History of monarchy in Canada
|Monarchy of Canada|
|This article is part of a series|
|Part of a series on the|
|History of Canada|
The history of monarchy in Canada stretches from pre-colonial times through to the present day. Canada's monarchical status began with the French settlement of the colony of Canada in the name of King Francis I in 1534; although a previous claim was made by England in the name of King Henry VII in 1497 when John Cabot made landfall in what is thought to be modern day Newfoundland or Nova Scotia. Through both these lineages, the present Canadian monarchy can trace itself back to the Anglo-Saxon period and ultimately to the kings of the Angles and the early Scottish kings. Kings and queens reigning over Canada have included the monarchs of France (to King Louis XV in 1763), those of the United Kingdom (to King George V in 1931), and those of Canada (to Queen Elizabeth II as Queen of Canada today). Canadian historian Father Jacques Monet said of Canada's Crown: "[it is] one of an approximate half-dozen that have survived through uninterrupted inheritance from beginnings that are older than our Canadian institution itself."
Canada's first European monarchs instigated, funded, and supported the exploration and settlement of the country, while also implementing treaties between themselves and the various aboriginal peoples encountered. Throughout the 18th century, via war and treaties, the Canadian colonies of France were ceded to King George III. The colonies were confederated by Queen Victoria in 1867 to form the Dominion of Canada. Canada later became a fully independent country through the Constitution Act of 1982 proclaimed by Elizabeth II, the Queen of Canada.
- 1 Pre-colonial
- 2 Kingdoms and colonies
- 3 Confederation and the Dominion
- 4 A new century and the Great War
- 5 Between the wars
- 6 World War II and the resident monarchies
- 7 Elizabethan era
- 8 Turbulent decades
- 9 An independent kingdom
- 10 The new millennium
- 11 Monarchs of Canadian territories
- 12 See also
- 13 External links
- 14 Footnotes
While no indigenous North Americans in what is now Canada had what would be seen today as an official monarchy, some aboriginal peoples, before their first encounters with French and British colonisers, were governmentally organised in a fashion similar to the occidental idea of monarchy. Europeans often considered vast territories belonging to different aboriginal groups to be kingdoms—such as the kingdom of Saguenay, along the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River between the Trinity River and the Isle-aux-Coudres, and the neighbouring kingdom of Canada, which stretched west to the Island of Montreal—and the leaders of these communities were referred to as kings, particularly those chosen through heredity. Many had chieftains, whose powers varied from one nation to the next; in some examples, the chief would exercise considerable authority and influence on the decisions of the group, while in others he was more of a symbolic or ceremonial figure. In the latter cases, considering that many First Nations societies were governed by unwritten customs and codes of conduct, wherein the chieftain was bound to follow the advice of a council of elders, the form of government would have closely resembled a modern constitutional monarchy.
Kingdoms and colonies
The first French colonies in North America were established in the name of King Henry IV at Acadia (today Nova Scotia) three years into the 17th century—the second being named Port Royal in his honour—and, by 1610, the first British settlements were established on Newfoundland, which had earlier been claimed in 1583 for Queen Elizabeth I. The following year, Henry Hudson embarked on the first trading voyage that led to the formation of the Hudson's Bay Company by Royal Charter from King Charles II; the King claimed and area that covered what is now Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Minnesota, North Dakota, and more and called the area Rupert's Land, after Prince Rupert, who helped to form the HBC.
The French monarch also moved quickly and it was in 1602 that Aymar de Chaste was appointed as Viceroy of Canada to represent King Henry IV. In 1615, Quebec City was, on the recommendation of Samuel de Champlain, made a royal capital of the French empire in the Americas, with Champlain—who had been representative of, or lieutenant governor to, most Viceroys of Canada—installed as the first viceregal representative of the King in New France. Some 60 years later, New France was designated as a royal province of France itself, ruled by the King through his appointed Conseil souverain, which included the governor general as the monarch's stand-in. One of the king's decrees, intended to augment, as well as level the gender imbalance of, the population of New France in the 1660s, was to send between seven and nine hundred women, known as the filles du roi (Daughters of the King), to the province, each with dowry, new clothing, and paid passage to the New World. As the population increased, infrastructure was built, such as the Chemin du Roi (King's Highway) between Montreal and Quebec City, and the Notre-Dame de Québec Cathedral, in the welfare of which the King took great interest. This type of French royal patronage extended through the 18th century; for example, from 1713 until 1758, Île-Royale, and especially Louisbourg, was a project of Kings Louis XIV and XV, much of the financing for infrastructure—some 20 million livres—being provided by the monarchs (their names therefore appearing on such works).
As Europeans moved inland, they encountered the aboriginal peoples; relations with them were originally considered to be between European and North American monarchs—though, for the French, that later changed to be one between sovereign and subject, and for the British, between European and aboriginal nations under one king—leading to the incorporation of treaties with the Crown into the political culture of Canada. While the aboriginal chiefs did aid the monarchs with their North American conflicts, affairs in Europe would also affect the dealings of the New World and eventually almost all of the French king's possessions in what was known as Canada were transferred from him to the British Crown, providing Canada with one singular monarchy. But, this placement of French people under a British sovereign did not come without friction; during the escalation of hostilities in the lead-up to the Seven Years' War, the descendants of French colonialists in Acadia were asked by British officials, uneasy about where the Acadians' loyalties lay, to reaffirm their allegiance to King George III. The Acadians refused, and were subsequently deported from the area in what became known as the Great Upheaval.
Following the Treaty of Paris, which concluded the Seven Years' War in 1763, a Royal Proclamation was issued by George III, laying out his policy regarding the newly acquired colonies in North America. This was regarded by American colonists as one of the Intolerable Acts that together eventually led to the outbreak of the American Revolution. This conflict led some 46,000 people loyal to the Crown—dubbed United Empire Loyalists—to flee north from the United States; the King-in-Council granted each family 200 acres (0.81 km2) of land. At the same time, thousands of Iroquois and other Aboriginals were expelled from New York and other states, resettling under the protection of the Crown in what is now Ontario, and some 3,000 former slaves of African ancestry, known as Black Loyalists, settled in Nova Scotia. Continuing today, Ontario residents descended from these original refugees retain the post-nominals UE, standing for United Empire. The loyalists who settled in Nova Scotia, however, were not immediately made to feel comfortable, as many of the already settled residents were aligned with the United States and its republican cause; Colonel Thomas Dundas wrote from Saint John in 1786: "[The Loyalists] have experienced every possible injury from the old inhabitants of Nova Scotia, who are even more disaffected towards the British Government than any of the new States ever were. This makes me much doubt their remaining long dependent."
Prince William (later King William IV) arrived in Canada in July 1786, when he stated of the country, and more specifically, St. John's: "truly deplorable... a most dreadful, inhospitable and barren country"; though, he later changed his opinion after meeting the local women, commenting on Canada's "inexhaustible supply of women of the most obliging kind." He also became, in 1787, the first member of the Royal Family to visit Quebec.
Four years later, the Prince's brother, Prince Edward (later the Duke of Kent and father of Queen Victoria), served from 1791 until the turn of that century in Canada on military duties and as Commander of British North American troops; it is speculated that during that time he fathered two children by his Canadian mistress, Julie de St. Laurent. The Prince lived at Quebec City, where he oversaw the establishment of the Holy Trinity Anglican Cathedral, a project of personal interest to his father, the King. In 1792, when the first elections for the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada took place, a riot, fuelled by ethnic character, broke out at one of the polls. Prince Edward was said to have climbed up to where he could be heard and addressed the crowd, stating: "Part then in peace. I urge you to unanimity and accord. Let me hear no more of the odious distinctions of English and French. You are all His Britannic Majesty's beloved Canadian subjects." It was reportedly the first time the word Canadian, which had previously been reserved only for Francophones, was used in a manner that included all colonialists.
Almost twenty years later, Prince Edward's only legitimate daughter, Victoria, was born on 24 May 1819, at Kensington Palace. However, Edward died shortly thereafter, leaving Victoria as heir to the throne until, upon the death of William IV, she ascended as queen at the age of 18. Though she would never visit Canada, she received numerous Canadians in audience (especially her father's friends) and her image, thanks to the spread of newspapers and the invention of photography, was reproduced sufficiently to maintain popularity and loyalty in her colonies.
Insurrections against the Crown did still take place, though; notably the Rebellions of 1837, which had been stirred up by the rise in power and influence of the United States and republican sentiment. Most colonists, though, did not espouse a break with the Crown and, in the wake of the disturbances, the Queen called on her people in Upper Canada to eschew vengeance on the perpetrators in favour of justice. Further, the British parliament granted responsible government to the Canadas, with the support of Victoria herself, despite its decrease of the political influence in the colonies of both she and her representatives. Where royal influence was lessened, though, it increased in other areas; Canadians celebrated momentous moments in the Queen's life—such as her marriage to Prince Albert—royal events were inaugurated—such as the Queen's Plate, created with Queen Victoria's blessing in 1860—and, while she was monarch, Victoria's children and grandchildren would come to Canada as either the governor general or viceregal consort, or to tour the country.
Confederation and the Dominion
Prior to the confederation of Canada, in which Queen Victoria took personal interest, a number of issues were of prime concern in the deliberations on the amalgamation of the four Canadian provinces into a country, most notably, the threat of invasion by the United States. It was the explicit intention of the Fathers of Confederation to unite the disparate British entities in North America into a single state under a constitutional monarchy, the men seeing that form of government as a balance between the autocracy of the Russian Empire and the popular sovereignty of the United States, the latter having just led to the American Civil War, which was seen as "the final stage in the discredit of [American] democracy and republicanism." A Canadian crown, the Fathers thought, would ensure diversity and racial harmony in Canada, thereby strengthening its legal and cultural sovereignty, especially considering the presence of the United States and its policy of Manifest Destiny. At the 1864 Charlottetown Conference, the deligates agreed unanimously that the new federation should be a constitutional monarchy.
