its report, which was not released until 2013, concluded that "as a conservative estimate, 27,000 to 40,000 people had lost their lives during and after the police action."
Hyderabad State (1948–1956)
Andhra Pradesh (1956–2014)
In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on a linguistic basis. An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests. After reorganization in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.
Telangana State (2014–present)
On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state. After various stages the bill was placed in the Parliament of India in February 2014. In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh. The bill received the assent of the President on 1 March 2014.
The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected as the first chief minister of Telangana, following elections in which the Telangana Rashtra Samithi party secured majority. Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period, not more than 10 years.
- Hyderabad State (1724-1948) is not to be confused with Hyderabad State (1948-1956). The former was a princely state ruled by the Nizams, and the latter was a state of the Republic of India
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