History of retail in Southern California

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An 1853 ad in Spanish in the bilingual Los Angeles Star for Lazard & Kremer dry goods
S. Lazard & Co.'s store on Main St. between 1866-1872
Hamburger's, "The People's Store" Spring Street Early 1880s
Stern, Cahn & Loeb's City of Paris department store at 105-7 N. Spring St. (post-1890 numbering: 205-7 Spring), sometime between 1883-1890
Hamburger's building (later May Co. flagship) at 8th and Broadway, ca. 1912
1917 photo of Bullock's Downtown, opened 1907
J. W. Robinson's then-new flagship on 7th Street, 1915.
Seventh St. looking west from Broadway, 1917
Buffums' then newly expanded flagship, Downtown Long Beach, 1924
Bullocks Wilshire 1929 art deco-style flagship
Center court at South Coast Plaza mall, opened 1967
Fountain at Irvine Spectrum Center lifestyle center, opened 1995
Animated fountains at The Grove, opened 2002

Retail in Southern California dates back to its first dry goods store that Jonathan Temple opened in 1827 on Calle Principal (Main Street),[1] when Los Angeles was still a Mexican village. After the American conquest, as the pueblo grew into a small town surpassing 4,000 population in 1860, dry goods stores continued to open, including the forerunners of what would be local chains. Larger retailers moved progressively further south to the 1880s-1890s Central Business District, which was later razed to become the Civic Center. Starting in the mid-1890s, major stores moved ever southward, first onto Broadway around 3rd, then starting in 1905 to Broadway between 4th and 9th, then starting in 1915 westward onto West Seventh Street up to Figueroa. For half a century Broadway and Seventh streets together formed one of America's largest and busiest downtown shopping districts.

Branches in what were then the suburbs like Hollywood and Mid-Wilshire were built in the 1920s, and local department stores as well as branches of national variety stores and J. C. Penney opened in local downtowns in the outlying towns that would become the suburbs. However, real suburbanization took off in the 1950s with the building of shopping centers across the suburbs. By the 1960s few suburbanites ventured to Downtown Los Angeles to shop, and regional and community shopping centers flourished. Local chains Bullock's, The Broadway, J. W. Robinson's, May Co. and Buffums built out dozens of branches each in malls across Southern California, as did Sears and J. C. Penney.

In the 1990s the local department store chains either closed or were folded into Macy's. Alternative shopping center formats like power centers, lifestyle centers, and outlet malls arose, strip malls flourished, and as elsewhere in the country, shopping malls began to close or were transformed into strip-style community shopping centers. Retail in Southern California today is much like anywhere else in the United States, with a variety of shopping center formats, and ever-increasing competition from online shopping and major fallout of closed stores as a results of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic which closed stores for months.

Origins near the Plaza (1827-1870s)[edit]

The first dry goods store was opened by Jonathan Temple in 1827 when Los Angeles was a Mexican pueblo. Some of the dry goods retailers who opened over the following decades included two Harris & Frank (1856) and Desmond's (department store) (1862), that would grow into local chains that survived until the end of the 20th century. The dry goods stores migrated in the 1860s and 1870s a few blocks south of the Plaza to Temple, First, and Main streets, and some would grow into the first department stores, such as the City of Paris,[2] Jacoby Bros.,[3] Hamburger's,[4] and Coulter's.[5]

Downey blocks[edit]

On the northwest corner of Temple and Main streets stood four buildings in succession, the first two of which had a key role in the history of retail in Southern California, as it was home to a number of upscale retailers who would later grow to be big names in the city, and some, regional chains. The site later became a Post Office and Federal Building, and is now the Spring Street U.S. Courthouse.

  • Old Downey Block (?-1871), northwest corner of Temple and Main, Replaced by the Downey Block (1871-1910). Retailers that got their start here included Harris & Jacoby,[3][6] forerunners to the Harris & Frank clothing chain and the large Jacoby Bros. department store; and M. Kremer,[7] forerunner of the Los Angeles City of Paris.
  • Downey Block (1871–1910), replaced by the New Post Office in 1910. Retailers who were located here included Coulter's (1878-9),[5] Jacoby Bros. (1878-9),[8] and Quincy Hall (1876–1882),[9] forerunner of Harris & Frank.