By the mid-1860s, neither the name nor the location of the capital of the hypothetical new union had been settled. On the former issue, various suggestions were put forward—including Victorialand, in honour of the Queen—but John A. Macdonald and then Governor General of the Province of Canada, the Viscount Monk, supported the name Kingdom of Canada, to "fix the monarchical basis of the constitution." The proposal, however, caused worries in the Foreign and Colonial Office in London that such a title would provoke the republican United States and a compromise term, Dominion, was adopted instead. Which city would serve as the capital of this Dominion was left by the British North America Act, 1867—the Act of Parliament confederating Canada on 1 July of that year—to be decided by Queen Victoria, who has since been dubbed the "Mother of Confederation". From a list that included various well-established cities in Upper and Lower Canada, Victoria chose the small community of Bytowne (later renamed as Ottawa) on the grounds that it was defensible, located on a major waterway, and sat on the border between the two largest provinces of Canada, Quebec and Ontario.
The new constitution vested in the Queen responsibility for peace, order, and good government, as D'Arcy McGee had desired. In practice, though, the Second Reform Act, 1867, and the emergence of a two-party system decreased Victoria's personal room for manoeuvre. Still, the ceremonial role for the monarchy remained unaltered and the first visit of a member of the Royal Family to the Dominion of Canada took place two years after its creation; the sovereign's second son, Prince Arthur, arrived for training with the Rifle Brigade based at Montreal; of the Prince, the Lady Lisgar, wife of Governor General the Lord Lisgar, noted in a letter to Victoria that Canadians seemed hopeful Prince Arthur would one day return as governor general himself. In the same year, Rupert's Land was ceded to the Crown in Right of Canada from the Hudson's Bay Company, pulling it into the jurisdiction of the Northwest Territories. This move sparked a Métis rebellion and the establishment by Louis Riel of a provisional republican government in the Red River Valley. Following negotiations with Riel's government, the province of Manitoba was established in 1870 by the granting of Royal Assent to the Manitoba Act by Governor General the Earl of Dufferin.
As successor to Dufferin, rather than sending Arthur to Canada as her representative, Queen Victoria, on the advice of her British privy council, instead appointed her son-in-law, the Marquess of Lorne, in 1878. This meant that, for the first time, Rideau Hall would have a permanent royal resident: Victoria's fourth daughter, Princess Louise. When the news reached Canada that a daughter of the Queen would be viceregal consort of Canada, a "thrill of joy burst upon the Dominion"; it was felt the Princess would be a strong link between Canadians and their sovereign. However, the couple were initially not received well by the Canadian press, which complained about the imposition of royalty on the country's hitherto un-regal society, which was only exasperated by mishaps and misunderstandings, and the resulting negative press horrified the Princess. Louise endeared herself by making clear she had no pretenses and eventually the worries of a rigid court at the Queen's Canadian residence turned out to be unfounded; the royal couple were found to be more relaxed than their predecessors, as demonstrated at the many Ice skating and tobogganing parties, balls, dinners, and other state occasions hosted by the Marquess and Marchioness. The pair also made extensive tours of the country; their three-month visit to British Columbia in 1882 did much to reconcile the local inhabitants to Confederation. The Princess proved so popular that when the Governor General announced that the awaited completion of the transcontinental railway would pass through Kicking Horse Pass into what has since become Vancouver, rather than by the Yellowhead Pass to Bute Inlet, Premier Robert Beaven asked the Duke whether it would be possible for Vancouver Island to become a separate kingdom with Princess Louise as queen.
The royal couple made a number of lasting contributions to Canadian society, especially in the realm of the arts and sciences, including the establishment of the Royal Society of Canada, the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, and the National Gallery of Canada. Louise was proficient in watercolour and oil painting, hanging many of her own works around Rideau Hall and painting sprigs of apple blossoms on doors along the palace's Monck Wing corridor (one of which remains to the present), as well as overseeing the creation of the statue of Queen Victoria that stands on McGill University campus. Various locations were named for her, including Alberta, and the Princess herself gave the name Regina to the capital of Saskatchewan. In all, Louise made such an impression on Canadian life that at her funeral on 12 December 1939, her coffin was bourne by her own Canadian regiment, the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada.
In Queen Victoria's latter years, both her Golden and Diamond Jubilees—held in 1887 and 1897 to celebrate the 50th and 60th anniversaries, respectively, of the Queen's accession—were marked with great displays and public ceremonies in Canada, as well as colonial conferences held in the United Kingdom and attended by the prime ministers of the Dominions. For the Diamond Jubilee in Britain, Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier was invited and Canadian troops partook in Victoria's procession on the day of celebration, 22 June. In Canada, a series of commemorative stamps, the first ever produced by the country, was issued on 19 June and streets were decorated in cities and towns to mark Accession Day and the 22 June public holiday, on which fêtes brought Canadians of different ethnicities together. On that day, the Queen sent a telegram to all the Dominions, the message arriving in Canada five minutes after being sent from Buckingham Palace.
In between the jubilees, in December 1894, Prime Minister John Thompson died at Windsor Castle when there to be admitted by the Queen to the imperial privy council, being struck with a heart attack mere hours after the ceremony. Victoria, then aged and using a wheelchair, was wheeled into St. George's Chapel, where Thompson lay-in-state, and placed a wreath on her former prime minister's coffin. This moment was captured in a painting by Frederic Bell-Smith, but the canvas was destroyed in the burning of the Centre Block in 1916.
Victoria herself died at Osborne House on 22 January 1901, after a reign lasting almost 64 years—the longest in British and Canadian history—and was succeeded by her eldest son, King Edward VII. Canada mourned the loss of Victoria and the Earl of Minto, then governor general, and Wilfrid Laurier were at odds over which church in Ottawa should host the official memorial service for the late queen; Minto favoured the Church of England cathedral, respecting the church to which Victoria had belonged, while Laurier and other ministers attended services of their own communion. Still, this minor dispute did not affect the mark left on Canada by Victoria's long and popular reign, which resulted in many places being named in her honour and monuments to her, such as statues on Parliament Hill and throughout the provinces. The Queen's reign was permanently memorialised in Canada when, in the spring of 1901, it was decided by parliament that 24 May would continue as a holiday marking the late Queen's birthday, named as Victoria Day, to distinguish it from the King's birthday celebration to be held in November.
A new century and the Great War
The end of Victoria's reign marked the beginning of a new century, and one which would see Canada's rapid growth as a nation. As modern modes of transportation allowed for easier travel across the oceans, more of the Royal Family came to tour the King's northern Dominion. The first since Queen Victoria's death was the son of the reigning king, Prince George (later King George V) and his wife, the Duchess of Cornwall and York, who arrived in Canada in 1901. Events during the royal tour, which took in the country between Quebec City and Victoria, had a more casual atmosphere than their equivalents in the United Kingdom; it was reported that at one state dinner the couple "shook hands with between two and three thousand guests, never appearing tired, but always manifesting signs of interest, bowing and smiling to all presented to them." The Prince returned only once more before he became king, when he visited in 1908, by then as Prince of Wales, to celebrate the tercentenary of Quebec City's founding; the governor general at the time, the Earl Grey, reported back to King Edward VII that the Prince "has taught the people of Quebec how to cheer."
Edward VII died in 1910, which led to a period of official mourning, with numerous memorials held across the country. He was succeeded by his son George, who a year later appointed his uncle, Prince Arthur, as Governor General of Canada, thereby fulfilling the desire of Canadians earlier expressed by the Lady Lisgar, and bringing Arthur back to Canada for a fourth time as the first natural member of the Royal Family to serve as the Canadian federal viceroy. King George V was reported to have had much to do with the appointment. Arthur brought with him to Canada his wife, Princess Louise, and his youngest daughter, Princess Patricia, and the family travelled extensively across Canada, the Prince performing ceremonial tasks, such as in 1917 laying the cornerstone of the reconstructed federal parliament building (which had first been set by Prince Albert Edward in 1860), and making a concerted effort to contribute to the social life of the capital, using Rideau Hall as a major site for events for Canadians from across the country.
The Prince was, though, sometimes thought to have overstepped the still un-cemented bounds of constitutional monarchy in Canada, particularly in his carrying out of the ceremonial duties of the Commander-in-Chief during the First World War. Still, Prince Arthur stressed the importance of Canadian military contributions, promoting military training and readiness for Canadian troops, but also sought to enhance charity at home. To put this preaching into practice, the Duchess of Connaught, in addition to working for the Red Cross and other organisations, for Christmas in 1915 sent a card and a box of maple sugar to every Canadian serving overseas. She also had a knitting machine at Rideau Hall, on which she made thousands of pairs of socks for soldiers. Prince Arthur was active in auxiliary war services and charities, conducted a number hospital visits, and, following the war, commissioned a stained glass window, located in St. Bartholomew's Church, next to Rideau Hall, in memory of the Government House staff who lost their lives during the war. In the United Kingdom, the King and Queen visited with Canadian troops stationed there, as well as with the nurses of Canada's Red Cross Hospital.
