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Тюменская область (Russian)
|— Oblast —|
|Economic region||West Siberian|
|Established||August 14, 1944|
|Government (as of March 2011)|
|• Governor||Vladimir Yakushev|
|• Legislature||Oblast Duma|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|• Total||1,435,200 km2 (554,100 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Density||2.37/km2 (6.1/sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||YEKT (UTC+05:00)|
Tyumen Oblast (Russian: Тюме́нская о́бласть, Tyumenskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Tyumen. The oblast has administrative jurisdiction over two autonomous okrugs—Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Tyumen is the largest city, with over half a million inhabitants. As of 2006[update], it is by far the richest federal subject of Russia, with an average GDP per capita several times the national average. Population: 3,395,755 (2010 Census). It was established from several districts of Omsk and Kurgan Oblasts on August 14, 1944.
The territory covers 160,100 km2. The Tyumen Region was founded in August 14, 1944. It includes two autonomous okrugs of the Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous okrug–the Yugra and Yamalo-Nenetsk autonomous okrug. The territory is located in the basin of the river. The biggest rivers are the Tura, Tobol, Pyshma, Iset, Tavda, Ishim, Agan, Irtysh, and Noska. The hydro-geographical system is characterized with the prevalence of small rivers as well as the significant bogginess of their catchment areas and numerous lakes.
The area has the extreme climatic conditions in most parts of the territory - the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Beloyarsky and Berezovsky areas of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Yugra  refer to the Far North and other areas and urban districts of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District and Uvat area equated to them.
The climate is arctic, sub-arctic and temperate in the north, center and south, respectively. The average January temperature ranges from -17 ° C in the region of Tyumen to -27 ° C in the north. The duration of the frost period is 130 in Tyumen to 210 days a year or more in the tundra region.
The region takes place more than 70 thousand watercourses length of more than 10 km of the total length of 584,400 km. The largest area of the river - Ob(185 cu km / yr) and Irtysh (36.5 cu km / yr) - are navigable value. In the region there are about 70 thousand lakes. In the north and in the central part of the widespread thermokarst lakes and marsh in the south - salted stagnant ponds in the depressions.
The Red Book of the Tyumen region listed 711 rare and endangered species. In the list of specially protected areas of the south region there are 99 sites, including one international and three federal.
Tyumen area is in the Ekaterinburg timezone. Displacement concerning UTC makes +5:00. Concerning Moscow time the time zone has constant displacement +2 hours and is designated in Russia correspondingly as MSK + 2. Ekaterinburg time for most of the Tyumen region is different from the lap time by one hour, to a lesser (western) part, including the city of Tyumen, - for two hours.
Fauna and flora
There are variety of fauna and flora in this region. In the northern part can be found ptarmigan, walrus and Arctic fox. Polar bears also occur in the extreme north; the genetic make-up of this Polar bear sub-population is genetically distinct from other circumpolar regions.
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During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Tyumen CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The politics in the oblast is governed by the Charter of Tyumen Oblast. The laws within the authority of the oblast are passed by the Legislative Assembly of Tymen Oblast which is the legislative (representative) body. The highest executive body is the Tyumen Oblast Administration. It also includes the executive bodies of the subdivisions such as districts, and is responsible for the daily administration. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the head of the oblast and acts as guarantor of the observance of the Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
The autonomous regions are concentrated the bulk of the country's oil and gas. The total volume of exploration drilling has exceeded 45 million meters. Oil production is concentrated in the Middle Ob. Gas is produced mainly in the northern areas. Large oil fields are located in the Khanty-Ugra: Samotlor, Ob, Fyodorovskoye, Mamontovskoye, Krasnoleninskoye; gas - in the Yamalo-Nenets District: Urengoi, Bear, Yamburg. The depth from 700 m to 4 km. Produced peat, sapropel, quartz sand, limestone. Explored about 400 deposits of raw materials for the production of building materials [source not specified 252 days].
The area is rich in fresh water resources, which are represented by large rivers - the Ob, Irtysh, Tobol, lakes (650 ths.) - Black (224 km²), Big Uvat (179 km²), etc., groundwater, that contain more than half of Russian stocks. iodine (30 mlg / l) and bromine (40-50 mlg / l)
Over 44% of the land reserves in the south of the region are covered with forests. .43 million hectaresis covered by forests. As forest resources area is the third largest in the Russian Federation after the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Irkutsk Region. The main forest forming species are pine, birch, spruce, fir, aspen and larch.Total timber reserves estimated at 5.4 billion cubic meters.