Temple Block[edit]

Temple Block was actually a collection of different structures that occupied the block bounded by Spring, Main and Temple, erected in 1858 and expanded in 1871. The block had many law offices and also a key role in the retail history of Los Angeles, as it was the first home to several upscale retailers who would become big names in the city: Desmond's (1870–1882)[10] and Jacoby Bros. (1879–1891).[11]

By the 1880s, most upscale retailers would have migrated southwestward, clustering around First and Spring in what had become the new center of the 1880s-1890s central business district, which was demolished in the 1920s–1950s and it today the site of the (mostly) government buildings of the Civic Center.

Broadway as regional shopping mecca[edit]

The major department stores started to migrate to, or were built along, Broadway between 3rd and 9th streets around 1905–1915, and built very large stores that would over the following decades expand to cover entire or nearly entire city blocks. The Broadway led the way in 1896, Hamburger's (later May Company California in 1906, and Bullock's in 1907. Starting with J. W. Robinson's in 1915, the more upscale stores also migrated westward along Seventh Street as far as Figueroa, where Barker Bros. built a million-square-foot store in 1926. Both streets together formed a very large downtown shopping district.

The square footage of the four largest Downtown L.A. department stores alone — Bullock's at 806,000 sq ft (74,900 m2), The Broadway at 577,000 sq ft (53,600 m2),[12] May Co. at over 1,000,000 sq ft (93,000 m2)[13] and J. W. Robinson's (7th St. at Hope) at 623,700 sq ft (57,940 m2)[14][15] — totaled over three million square feet, the size of American Dream Meadowlands, America's largest mall today.