At the end of 1916, Prince Arthur publicly expressed his regret at having to leave Canada, as he and his family had grown very comfortable there. The royal family left a legacy behind them: Port Arthur, now part of Thunder Bay, Ontario, was named in honour of the Prince, who also gave his name to Connaught Cup for pistol marksmanship of recruits in the Royal Northwest Mounted Police. In addition, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry was created in 1914 and the Princess was herself eventually appointed by the King as Colonel-in-Chief of the regiment on 22 February 1918; an appointment she held until her death. It was during her time in Rideau Hall that she met her future husband, Alexander Ramsay, who was then acting as Aide-de-Camp to her father.
After the end of the war, Prince Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII), toured Canada in 1919, opening the third session of the 13th Canadian Parliament, amongst other duties performed when he had not disappeared to attend dances or to play golf, instead. He proved very popular with Canadians, though; when, in Toronto, he was greeted with enthusiasm by a crowd of soldiers just returned from Europe after the end of the war, who lifted Edward off his horse and "passed him, like a football, over their heads," and a veteran approached the Prince and casually said: "put it there, Ed." From that point on Edward shook hands with anyone who approached him, to the point where his right hand "became so black, swollen and painful from the continued enthusiastic handshaking that, in his own words, he 'retired it temporarily from Imperial service, and offered the left instead." Edward returned to Ottawa to lay the foundation stone of the Peace Tower before returning to the United Kingdom. Canada proved popular with the Prince as well; he purchased the 400-acre (1.6 km2) E.P. Ranch near Pekisko, High River, in Alberta; Edward held this ranch, and stayed at it numerous times, before selling it in 1962, a decade before his death.
Between the wars
Events took place in 1926 that would set the course for a dramatic shift in the role of the federal viceroy and ultimately result in the creation of a distinct monarchy for Canada. Until that point, the governor general remained a representative in Canada of the British government, but was still able to exercise the Royal Prerogative over the Canadian prime minister without orders from the King in his British Council back in Westminster. When the governor general at the time, the Lord Byng of Vimy, did just that and forced Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King to resign in what came to be known as the King–Byng Affair, the latter was, once reappointed following that year's general election, motivated to raise at the 1926 Imperial Conference questions about the relationship between the Dominions and the United Kingdom. The first ministers were mostly receptive, and, following the close of the meeting, the Balfour Declaration was issued, wherein it was declared that the Dominions of the British Crown were to be considered equal to the United Kingdom, as Mackenzie King had wished, and the Governor General of Canada, as with all the other governors-general of the empire, would be the direct representative of the King in person, rather than a diplomatic channel between the Canadian and British governments.
The first evocation of these concepts in statute law was seen in 1927, the same year King George V and his consort, Queen Mary, opened Canada House in London and Princes Edward and George unveiled the Laurier monument on Parliament Hill, dedicated the Princes' Gates, and opened Union Station in Toronto, after which Edward went to Alberta to spend time on his ranch. Passed by the British parliament, the 1927 Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act altered part of the King's title to reflect his new status as monarch of each Dominion individually, rather than as King of the United Kingdom throughout all countries. Then, in 1931, the notions of independence and equality were manifested in the Statute of Westminster's legal end to the British parliament's ability to legislate for the Dominions without the expressed consent of the latter. As a result, laws outlining the succession—notably, the Act of Settlement, 1701—as pertaining to Canada, were now under the control of the Canadian parliament, and the King could only be advised on Canadian affairs by his Canadian ministers. The monarchy of Canada had "assumed its full constitutional meaning."
Though the Canadian Cabinet had in 1930 suggested to the King that he appoint his son, Prince Albert, Duke of York, as Governor General of Canada, both George V and the Duke were hesitant; the latter had two young daughters—a toddler (later Queen Elizabeth II) and a newborn (Princess Margaret)—and the former wished that Albert remain close to compensate for the behaviour of the Prince of Wales. As the Statute of Westminster had not yet been implemented, the British Cabinet eventually advised against the Canadian idea and instead recommended the Earl of Bessborough as viceroy, though this was ultimately because the Lord Passfield, then the Minister for the Dominions, thought that, despite the request directly from their government, Canadians disliked the Royal Family. As Albert eventually went on to become King George VI, had the Canadian Privy Council's idea been accepted, a Canadian Governor General who represented the King would have gone on to become King of Canada himself.
Canadians (and the Commonwealth as a whole) heard in 1932 the first Royal Christmas Message, as read by George V, who, three years later, celebrated his Silver Jubilee. The euphoria was short lived, however, as the King died on 20 January 1936, and even the hope that surrounded the accession of his eldest son as King Edward VIII did not, as with his reign, survive the year. Despite his popularity in Canada and elsewhere when he was Prince of Wales, the new King's relationship with the twice-divorced, American socialite Wallis Simpson caused serious concern, more so among Canadians, who were more familiar with the personal life of their sovereign than the populace of the UK, due to the British press' self-imposed ban on publishing the exploits of the King and Simpson. Governor General the Lord Tweedsmuir conveyed to Buckingham Palace and British prime minister Stanley Baldwin his observations of Canadians' deep affection for the King, but also the outrage towards Canadian puritanism—both Catholic and Protestant—that would occur if Edward VIII married a divorcée. Further, the Cabinet telegrammed the King, urging him to place his duty as sovereign above his feelings for Simpson. As popular anger mounted in tandem with the imminence of a marriage between Edward and Simpson, Baldwin drafted proposed solutions to the crisis; as with most other Dominion prime ministers, Canada's, Mackenzie King, rejected the notions that either a royal or morganatic marriage take place, leaving only the King's abdication as the final option. As such, Edward VIII renounced his Canadian Crown on 10 December, giving, with the consent of his Canadian ministers, Royal Assent to His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936, and his brother became King George VI. A proclamation of accession was drafted by the Cabinet and read by the Prime Minister as a radio broadcast. The Canadian parliament later passed the Succession to the Throne Act, 1937, to ratify the abdication into Canadian law and demonstrate Canada's independence from the United Kingdom. Mackenzie King wrote in his diary just before the abdication that he had "no fears about Canada... [I]n all probability with the Duke and Duchess of York as King and Queen, and with the little Princess Elizabeth in the picture, there will be a much happier situation in the New Year than there has been at any time since the time of George V."
In an effort to foster Canadian identity, and knowing that George VI would assume the separate title King of Canada at his upcoming coronation, Buchan conceived in 1937 of a royal tour by the monarch, so that, through seeing "their king performing royal functions, supported by his Canadian ministers," Canadians might be made more aware of their country's status as an independent kingdom. Mackenzie King agreed with this notion, though also felt, along with officials in the United Kingdom, that the trip would have an element of public relations: the presence of the King and Queen, in both Canada and the United States, was calculated to shore up sympathy for Britain in anticipation of hostilities with Nazi Germany. Thus, the Prime Minister, while in London in May 1937 for the coronation, formally consulted with the King on the matter, and, more than a year later, George VI agreed, though officials in the Dominions Office in London resisted the idea of a separate role for George VI as king of Canada. On 17 May 1939, the King of Canada, accompanied by his royal consort, Queen Elizabeth, stepped off the Canadian Pacific liner RMS Empress of Australia at Wolfe's Cove, in Quebec City, and became the first reigning sovereign of Canada to set foot on Canadian soil.
The reaction by the public was positive beyond expectation, and from the start it was noted that the king was present as Canada's sovereign; a newspaper at the time stated: "The King of Canada walked yesterday, as he walks today, among his own. There can be welcomes elsewhere in Canada equal to his reception in Quebec. None will surpass it." The King immediately set about carrying out his royal duties, including receiving the new American envoy to Canada, granting Royal Assent to bills passed by parliament, and ratifying treaties, amongst other ceremonial tasks, such as presiding over celebrations on Parliament Hill for his Canadian official birthday, the first time this had been marked in the presence of the sovereign himself. After travelling to the west coast and back, meeting thousands of Canadians along the way (by the end of the first week alone, 2 million of Canada's 11 million inhabitants had turned out to see the royal couple) the King and Queen also conducted, between 7 and 10 June, a state visit on behalf of Canada to the United States. The royal couple then returned to Canada, touring the Maritimes and the still separate Dominion of Newfoundland.
World War II and the resident monarchies
Only five months after the departure of George VI and his wife from Canada, Britain declared war on Nazi Germany. The King did so as King of the United Kingdom on 3 September 1939, but, as King of Canada, was not advised by his Canadian ministers to do the same until 10 September. Initially, Mackenzie King and Minister of Justice Ernest Lapointe argued in the House of Commons that, despite the provisions of the Statute of Westminster, Canada would be bound by Britain's declaration of war and no explicit Canadian approval was sought for or given to that which George VI issued on 3 September. However, after it was realised that Canada was absent from the list of belligerent states in President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt's 5 September declaration of neutrality, parliament was convened on 7 September and approved of Canada's need to defend itself, after which the Cabinet petitioned the King to declare war for Canada. These were significant developments as they became examples for other Dominions to follow and, by the war's end, F.R. Scott concluded that "it is firmly established as a basic constitutional principle that, so far as relates to Canada, the King is regulated by Canadian law and must act only on the advice and responsibility of Canadian ministers."
With hostilities raging in Europe, plans were formed for the King, Queen, and their two children to reside for the duration of the war at Hatley Castle, in Colwood, British Columbia, which the King in his federal Council had purchased for use as a royal palace. It was, however, eventually settled that morale in the United Kingdom would be seriously diminished should the King abandon the European front, and so the Royal Family would remain in London and Windsor. From there, Canada's monarch and his family engaged with Canadian militia, navy, and airmen and women; for example, Prince George visited air bases and training centres in Canada, Queen Elizabeth made an appeal to Canadian women to contribute to the war efforts, and her daughter, Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II) in 1940 posed for her first official Canadian portrait, with her parents visited Canadian service personnel stationed in the United Kingdom, and undertook solo duties such as reviewing a parade of Canadian airwomen in 1945. Two years following, the Princess was appointed by her father as Colonel-in-Chief of Le Régiment de la Chaudière and the 48th Highlanders of Canada, her first appointments in the Canadian military.