In the south of the Tyumen region is about ten hot (37-50 ° C) geothermal sources, having balneological properties. Sources are popular not only among residents of Tyumen and neighboring regions: the Sverdlovsk, Kurgan and Chelyabinsk regions.
The region has large peat reserves. Large deposits of vivianite (ferric phosphate) (approximately 20% of world reserves) have been discovered in particular peat deposits, the usage of which may meet the phosphate fertilizers demand of the agriculture.
There are deposits of quartz sands, brick and expanded clays, sapropels, limestone. The region has large fresh and mineral water reserves. There are great prospects for oil fields development.
Tyumen is a service center for gas and oil industries: the Oblast has the highest level of oil and gas production of any region in Russia. Gazprom, LUKoil and Gazpromneft, TNK-BP, Shell, Salym Petroleum Development N.V. have representative offices in Tyumen. It has been suggested that the importance of these industries has caused the high levels of economic inequality observed in the region.
The Tyumen region produces milk, meat, eggs, potatoes and vegetables.
Transport is presented by the motor, railway, aviation and river communication system. The railway takes the leading position in freight traffic .
The river port is also a cargo center and a link between rail, road and air transport .
Roshchino International Airport is undergoing construction as of 2017, with development of a new terminal .
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- Ethnic groups
There were thirty-six recognized ethnic groups of more than two thousand persons each in Tyumen Oblast, making this one of the most multicultural oblasts in Russia. The national composition at the time of the 2010 Census was:
- Russians: 73.3%
- Tatars: 7.5%
- Ukrainians: 4.9%
- Bashkirs: 1.4%
- Azeris: 1.4%
- Nenets: 1%
- Chuvash: 0.93%
- Khants: 0.9%
- Belarusians: 0.8%
- Germans: 0.6%
- Kazakhs: 0.6%
- Moldovans: 0.5%
- Armenians: 0.5%
- Mansi: 0.4%
- 5.3% others
- 187,803 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
Vital Statistics for 2011:
- Births: 55,118
- Deaths: 29,261
- Birth Rate: 16.25 per 1000
- Death Rate: 8.62 per 1000
- NGR: +7.63
- Vital statistics for 2012
2009 - 1.78 | 2010 - 1.81 | 2011 - 1.83 | 2012 - 1.99 | 2013 - 2.00 | 2014 - 2.07 | 2015 - 2.07 | 2016 - 2.01(e)
According to a 2012 official survey 28.9% of the population of Tyumen Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 9% is an Orthodox Christian believer without belonging to any church or is a member of other (non-Russian) Orthodox Churches, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are members of Protestant churches. 6% of the population is composed of Muslims, 2% are adherents of the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery), and 0.4% to forms of Hinduism (Vedism, Krishnaism or Tantrism). In addition, 34% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 11% is atheist, and 3.7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Official website of Tyumen Oblast. Vladimir Vladimirovich Yakushev, Governor of Tyumen Oblast (in Russian)
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. (The rank is given without the autonomous okrugs' populations; the population and percentages are given for the territory of the oblast with the autonomous okrugs) Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "2010Census" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения
- ↑ Постановлением Правительства РФ от 03.03.2012 N 170 «Об отнесении Берёзовского и Белоярского районов Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа — Югры к районам Крайнего Севера» Берёзовский и Белоярский районы Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа — Югры с 01.01.2013 г. отнесены к районам Крайнего Севера.
- Bruce Forbes, The End of the Earth: Threats to the Yamal Region's Cultural and Biological Diversity 
- C. Michael Hogan (2008) Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus, globalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg
- Buccellato, T; T. Mickiewicz (2009). "Oil and Gas: A Blessing for the Few. Hydrocarbons and Inequality in Russia" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 61 (3): 385–407. doi:10.1080/09668130902753275.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Перепись-2010: русских становится больше. Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
-  Archived March 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации. Gks.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
- Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Gks.ru (2010-05-08). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
- Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 172. ISBN 3-540-00238-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tyumen Oblast.|
||Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug|
|Sverdlovsk Oblast||Omsk and Tomsk Oblasts|
|Kurgan Oblast||North Kazakhstan Region, Kazakhstan|