Table of department stores on Broadway and 7th streets

Opened Left Moved or closed? Store Floor area (gross) Location Architects Current use
1884 1898 Moved to B'way Coulter's Hollenbeck Block, SW corner 2nd & Spring Historic Broadway station
1888 1908 Moved to 8th/B'way Hamburger's Phillips Block, Franklin & Spring Burgess J. Reeve Site of City Hall
1889 1910 Moved to B'way Mullen & Bluett 101–5 N. Spring Empty lot
1891 1900 Moved to 3rd/B'way Jacoby Bros. 128–134(–138) N. Spring at Court Site of City Hall
1895 ? The Hub Bullard Block, Spring at Court Morgan & Walls Site of City Hall
BROADWAY north of 4th St.
1893 1898 Moved to 317 B’way Ville de Paris[16]
(A. Fusenot Co.)
Potomac Block, 221-3 S. Broadway Block, Curlett & Eisen added to Coulter's late 1907, demolished 1958, now a parking lot
1895 1915 Moved to 7th St. Boston Dry Goods
(J.W. Robinson Co.)
237–241 S. Broadway Theodore Eisen and Sumner Hunt
(architects of the Bradbury Building)
Parking lot
1898 1905 Moved to 200 block of B'way Coulter's (1898–1905) 317–325 S. Broadway through to 314–322 Hill Street[17]
Homer Laughlin Building
John B. Parkinson became Ville de Paris
Now Grand Central Market
1899[18] 1935-6 Moved to 605 B'way[19][20] Jacoby Bros. 60,000 sq ft (5,600 m2) 331-333-335 S. Broadway John B. Parkinson[21] Was "Boston Store" in late 1930s.[22] Currently independent retail. 2 of 4 floors were removed.
1899 ? Moved to 455 B'way then 617 B'way I. Magnin/
Myer Siegel
Irvine Byrne Block,
251 S. Broadway[23]
Sumner Hunt Wedding chapel
1905 1917 Moved to 7th St. Coulter's 157,000 sq ft (14,600 m2)[24] Potomac Block: 225-7-9 S. Broadway through to 224-6-8 S. Hill St. Late 1907 added 219-221-223 S. Broadway to store. Block, Curlett & Eisen demolished, site of parking lot
1905 1917 Moved to 7th St. Ville de Paris 96,000 sq ft (8,900 m2)[citation needed] 317–325 S. Broadway through to 314–322 Hill Street[17]
Homer Laughlin Building
John B. Parkinson Grand Central Market
1905 1917 Moved to 7th St. J. J. Haggarty Co. “New York Store’ 337–9 S. Broadway Independent retail. Only 2 stories remain.
1909 ? ? J. M. Hale (Hale’s) 341-343-345 S. Broadway[25] retail, top floors were removed
BROADWAY south of 4th St.
1896 1973 Moved to B'way Plaza The Broadway Dept. Store[26] 1924, 577,000 sq ft (53,600 m2)[27] SW corner 4th & Broadway, later through to Hill Junipero Serra State Office Building
1904 ? ? Silverwoods 1920: 115,420 sq ft (10,723 m2)[28] 556 S. Broadway (NE corner of 6th) Broadway Jewelry Mart
1905 ? Closed Fifth Street Store
(Steele, Faris, & Walker Co.)
Later called Walker's
1917: 278,640 sq ft (25,887 m2)[29] SW corner 5th & Broadway Replaced existing store with new building in 1917[29]
Building later housed Ohrbach's
1906 1986 Moved to FIGat7th Hamburger's
After 1925: May Company
1906: 482,475 sq ft (44,823.4 m2)[30][31]
1930, >1,000,000 sq ft (93,000 m2)[32]
SW corner 8th & Broadway
by 1930, entire block 8th/9th/Broadway/Hill
Under renovation to become tech campus
1907 1983 Closed, opened 1986 at FIGat7th Bullock's 1907: 350,000 sq ft (33,000 m2)
1934: 806,000 sq ft (74,900 m2)[33]
NW corner 7th & Broadway
by 1934, most of the block 6th/7th/Broadway/Hill
Parkinson & Bergstrom St. Vincents Jewelry Mart
1907 1908 Central Department Store[34] 85,000 sq ft (7,900 m2), [35] 609–619 S. Broadway Samuel Tilden Norton Demolished, now site of Los Angeles Theatre
1910 1960s Mullen & Bluett 610 S. Broadway
(Walter P. Story Bldg.)[36]
Morgan, Walls & Clements Mixed-use
1917 Blackstone's 118,800 sq ft (11,040 m2)[37] 901 S. Broadway (SE corner 9th) John Parkinson Building became The Famous,
now residential, retail
1924 1972[38] Abandoned Downtown L.A. Desmond's 85,000 sq ft (7,900 m2)[39] 616 S. Broadway A. C. Martin[40] Renovated 2019 as office space, a restaurant and a rooftop bar.[39]
1930 1957[41] Eastern Columbia 1930: 275,650 sq ft (25,609 m2)[42] (expanded through to Hill St. in 1950)[43] 849 S. Broadway through to Hill Claud Beelman luxury condos
1936[20] 1938[44] Company liquidated Jacoby Bros. 605 S. Broadway[20] became a branch of Zukor's (1940),[45] now mixed-use
1947 1980[46] Abandoned Downtown L.A. Harris & Frank 2nd downtown location 644 S. Broadway
(Joseph E. Carr Bldg.)
Robert Brown Young[47]
1915 1993 Abandoned Downtown L.A. J. W. Robinson's 1915: 400,000 sq ft (37,000 m2)[48]
1923: 623,700 sq ft (57,940 m2)[49]
7th, Hope & Grand Noonan & Richards (1915), Edgar Mayberry/Allison & Allison (1934 remodel) Mixed-use
1917 1933 B. H. Dyas liquidated Ville de Paris, from 1919 B. H. Dyas 420 W. 7th (SE corner Olive) Dodd and Richards L.A. Jewelry Mart
1917 1938 Moved to Miracle Mile Coulter's 500 W. 7th (SW corner Olive) Dodd and Richards Mixed-use
1917 1963[50] Abandoned Downtown L.A. Haggarty's Brockman Building,
7th & Grand[51][52][53][54]
George D. Barnett
(of Barnett, Haynes & Barnett)
1926 1984[55] Barker Bros. Abandoned Downtown L.A. 23 acres (1,000,000 sq ft; 93,000 m2)[56] 818 W. 7th (Flower to Figueroa) Curlett and Beelman Offices
1973 open* The Broadway 250,000 sq ft (23,000 m2)[57] Broadway Plaza 750 W. 7th (Hope to Flower) Charles Luckman Macy's
1986 1996 Became duplicate Macy's, closed Bullock's Seventh Market Place now FIGat7th Jon Jerde[58] Gold's Gym (level M1), Target (M2), Zara (M3)
1986 2009a Became duplicate Macy's, closed May Company Nordstrom Rack (level M1), Target (M2), H&M (M3)

aas Macy's

The first outlying and suburban shopping districts[edit]

In the first half of the 20th century, some outlying towns also saw their downtowns grow into large regional shopping districts, and some of the local department stores based there would become small regional chains after World War II, like Buffums and Roberts (Long Beach), Boston Stores (Inglewood), Harris Co. (San Bernardino), Walker Scott and Marston's (San Diego), and Nash's (Pasadena).