Canada was, however, home to a number of Europe's leaders in exile during the war. Among the royal guests, many of whom resided at Rideau Hall, were: Crown Prince Olav and Crown Princess Martha of Norway; Grand Duchess Charlotte and Prince Felix of Luxembourg; King Peter II of Yugoslavia; King George II of Greece; Empress Zita of Austria and her daughters; as well as Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, her daughter Princess Juliana, and granddaughters Princesses Beatrix and Irene. While in Canada, Wilhelmina gave birth to her third daughter, Margriet at the Civic Hospital, where the delivery room was temporarily declared as Dutch soil to ensure that the Princess was born in the Netherlands.
Governor General the Lord Tweedsmuir died in February 1940, while still viceroy, and so the uncle of George VI, the Earl of Athlone, was appointed to the post, requiring he and his wife, Princess Alice, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria, and Athlone's Aide-de-Camp, Alastair Windsor, Earl of Macduff, the grandson of previous governor general Prince Arthur, to make the trans-oceanic journey in the midst of the ongoing Battle of the Atlantic. The Governor General and Princess Alice became supporters of the Canadian war effort; Alice was appointed Honorary Commandant of a number of women's military services, such as the Women's Royal Canadian Naval Service and the Royal Canadian Air Force Women's Division, while Athlone travelled extensively throughout the country in an effor to spread the message that King George VI was dedicated to fighting totalitarianism. In 1943 and 1944, the royal couple hosted the Quebec Conferences, wherein American president Franklin D. Roosevelt, Canadian prime minister Mackenzie King, and British prime minister Winston Churchill decided the strategies of the western allies that would lead to victory over Nazi Germany and Japan in 1945.
Princess Elizabeth in 1947 married the Duke of Edinburgh in a ceremony that attracted the attention of Canadians hungry for good news after the dark years of the war; the King-in-Council presented the newlyweds with a canoe. The Princess, now also Duchess of Edinburgh, came with her husband to Canada in late 1951, where, amongst other activities throughout the country, she attended her first hockey game at Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto, and partook in a square dance at Rideau Hall. Elizabeth also crossed into the United States to pay an official visit to President Harry S. Truman, who greeted her as a "Canadian Princess" at the reception she hosted at the Canadian embassy in Washington, D.C. The King's health was by that time failing, and so his daughter and heir to the throne carried with her to Canada a draft accession declaration in case her father died while she was in his Canadian realm.
The King, who had suffered for some time with lung cancer, eventually failed to recover fully from a pneumonectomy and died in his sleep on 6 February 1952, at Sandringham House, while Princess Elizabeth was in Kenya. The monarch's passing was communicated via cable between the late King's Private Secretary, Alan Lascelles, and Thibaudeau Rinfret, who was acting as Administrator between the departure of Governor General the Earl of Tunis and the swearing-in of Tunis' replacement, Vincent Massey, who was in London at the time; the telegram read: "Profoundly regret to state that His Majesty King George the Sixth passed away peacefully in his sleep early this morning." Rinfret immediately issued on the same day a proclamation of the King's death and the accession of Elizabeth II as Canada's queen, making Canada the first place in which this was done; her proclamation of accession for the United Kingdom was not read out until the following day, after which the new monarch met with her British Privy Council for the first time, with Massey in attendance.
Wearing a gown by Norman Hartnell that was, along with the floral emblems of the other countries of the Commonwealth, embroidered with Canada's maple leaf in green silk and gold bullion thread veined with crystal, the Queen was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953, in a ceremony that included, like the Queen's dress, Canadian symbols and participants. The prime ministers and leading citizens of Canada were present in the abbey amongst representatives of other Commonwealth and foreign states, and the ceremony was also, at the Queen's request, broadcast around the world on television; three times as the event carried on, Royal Air Force Canberra jet bombers flew film footage of the coronation to Canada for play on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, making the first ever non-stop flights between the United Kingdom and the Canadian mainland. Guests at the ceremony, television viewers, and radio listeners heard Elizabeth swear a revised Coronation Oath, wherein she reaffirmed her dedication expressed earlier in South Africa and swore to "govern the Peoples of... Canada... according to their respective laws and customs." The separate mention of Canada mirrored the granting of Royal Assent, the day previous, to the Royal Style and Titles Act, which gave Elizabeth a distinctly Canadian title.
During a tour of Canada in 1957, the Queen made her first live appearance on Canadian television, appointed her husband to her Canadian Privy Council at a meeting of which she chaired, and on 14 October opened the first session of the 23rd parliament; some 50,000 people descended on Parliament Hill to witness the arrival of the monarch, though, due to the financial austerity of the times, the pageantry was muted in comparison to what would be seen at a similar event in the United Kingdom. Elizabeth and her husband, accompanied by Canadian prime minister John Diefenbaker, as the Queen's senior minister in attendance, also, on behalf of Canada, paid a state visit to the United States, attending the 350th anniversary of the founding of Jamestown, Virginia and meeting with President Dwight D. Eisenhower at the White House.
Elizabeth met the President again two years later, at the official opening of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. As she made her way through a full tour of Canada, at the end of which she chaired a meeting in Halifax of her Canadian Privy Council and personally appointed Georges Vanier as her representative in Canada, the Queen crossed the border twice to pay a visit to the United States, stopping in Chicago and Washington. Again, Diefenbaker was her chief minister in attendance; the Prime Minister was insistent that it be made clear to Americans that Elizabeth was visiting them as the Canadian monarch and that it was "the Canadian embassy and not the British Embassy officials who are in charge" of the Queen's itinerary. In this vein, the Queen's speeches in Chicago, written by her Canadian ministers, stressed steadily the fact that she had come to call as Queen of Canada, and she hosted the return dinner for Eisenhower at the Canadian Embassy in Washington. Her Majesty also did her part to assist in entrenching the newly emerging Canadian character, ensuring that the Red Ensign (then Canada's national flag) be flown on the Royal Yacht, and she stood to attention for the duration of each playing of "O Canada", the country's then still unofficial national anthem, sometimes even joining in the singing.
What was unknown to all besides Elizabeth herself, including Diefenbaker until he was confided in at Kingston, Ontario, was that the Queen was at the time pregnant with her third child. Though her Prime Minister urged her to cut the tour short, Elizabeth swore him to secrecy and continued the journey, leaving the public announcement of the upcoming birth until she returned to London.
The 1960s was a decade of swift change in terms of both politics and technology, and Canada's monarch found herself affected by both; for instance, Elizabeth II inaugurated the first trans-Atlantic telephone cable—part of one laid to link all the Commonwealth countries—when she, at Buckingham Palace, called Prime Minister Diefenbaker, who was at the Château Laurier. However, the Queen's success in the other field was not as guaranteed; shifts were taking place in Canadian identity, due, in part, to the establishment of multiculturalism as an official policy, increased immigration from beyond the British Isles, and Quebec separatism, the latter becoming the major impetus of political controversy around the Crown.
Those involved with the Quebec sovereignty movement saw the monarchy as a symbol of federalism and/or the British aspects of Canada's history and publicly displayed their contempt for the institution on a few occasions: At the height of the Quiet Revolution, the Quebec press reported that extreme separatists were plotting to assassinate Queen Elizabeth II during her upcoming 1964 tour of the province, as well as to kidnap Premier Jean Lesage's son, should the Queen come to Quebec. Despite fears for the monarch's safety and talk of cancelling the trip, Prime Minister Lester Pearson assured the Queen nothing much would come of the threats, the sovereign arrived as planned and, in a speech delivered to the Legislative Assembly on 10 October, in both French and English, Canada's two "complimentary cultures" and the strength of Canada's two founding peoples; she stated: "I am pleased to think that there exists in our Commonwealth a country where I can express myself officially in French... Whenever you sing [the French words of] "O Canada" you are reminded that you come of a proud race." However, as her motorcade passed through Quebec City, the route was lined with Quebecers showing their backs to her; others booed her and shouted separatist slogans. Though the protesters were the minority in the crowds gathered to see the Queen (the Montreal Gazette reporting that those who opposed the visit were students numbering in the hundreds) the provincial police violently dispersed those demonstrators who took to marching through the streets following Elizabeth's address to the Legislative Assembly, arresting 36, including some who had been there to show loyalty to the Queen; the Queen's "calmness and courage in the face of the violence" was noted. Ben Pimlott wrote in his biography of Elizabeth II that "the public reaction in Quebec, and the lack of it elsewhere, led Pearson—who had initiated the visit in the first place—to warn the Queen that the Monarchy’s days in the dominion were numbered."
Despite calls by the Toronto Star for a move to a republic as a mark of Canada's centennial, Elizabeth, accompanied by Prince Philip, presided over the main celebration of the event, taking part in a ceremony on Parliament Hill and touring Expo 67, which had also been visited by her sister, Princess Margaret. Philip opened the Pan American Games in Winnipeg later in July.
A constitutional conference was held in Ottawa in February 1968, at which the delegates from Quebec indicated that a provincial president might suit the province better than the lieutenant governor, but the proposal was not accepted, the overall feeling being that the monarchy "has served us well and that its reform has no great priority in the present round of constitutional changes." Still, during constitutional talks ten years later, alterations to the Crown were put back on the table by the Cabinet of Pierre Trudeau, which proposed that the governor general be made full head of state and renamed as First Canadian. The provincial premiers, including Quebec's, reacted strongly against these suggestions.
Over the same period, references to the monarch and the monarchy were slowly removed from the public eye. For instance, while a number of royal symbols did remain, and new ones, like the Canadian Royal Standard, were created, the Queen's portrait was seen less and less in public schools, the federal government adopted a corporate identity programme without royal insignia, the Royal Mail became Canada Post, and the Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Canadian Air Force were merged along with the army into the Canadian Armed Forces. Of the changes made, it was said "the Crown was to be rooted in the future, not the past; for the historic Crown with its anthem, emblems, and symbolism made accessible a past the government of the day rejected," a policy never to be discussed, either publicly or at constitutional conferences, following the rejoinder to Trudeau's 1978 constitutional amendments. John Fraser called it "the process of gradual attrition".
These moves, in combination with his cabinet's constitutional tinkering and his antics and breaches of protocol around the monarch, fostered suspicion that Trudeau harboured republican notions; it was rumoured by Paul Martin, Sr. that the Queen was worried the Crown "had little meaning for him." In response to Trudeau's attitude towards the monarchy, the Monarchist League of Canada was founded in 1970 to promote Canada's status as a constitutional monarchy.
Still, the Queen consented to allow her representatives in Canada to undertake more of her duties, and by the early 1970s it was common practice for the governor general to represent the Queen and Canada abroad on state visits. Elizabeth continued to tour the country, though, and did so a number of times during the 1970s. That which was undertaken in 1970—involving the Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh, Prince Charles, and Princess Anne—to mark the centennials of the creation of the Northwest Territories and of Manitoba was also intended, by way of the monarch's presence in Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk, to assert Canadian sovereignty over the north, which was then being questioned by the United States. In 1973, the Queen and Prince Philip travelled to Charlottetown to celebrate centennial of Prince Edward Island and to Regina for the 100th anniversary of the establishment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. At the same time she, on Trudeau's advice, attended that year's Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting—the first held on Canadian soil—initiating the tradition of the monarch attending such conferences, no matter the location. Three years later, Trudeau also, at the urging of Premier of Quebec Robert Bourassa, advised the Queen to open the Olympics in Montreal, which were attended by no less than six other members of the Royal Family: the Duke of Edinburgh, Mark Phillips, Prince Edward, Prince Andrew, Prince Charles, and Princess Anne, who competed in the games for the United Kingdom. Then, the following year, the Queen, accompanied by her husband, returned to undertake a coast-to-coast circuit marking her Silver Jubilee.
Though she decided against suggestions that she allow Prince Charles to attend university in Canada, for worry that he would be hounded by the press, in 1978 Prince Andrew was back in Canada to attend Lakefield College School for a semester, as part of a Round Square exchange programme, and he too was presented with a canoe by Her Majesty's Canadian Cabinet.
An independent kingdom
On 29 July 1981, with the required approval of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, Prince Charles married Lady Diana Spencer in a wedding that attracted the attention of millions of Canadians. The ceremony was attended by Governor General Edward Schreyer, and, echoing the gift presented to the Queen and Prince Philip upon their wedding in 1947, Trudeau commissioned a hand built canoe as the Cabinet's gift for the royal couple. Diana proved more popular with Canadians than the Prince of Wales; it was noted by a former member of Charles' household that during a 1983 tour of the country, when the Prince emerged from the car there would be groans, but cheers for Diana when she was seen. Charles' aunt, Princess Margaret, also received negative attention when, in 1981, her visit to the Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada in Cambridge, Ontario, as their Colonel-in-Chief, was targeted by Irish nationalist protesters. At one of the ceremonies, which were boycotted by three city councillors, there was a scare when a gun barrel was thought to have been seen in the gathered crowd, but it proved to be a mistake.
At the same time, the government was approaching a final resolution on the constitutional issues of the past decades. In 1981, Paul Martin, Sr., John Roberts, and Mark MacGuigan were sent to the UK to discuss the patriation project; Martin noted that during this time the Queen had taken a great interest in the constitutional debate, and the three found the monarch "better informed on both the substance and politics of Canada's constitutional case than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats." Elizabeth continued to assist with the project until a conclusion was reached the following year, when in Ottawa on 17 April she proclaimed the Constitution Act, 1982, which, amongst other changes and additions, patriated the constitution, making it fully Canadian law, and entrenched the monarchy in Canada; any change to the position of the monarch or the viceroys thenceforth required the consent of the federal and all ten provincial legislatures. Trudeau commented in his memoirs: "I always said it was thanks to three women that we were eventually able to reform our Constitution[, including] The Queen, who was favourable... I was always impressed not only by the grace she displayed in public at all times, but by the wisdom she showed in private conversation."
However, the terms under which the constitution was patriated had not been agreed to by the Cabinet of Quebec, headed by Premier René Lévesque, a move that was viewed by Quebec sovereigntists as a betrayal. The Queen, aware this was the first time in Canadian history that a major constitutional change had been made without the agreement of the Quebec government, privately expressed to journalists her regret that Quebec was not part of the settlement.“”
In 1987, after the first agreements were reached among the 11 prime ministers in Canada on the Meech Lake Accord—which attempted to bring Quebec governmental support to the patriated constitution by introducing further amendments—the Queen made a rare foray into political matters when she publicly expressed on 22 and 23 October her personal support for the plan. She received criticism from opponents of the accord and Pierre Trudeau did not arrive for an official lunch with the Queen on 24 October. Also in 1987, Prince Andrew toured Canada with, for the first time, his wife, Sarah, Duchess of York, who proved popular with Canadians and relaxed among them. The royal couple spent 18 days canoeing through the Canadian north, and the Duchess later reminisced that "Canada is like my second home." She also revealed in 2009 that sometime during her marriage to the Duke of York, he had been offered the position of Governor General of Canada; the couple agreed to decline, and the Duchess of York speculated in hindsight that the choice may have ultimately been a contributing factor in their eventual divorce in 1996. The idea had also been floated that Canada abandon its status as a Commonwealth realm but retain a separate monarchy with Prince Andrew as King of Canada; this proposal, too, was never pursued.
The Queen undertook another tour of Canada in 1990, a trip originally planned around her putting the royal sign-manual to the constitutional amendment that would have implemented the Meech Lake Accord's plans, including recognising Quebec to be a distinct society. The accord, however, had failed, which inspired fears for the unity of Canada. At Canada Day celebrations on Parliament Hill, Elizabeth addressed the crowds, stating: "It is my fondest wish... that Canadians come together and remain together... I and members of my family have been with you on many special days in the life of this country... Canada is a country that has been blessed beyond most countries in the world. It is a country worth working for."
Despite the Queen's pleas, however, nationalism in Quebec gained vigour and another referendum on departure from Canada was held in 1995. Five days before the vote, the monarch was tricked into speaking in both French and English for fourteen minutes with Pierre Brassard, a DJ for Radio CKOI-FM Montreal, who was pretending to be Prime Minister Jean Chrétien. When told that the separatists were showing a lead, the Queen revealed that she felt the "referendum may go the wrong way," adding, "if I can help in any way, I will be very happy to do so." However, she pointedly refused to accept the advice that she intervene on the issue without first seeing a draft speech sent by her prime minister. Overall, her tactful handling of the call won plaudits from the DJ who made it, and the real Chrétien later in his memoirs recounted the Queen's tongue-in-cheek comments to him regarding the affair: "'I didn't think you sounded quite like yourself,' she told me, 'but I thought, given all the duress you were under, you might have been drunk.'" On 30 October, the day of the referendum, Queen Elizabeth was on her way to a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in New Zealand and asked her pilot to remain at Los Angeles International Airport until the final tally from Quebec had been announced.
The new millennium
It was leaked on 18 December 1998 by Peter Donolo, press secretary to the prime minister, that staff in the Prime Minister's Office and other Liberal Party members were working on a plan to abolish the monarchy by the turn of the millennium, though this was denied by Chrétien himself, and disapproved of by the majority of incumbent provincial premiers. Save for some journalists, such as Lawrence Martin, who broke the story, the idea was also roundly denounced in the media.
The group Citizens for a Canadian Republic was formed in 2002 to promote the replacement of the constitutional monarchy with some form of republic, and attention was drawn to this cause when then Deputy Prime Minister John Manley became the first ever federal minister of the Crown to publicly support the end of the Canadian monarchy, saying in an interview that Canada should become a republic upon the demise of Queen Elizabeth II. These words came just before the Queen and her husband undertook a 12-day tour of the country to mark Elizabeth's Golden Jubilee, and thousands turned out to the various occasions. However, approximately 100 Québécois protesters were seen when the royal motorcade crossed from Ottawa into Gatineau, and Quebec Premier Bernard Landry stated that the provincial government would neither mount any celebrations of the anniversary, nor send representatives to any others, in protest of the Queen's signing of the Constitution Act, 1982.
In December the next year, after lengthy discussions between the federal government and the Acadian community, Governor General Adrienne Clarkson put her signature to a Royal Proclamation that indicated the Crown's acknowledgement of the 1754 deportation of the Acadians and established 28 July as the Day of Commemoration of the Great Upheaval; While not a formal apology, the gesture quelled demands by Acadians that one be issued by the Queen.
The Queen and Duke of Edinburgh toured Alberta and Saskatchewan to partake in celebrations marking those provinces' centennials. The Cabinet of Alberta wished for the monarch to personally grant Royal Assent to a bill passed by the provincial legislature; however, the constitutionality of the Queen doing so was questioned, and Rideau Hall stated the Queen's personal participation in the legislative process would conflict with the federal government's policy of the Canadianization of Canada's institutions.
In 2006, Stephen Harper was appointed as Prime Minister. In his first address to parliament as head of government, Harper opened by paying tribute to the Queen and her "lifelong dedication to duty and self-sacrifice," referring to her specifically as Canada's head of state.
Prince Harry arrived in Canada to train, along with other soldiers of the Canadian and British armies, at CFB Suffield, near Medicine Hat, Alberta, for a tour of duty in Afghanistan. Harry went off base during down time and journeyed to Calgary to take in the nightlife. At the same time, Harry's aunt, the Princess Royal, was in Saskatchewan meeting with family members of Saskatchewan soldiers killed in Afghanistan. This was part of a wider tour of the province that included her participation in ceremonies to mark the centennnial of the Royal Regina Rifles, of which she is Colonel-in-Chief, as well as opening the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Heritage Centre, and meeting with First Nations elders at Government House.
Nearing the end of 2007 it was revealed that the Queen was not going to attend the festivities for the 400th anniversary of the foundation of Quebec City, to take place in 2008. The government of Quebec had requested that Ottawa make plans for the sovereign to be part of the celebration, having her follow in the footsteps of her grandfather, George V, who presided over the tercentenary celebrations of the same event in 1908. However, the federal Cabinet advised the Queen not to do, fearing her presence would provoke Quebec separatists, especially after the announcement of her possibly attending did incite separatists to promise protests.
Elizabeth became on 9 September 2015 the second-longest reigning Canadian monarch (after King Louis XIV of France), though she was still celebrated as the "longest-reigning sovereign in Canada's modern era". The Bank of Canada, Canada Post, and the Royal Canadian Mint issued a commemorative bank note, stamp, and coin, respectively. A 30-minute performance of music "reflecting Her Majesty's life and times" was played on the Peace Tower carillon on Parliament Hill. The Governor General, lieutenant governors, and territorial commissioners delivered a loyal address to the Queen.
Monarchs of Canadian territories
The line of monarchs who reigned over territories that would become Canadian or over Canada itself begins approximately at the turn of the 16th century. The date of the first establishment a monarchical form of government in parts of the territory which now forms Canada varies: some sources give the year as 1497, when King Henry VII claimed parts of Newfoundland, while others put it at 1534, when New France was founded in the name of King Francis I. Monarchical governance thenceforth evolved under a continuous succession of French and British sovereigns, and eventually the legally distinct Canadian monarchy. Since John Cabot first lay claim to Canada in the name of Henry VII, there have been 33 sovereigns of Canada, including two sets of co-sovereigns.
- History of Canada
- History of Monarchy in British Columbia
- History of Monarchy in Newfoundland and Labrador
- History of Monarchy in Nova Scotia
- History of Monarchy in Ontario
- History of Monarchy in Quebec
- History of Monarchy in Saskatchewan
- Monarchy in Manitoba
- Republicanism in Canada
- Royal tours of Canada
- Video of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in Canada, 1939 on YouTube
- Royal Journey, a 1951 NFB documentary on the Royal Visit by Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh
- "Origin of the Name - Canada". Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Government of Canada (1 July 2012). "Discover Canada – Canada's History". Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- The Canadian Encyclopedia (1 July 2008). "John Cabot". Historica Canada. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry. "The Sovereigns of Canada". Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- Kenney, Jason (23 April 2007), "Speech to the Lieutenant Governors Meeting", written at Regina, in Department of Canadian Heritage, Speeches > The Honourable Jason Kenney, Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved 27 January 2010
- Clerk of the Senate. "Canada: A Constitutional Monarchy". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
- Monet, Jacques (2007). "Crown and Country" (PDF). Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). Summer 2007 (26): 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-13. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
- Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry (1991), Royal Observations, Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd., p. 8, ISBN 1-55002-076-5, retrieved 7 March 2010
- Eugene Forsey (2010). "How Canadians Govern Themselves" (PDF). Library of Parliament. pp. 8–10. ISBN 978-1-100-14351-4. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- The Royal Household. "The Queen and the Commonwealth > Queen and Canada". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
- Ferguson, Will (27 October 2003). "The Lost Kingdom". Maclean's (Toronto: Kenneth Whyte). ISSN 0024-9262. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
- Kehoe, Alice Beck (October 2001). "First Nations History". The World & I Online. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
- Bourinot, J. G. (2009). The Story of Canada. Read Books. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-4446-3974-2.
- Coates, Colin MacMillan (2006). Majesty in Canada: essays on the role of royalty. Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-55002-586-6.
- Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Gary (2002), Fifty Years the Queen, Toronto: Dundurn Press, p. 8, ISBN 1-55002-360-8
- Odrowaz-Sypniewska, Margaret. "The Four Indian Kings". The Bear Clan. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
- Makarenko, Jay (1 June 2007). "The Monarchy in Canada". Maple Leaf Web. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
- Tidridge, Nathan (2011), Canada's Constitutional Monarchy: An Introduction to Our Form of Government, Toronto: Dundurn Press, p. 26, ISBN 9781459700840
- Tidridge 2011, pp. 26–27
- Wood, William (1911). "Preface". In Doughty, A.G.; Wood, William. The King's Book of Quebec. Ottawa: The Mortimer Co. Ltd. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-665-71157-2. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
- Coates, Colin M., ed. (2006), "The Look of the Town", Majesty in Canada, Hamilton: Dundurn Press, p. 200, ISBN 9781550025866, retrieved 16 October 2012
- Holton, Woody (August 1994). "The Ohio Indians and the Coming of the American Revolution in Virginia". The Journal of Southern History (Houston: The Southern Historical Association) 60 (3): 453–478. doi:10.2307/2210989.
- Department of Canadian Heritage, Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion > The Canadian Monarchy > 2005 Royal Visit > The Royal Presence in Canada – A Historical Overview, Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved 4 November 2007
- Clark, S.D. (1978), Movements of Political Protest in Canada, 1640–1840, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 150–151
- Hall, Trevor. "Canada: A History of Royal Visits for Canada since 1786". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 2007-09-13. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
- Doughty 1911, p. 161
- Bousfield 2002, p. 64
- "Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada". Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
- Bousfield 1991, p. 10
- Chevrier, Marc (1996). "Canadian federalism and the autonomy of Quebec: A historical viewpoint" (PDF). Quebec City: Éditeur officiel du Québec. p. 3. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
- Philips, Stephen (2003). "The Emergence of A Canadian Monarchy: 1867–1953" (PDF). Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada) 7 (4). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-07-08. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
- Bousfield 1991, p. 11
- Bousfield 1991, pp. 13–14
- Boswell, Randy (12 March 2010), "Table set for Elizabeth to make a Queen's Plate appearance?", Vancouver Sun, retrieved 16 March 2010
- Bousfield 1991, p. 16
- Knop, Karen (1995), Rethinking Federalism: Citizens, Markets, and Governments in a Changing World, Vancouver: UBC Press, p. 232, ISBN 978-0-7748-0500-1
- Hall, Tony (1998). "The politics of monarchy: it's not what you might expect". Canadian Forum (Toronto: James Lorimer and Co.) (April 1998). Retrieved 9 September 2009.
- Lakritz, Naomi (28 October 2009), "Our ties to monarchy are bigger than the royals", Calgary Herald, retrieved 2 November 2009
- Fisher, Amy; Savard, Nicolas; Mohamed, Tod. "Canadian Confederation > Towards Confederation > Influence of the American Civil War > Fear of Annexation by the United States". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 2008-09-19. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
- Tidridge 2011, p. 20
- Hubbard, R.H. (1977), Rideau Hall, Montreal and London: McGill-Queen's University Press, p. 9, ISBN 978-0-7735-0310-6
- Ewart, John Skirving (1908), The kingdom of Canada, imperial federation, the colonial conferences, the Alaska boundary and other essays, Morang Educational Company Limited, p. 3, retrieved 6 March 2010
- Colquhoun, A. H. U. (2009), "The Fathers of Confederation: A Chronicle of the Birth of the Dominion", in Wrong, George M.; Langton, H. H., The Chronicles of Canada III, Tucson: Fireship Press, p. 60, ISBN 978-1-934757-51-2, retrieved 1 July 2010
- Forsey, Eugene (2005), How Canadians Govern Themselves (PDF) (6 ed.), Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, pp. 8–9, ISBN 0-662-39689-8, retrieved 14 May 2009
- Department of Canadian Heritage. "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion > The Canadian Monarchy > 2005 Royal Visit > The Royal Presence in Canada – A Historical Overview". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
- Hubbard 1977, p. 17
- Sandwell, R.W. (2006), "Dreaming of the Princess: Love, Subversion, and the Rituals of Empire in British Columbia, 1882", in Coates, Colin MacMillan, Majesty in Canada: essays on the role of royalty, Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd., p. 48, ISBN 978-1-55002-586-6, retrieved 16 January 2011
- Longford, Elizabeth (1991), Darling Loosy, letters to Princess Louise, 1856–1939, New York: Little Brown & Co, p. 45, ISBN 978-0-297-81179-4
- Longford 1991, p. 45
- Hubbard 1977, p. 125
- Ormsby, Margaret A. (1958). "British Columbia: A History". Vancouver: Macmillan. p. 287.
- Sandwell 2006, p. 44
- Ormsby 1958, p. 289
- Stocker, Mark (2004). "Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 2. Oxford University Press.
- Government of Alberta. "About Alberta > History". Alberta Queen's Printer. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
- Wake, Jehanne (1988), Princess Louise: Queen Victoria's unconventional daughter, London: Collins, p. 410, ISBN 978-0-00-217076-5
- Peters, Diane (1998). "A Celebration of Empire: Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee". CAML Review (Ottawa: Canadian Association of Music Libraries) 26 (2): 26. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Learning about the Diamond Jubilee Canada stamps". The Stamp Echo. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- Aitken, Peter G. "Canada Sc# 54 on cover". Peter Aitken.
- Rayburn, Alan, "Victoria", in Marsh, James Harley, The Canadian Encyclopedia, Toronto: Historica-Dominion Institute, ISBN 0-88830-326-2, retrieved 30 January 2010
- Hubbard 1977, p. 82
- Bousfield 1991, pp. 20–22
- Buchan, John (1924), Lord Minto: A Memoir, London, New York: T. Nelson and Sons
- Clerk of the House of Commons (1901), Debates: official report 1, Ottawa: King's Printer for Canada
- Hubbard 1977, pp. 101–106
- Arthur, George (1935), Queen Mary, London: Thornton Butterworth
- Doig, Ronald P. (1961), Earl Grey's papers: An introductory survey, London: Private Libraries Association, Grey to Queen Alexandra, 21 May 1910; George V to Grey, 27 May 1910
- Hubbard 1977
- Borden, Robert (1 January 1969), Memoirs 1, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, pp. 601–602
- Hubbard 1977, pp. 145–146
- Department of Canadian Heritage. "Royal Visit 2001 > Getting to Know the Prince of Wales". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 9 May 2007.
- Heard, Andrew (1990). Canadian Independence. Vancouver: Simon Fraser University. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
- Balfour, Arthur (1926), "Imperial Conference 1926", in Inter-Imperial Relations Committee, E (I.R./26) Series, Westminster: King's Printer, p. 2 http://www.foundingdocs.gov.au/item.asp?dID=24 Missing or empty
- Balfour 1926, p. 3
- Bélanger, Claude (26 February 2001). "The Statute of Westminster (1931)". Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- Monet, Jacques (1979), The Canadian Crown, Clarke, Irwin & Co. Ltd., p. 37, ISBN 978-0-7720-1252-4, retrieved 6 March 2010
- Bell, Lynne; Bousfield, Arthur; Bousfield, Gary (2007), Queen and Consort, Toronto: Dundurn Press, p. 33, ISBN 978-1-55002-725-9
- Picknett, Lynn; Prince, Clive; Prior, Stephen; Brydon, Robert (2002), War of the Windsors: A Century of Unconstitutional Monarchy, Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing, p. 37, ISBN 978-1-84018-631-4
- Bell 2007, p. 34
- Broad, Lewis (1961), The Abdication, London: Frederick Muller Ltd., p. 47
- Hubbard 1977, p. 187
- Éamon de Valera quoted in Bradford, Sarah (1989), King George VI, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. 188, ISBN 0-297-79667-4
- Library and Archives Canada (2007). "The Diaries of William Lyon Mackenzie King". Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 581.
- Tony O'Donohue v. Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 41404 (ON S.C.), S.33 (Ontario Superior Court of Justice 2003).
- Library and Archives Canada 2007, p. 556
- Galbraith, William (1989). "Fiftieth Anniversary of the 1939 Royal Visit". Canadian Parliamentary Review (Ottawa: Commonwealth Parliamentary Association) 12 (3): 7. Retrieved 20 February 2009.
- Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry (2002). Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, 1900–2002: The Queen Mother and Her Century a Tribute. Toronto: Dundurn Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-55002-391-6.
- Thornton, Willis (5 June 1939), "Royal tour confirms reality of 'King of Canada' idea", The Palm Beach Post: 5, retrieved 14 October 2010
- McCulloch, Tony (2007), "Roosevelt, Mackenzie King and the British Royal Visit to the USA in 1939" (PDF), London Journal of Canadian Studies (London Conference for Canadian Studies) 23: 86–87, retrieved 30 August 2010
- Library and Archives Canada 2007, pp. 398, 533
- Douglas 1995, p. 12
- Boyce, Peter (2008). The Queen's Other Realms. Sydney: Federation Press. p. 27. ISBN 9781862877009. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
- MacCormac, John (2 February 1939), "George VI as King of Canada; Canada's suggestion", The New York Times: 77, retrieved 13 October 2010
- Warwick, Christopher (1985). King George VI & Queen Elizabeth: a Portrait. Ann Arbor: Sidgwick & Jackson. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-283-99182-0.
- Metheral, Ken (19 June 1959), "Canada Queen's Role Underlined", Montreal Gazette: 2, retrieved 14 October 2010
- Galbraith 1989, p. 8
- De-la-Noy, Michael (1997). The Queen Behind the Throne. London: Ramboro Books PLC. p. 116. ISBN 978-7-215-99003-6.
- Hubbard 1977, p. 191
- Douglas, W.A.B.; Greenhous, Brereton (1995), Out of the Shadows: Canada in the Second World War, Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd., p. 11, ISBN 1-55002-151-6
- Metcalfe, Heather M., ed. (18 May 1939), "Winnipeg Free Press, The King Arrives", written at Winnipeg, It's All About War: Canadian Opinion and the Canadian Approach to International Relations, 1935–1939 (PDF), Toronto: University of Toronto (published 2009), p. 10, retrieved 8 October 2010
- Galbraith 1989, p. 9
- Bell, Peter (October 2002), "The Foreign Office and the 1939 Royal Visit to America: Courting the USA in an Era of Isolationism" (PDF), Journal of Contemporary History 37 (4): 603, 611, doi:10.1177/00220094020370040601, retrieved 30 August 2010
- King 1939, pp. 247, 413–414
- Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Gary (1989). Royal Spring: The Royal Tour of 1939 and the Queen Mother in Canada. Toronto: Dundurn Press. pp. 60, 66. ISBN 1-55002-065-X.
- Douglas 1995, p. 19
- Lanctot, Gustave (1964), Royal Tour of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in Canada and the United States of America 1939, Toronto: E.P. Taylor Foundation, ASIN B0006EB752
- Tidridge 2011, p. 49
- Lesser, Rebecca (2007), By the Side of the Roaring Lion (PDF), University of British Columbia, p. 20, retrieved 8 September 2010
- Granatstein, Jack (10 September 2009), "Going to war? 'Parliament will decide'", The Globe and Mail (Toronto), retrieved 13 September 2009
- Scott, F.R. (January 1944). "The End of Dominion Status". The American Journal of International Law (American Society of International Law) 38 (1): 167. doi:10.2307/2192530. JSTOR 2192530.
- Scott 1944, p. 152
- Campagnolo, Iona (5 February 2007), "Speech to Retired Heads of Mission Association's Gala Dinner", in Office of the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia, Government House, Victoria: Queen's Printer for British Columbia, retrieved 27 May 2009
- "War & Conflict > Second World War > Queen asks Canadian women to help war effort". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
- Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Role and Responsibilities > Former Governors General > Major General The Earl of Athlone". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- Boland, Jack (12 May 2006). "Paddling into history". Canoe News. Retrieved 4 September 2008.
- Bousfield 2002, p. 67
- Bell 2007, pp. 127, 143
- Bell 2007, p. 72
- Bell 2007, p. 74
- Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (1952), Documents on Canadian External Relations 18, Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved 20 December 2009
- "Society > The Monarchy > Canada's New Queen". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- Cotton, Belinda; Ramsey, Ron. "By Appointment: Norman Hartnell's sample for the Coronation dress of Queen Elizabeth II". National Gallery of Australia. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- Trepanier, Peter (1989). "Some Visual Aspects of the Monarchical Tradition" (PDF). Canadian Parliamentary Review (Ottawa: Commonwealth Parliamentary Association) 27 (2): 27. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- Bousfield 2002, p. 78
- Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. "Society > The Monarchy > Canada's New Queen > Coronation of Queen Elizabeth > Did You Know?". CBC. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- "The Form and Order of Service that is to be performed and the Ceremonies that are to be observed in The Coronation of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in the Abbey Church of St. Peter, Westminster, on Tuesday, the second day of June, 1953". IV. An Anglican Liturgical Library. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
- Bell 2007, p. 75
- Bell 2007, p. 135
- Bousfield 2002, pp. 11–16
- Trepanier 1989, p. 30
- Callwood, June (December 1957). "June Callwood's Story of the Queen's Visit". Maclean's (Toronto: Maclean-Hunter) 70: 16. ISSN 0024-9262.
- Considine, Bob (14 October 1957), "Elizabeth Opens Canada 23rd Parliament Today", Milwaukee Sentinel, retrieved 13 August 2012
- "The Queen Emphasises Canadian Role for Visit to America", Sydney Morning Herald, 14 October 1957, retrieved 13 August 2012
- Metheral, Ken (19 June 1959), "Canada Queen's Role Underlined", Montreal Gazette, retrieved 13 August 2012
- Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry (2002). Fifty Years the Queen: A Tribute to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on Her Golden Jubilee. Toronto: Dundurn Press. p. 16. ISBN 9781554881635.
- "Elizabeth II Queen of Canada". Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
- "Royal Visit". Time (New York: Time Inc.) IXX (17). 21 October 1957. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
- Department of Canadian Heritage. "Test your royal skills". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
- DeSouza, Raymond (5 March 2007), "An extraordinary life", National Post, retrieved 14 March 2009
- Bell 2007, p. 147
- Buckner, Phillip (2005), "The Last Great Royal Tour: Queen Elizabeth's 1959 Tour to Canada", in Buckner, Phillip, Canada and the End of Empire, Vancouver: UBC Press, p. 69, ISBN 0-7748-0915-9, retrieved 24 October 2009
- Boyce 2008, p. 10
- Buckner 2005, p. 76
- Buckner 2005, p. 87
- Buckner 2005, p. 85
- "Science & Technology > Technology > Transatlantic phone cable officially opened". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- Anderson, Alan B. (1981), Ethnicity in Canada: Theoretical Perspectives, Oxford: Butterworth Publishing Ltd., ISBN 978-0-409-81110-0
- Association for Canadian Studies, ed. (6–8 June 1997), "Canadian identity: Region, country, nation", Selected proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the Association for Canadian Studies
- Phillips, Stephen (2004). "Republicanism in Canada in the Reign of Elizabeth II: the Dog that Didn't Bark" (PDF). Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). Summer 2004 (22): 19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-07-08. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- Speaight, Robert (1970), Vanier, Soldier, Diplomat, Governor General: A Biography, London: William Collins, Sons and Co. Ltd., ISBN 978-0-00-262252-3
- "Courage of the Queen". Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- Dubois, Paul (12 October 1964), "Demonstrations Mar Quebec Events Saturday", Montreal Gazette: 1, retrieved 6 March 2010
- Pape, Gordon (12 October 1964), "Kidnap Threat Made Against Lesage's Son", Montreal Gazette: 1, retrieved 24 February 2010
- Fraser, John (28 April 2012), "John Fraser: When Quebecers loved the Crown (and why they stopped)", National Post, retrieved 29 April 2012
- Toporoski, Richard (June 2006). "Can the Queen Grant Royal Assent in a Provincial Legislature?: No" (PDF). Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). Fall-Winter 2005 (24): 19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-25. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
- "Society > The Monarchy > 1964 Quebec visit – speech". CBC. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
- Pape, Gordon (12 October 1964). "Queen Joins Call for Constitution's Need of Updating". Montreal Gazette. p. 1. Retrieved 24 February 2010.
- "Society > The Monarchy > Truncheon Saturday". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- Pape, Gordon (12 October 1964), "Queen Joins Call for Constitution's Need of Updating", Montreal Gazette: 1, retrieved 24 February 2010
- Bantey, Bill (12 October 1964). "Queen Ends Visit After Receiving Invitation To View Quebec's Progress at Later Date". Montreal Gazette. p. 1. Retrieved 24 February 2010.
- Bousfield 2002, p. 139
- Pimlott, Ben (1996), Fraser, John, ed., "When Quebecers loved the Crown (and why they stopped)", National Post (2012)
- Michener, Roland (1971) [19 November 1970]. "The Empire Club of Canada Speeches 1970–1971". Toronto: The Empire Club Foundation. pp. 130–149. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
- Heinricks, Geoff (2001). "Trudeau and the Monarchy". Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada, published July 2001) (Winter/Spring 2001–2001). Archived from the original on 2008-04-23. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
- Smith, David E. Watson, William, ed. Policy Options: Bye-Bye for Good? (PDF) (May 1999) (Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy). p. 11 http://www.irpp.org/po/archive/may99/smith.pdf. Retrieved 10 February 2009. Missing or empty
- Valpy, Michael. Watson, William, ed. Policy Options: Bye-Bye for Good? (May 1999) (Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy). p. 26 http://www.irpp.org/po/. Retrieved 17 February 2009. Missing or empty
- Smith, David E. (1995), The Invisible Crown, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, p. 47, ISBN 0-8020-7793-5
- Toporoski, Richard (1998). "The Invisible Crown". Monarchy Canada (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). Archived from the original on 2008-02-24. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
- Heinricks, Geoff (2001), Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada), Winter/Spring 2000–2001, retrieved 26 February 2010 Missing or empty
- "Who we are and what we do". Monarchist League of Canada. Retrieved 19 July 2008.
- Harris, Caroline (18 October 2013). "Princess Anne's visit strengthens bond with Kingston". Kingston Whig-Standard. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- Royal Household. "The current Royal Family > The Duke of York > Early life and education". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
- Palango, Paul (8 May 1981), "Privy Council nod on royal betrothal 'medieval'", Globe and Mail
- "Charles and Camilla to wed". CBC. 11 February 2005. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
- Leyland, Joanne (29 May 2006). "Charles and Diana in Australia (1983)". The Royalist. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
- Dalton, Melinda (4 May 2007), "Royal visit sparks memories" (PDF), The Record, retrieved 2 July 2008
- MacLeod 2008, p. 12
- Geddes, John (2012), "The day she descended into the fray", Maclean's (Special Commemorative Edition: The Diamond Jubilee: Celebrating 60 Remarkable years ed.) (Rogers Communications): 72
- Mandel, Michelle (10 May 2007), "The Duchess of York – the First Fergie – can be quite down-to-earth until she decides otherwise", Toronto Sun, retrieved 23 November 2008[dead link]
- Miranda, Charles (2 March 2009). "Duchess of York Sarah Ferguson on love in royal palace". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- Coyne, Andrew (13 November 2009). "Defending the royals". Maclean's (Toronto: Roger's Communications). ISSN 0024-9262. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
- O'Neal, Brian (December 1995), "Distinct Society: Origins, Interpretations, Implications", in Library of Parliament, Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, BP-408E http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/library/PRBpubs/bp408-e.htm, retrieved 7 March 2010 Missing or empty
- "Royal Visits to Canada". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 2006-11-28. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- Boyce, Peter (2008). The Queen's Other Realms. Canberra: Federation Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-86287-700-9.
- Bousfield, Arthur (April 1996). "A Queen Canada Should be Proud Of". Monarchy Canada (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). Archived from the original on 2008-09-19. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- Thompson, Elizabeth (14 October 2007), "Chrétien's Revenge", The Gazette, retrieved 13 April 2008
- "Liberals considering break from monarchy". CBC. 18 December 1998. Archived from the original on 2009-01-16. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
- "Premiers Nix Monarchy Abolition". Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada) (Winter-Spring 1999). 1999. Archived from the original on 2009-07-08. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- Chrétien, Jean (2007), My Years as Prime Minister, Toronto: Knopf Canada, p. 248, ISBN 978-0-676-97900-8
- "Queen begins final leg of Jubilee tour". CBC. 13 October 2002. Retrieved 9 May 2007.
- ""It means something to be a Canadian": Queen". CBC. 13 October 2002. Retrieved 9 May 2007.
- "Queen visits GM Place to drop ceremonial puck". Spirit of Vancouver (Vancouver Board of Trade). 7 October 2002. Archived from the original on 2004-08-24. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- "Queen to drop puck at Vancouver hockey game". CTV. 15 September 2002. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- Phillips, Stephen. "Republicanism in Canada in the reign of Elizabeth II: the dog that didn't bark" (PDF). Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). Summer 2004 (22): 19–20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-07-08. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
- Elizabeth II (31 December 2003). "Proclamation Designating July 28 of Every Year as "A Day of Commemoration of the Great Upheaval", Commencing on July 28, 2005" (PDF). Canada Gazette (Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada) 137 (27): 3202–3203. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
- "News and Events > Minister Copps announces a day of Commemoration of the Great Upheaval". The Acadian Museum. 10 December 2003. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
- 39th Parliament, First Session, Edited Hansard, No. 003, Wednesday, April 5, 2006
- Canadian Press; CTV News: Prince Harry may be training in Alberta: reports; June 2, 2007
- Kennedy, Sarah; Fernandez, Pablo; Gilchrist, Emma; Sun Media: Prince Harry training in Alberta; June 2, 2007
- CTV News: Princess Anne helps mark regimental centennial; June 2, 2007
- CBC News: Queen won't be at Quebec City's big birthday bash; December 10, 2007
- Office of the Prime Minister of Canada (18 May 2015), Statement by the Prime Minister of Canada on the occasion of Victoria Day, Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved 21 May 2015
- Office of the Governor General of Canada (9 September 2015). "Governor General to Host Special Event in Honour of Her Majesty's Historic Reign". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
- "Loyal Address" (PDF). Queen's Printer for Ontario. 9 September 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
- MacLeod, Kevin S. (2012). A Crown of Maples (PDF) (2 ed.). Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-662-46012-1. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- "Crown in Canada - The Monarch". Queen's Printer for Canada. 1 June 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- Department of Canadian Heritage. "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion > The Canadian Monarchy". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
- Kenney, Jason (23 April 2007). "Speech to the Lieutenant Governors Meeting". Written at Regina. In Department of Canadian Heritage. Speeches > The Honourable Jason Kenney. Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
- Valpy, Michael (13 November 2009). "The monarchy: Offshore, but built-in". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved 14 November 2009.
- MacLeod 2012, p. 6
- Monet, Jacques. "The Canadian Encyclopedia". In Marsh, James Harley. Government > Parliamentary Institutions > Governor General. Toronto: Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- The Royal Household. "The Queen and the Commonwealth > Queen and Canada > History and present government". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- Editorial (26 May 2012), "Celebrating the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada", Toronto Star, retrieved 27 May 2012
- Harper, Stephen (2008). "Letter" (PDF). In MacLeod, Kevin S. A Crown of Maples. Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada (published 2012). p. vii. ISBN 978-0-662-46012-1. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry. "The Sovereigns of Canada". Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- Robertson, Colin (February 2008). "The true white north: reflections on being Canadian". Institute for Research on Public Policy. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- Parliament of Canada. "Canada: A Constitutional Monarchy". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- MacLeod 2012, pp. 2–3, 39
- Monet, Jacques (2007). "Crown and Country" (PDF). Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). Summer 2007 (26): 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- MacLeod 2012, p. 9
- Bousfield, Arthur and Toffoli, Garry (2004). "The Monarchy and Canadian Independence". Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry. "The Sovereigns of Canada". Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- MacLeod 2012, p. 78