Hollywood established itself as the only major suburban shopping district of the pre-World War II era, attracting branches of local and national stores, both mainstream and upscale, between the late 1910s and the late 1920s. In the 1920s Hollywood Boulevard and adjacent streets became a major regional shopping district, both for everyday needs and appliances, but increasingly also for high-end clothing and accessories, in part because of the nearby film studios. Chains that opened includes Schwab's in 1921, Mullen & Bluett in 1922, I. Magnin in 1923, Myer Siegel in 1925, F. W. Grand and Newberry's (dime stores) in 1926–8, and Roos Brothers in 1929. The independent Robertson's department store, at 46,000 square feet (4,300 m2) and 4 stories tall, opened in 1923. In 1922, stock was sold to finance construction of a much larger department store at Hollywood and Vine,[59] originally to have been a Boadway Bros. When Boadway's went out of business the next year, B. H. Dyas, a Downtown Los Angeles-based department store,[60] opened in the 130,000-square-foot (12,000 m2) building in March 1928, then sold their lease to The Broadway in 1931 – the building still a landmark today, known as the Broadway Hollywood Building. By 1930 the shopping district consisted of over 300 stores.[61] The area would later face competition from areas along Wilshire Boulevard: the easternmost around Bullocks Wilshire which opened in 1929, second the Miracle Mile, and finally, the shopping district of Beverly Hills, where Saks Fifth Avenue opened a store in 1938.

Branches of downtown department stores[edit]

Bullock's and B. H. Dyas department stores built the first suburban branches in 1929, in Mid-Wilshire and Hollywood respectively, Bullock's and Desmond's opened boutique stores in Westwood Village and Palm Springs, Sears built several stores in the suburbs (1927-1939), and Saks Fifth Avenue opened in Beverly Hills, which would then soon replace Hollywood as the city's largest upscale suburban shopping district. But Downtown Los Angeles was still a goliath of retail square footage compared to anything else in Southern California.

1950s-1980s: Suburban shopping centers and malls[edit]

True suburbanization took off after World War II with the opening of very large shopping centers like Crenshaw Center (1947),[62] Lakewood Center (1952),[63] Valley Plaza (1951) – in the mid-1950s claiming to be the largest shopping center on the West Coast of the United States and the third-largest in the country,[64] and Panorama City Shopping Center (1955).[65] Bullock's built a series of four "Fashion Squares", starting with Santa Ana Fashion Square in 1958,[66][67] and Broadway and Robinson's also backed new suburban centers. By the 1960s, most Los Angeles area shoppers didn't bother (or had no particular need) to go to Downtown Los Angeles to shop, far from most suburbs and with more difficult parking facilities than in the suburbs. Broadway instead continued as a great shopping hub, but from the 1970s through the mid-2000s, for immigrant Latin Americans and local Hispanic shoppers with its bazaar (or indoor swap meet-type) offerings and quinceañera and wedding dress shops.[68] More and more regional malls were built, as well as some community shopping centers with single department stores, for example Honer Plaza in Santa Ana, Orangefair Mall in Fullerton, and three centers in three centers in Santa Fe Springs alone. The downtown areas of the older suburbs like Long Beach, Santa Ana, Anaheim, and Whittier, lost their function as regional shopping districts, except for those building downtown enclosed malls like Plaza Pasadena, Santa Monica Place and San Bernardino's Central City Mall, and Beverly Hills, which retained its status as the premiere luxury shopping district. Pedestrian malls in outlying downtowns were largely unsuccessful such as the Golden Mall in Burbank, Pomona Mall, and Riverside Main Street Mall and, until its renovation, Santa Monica's Third Street Mall.[69]

Discount department stores and membership stores, mostly Los Angeles-based, like The Akron, Fedco, Fedmart, Gemco, Mervyn's, Pic 'N' Save, Unimart, White Front, and Zody's, thrived in this era as well.[70]

The end of the Los Angeles chains[edit]

Timeline of transformation to Macy's

Chain 1988 1990 1993 1994 1995 1996 2005
Bullock's Wilshire (BW)
and I. Magnin
Acquired by Macy's BW merged into I. Magnin Federated
I. Magnin chain closed, incl. former BW stores
Bullock's Acquired by Macy's Stores become Macy'sa
The Broadway Acquired by Federated Stores become Macy'sa
and May Co. Cal.
Robinson's and May Co. Cal. merged as Robinsons-May Acquired by Federated, stores become Macy'sa
aor close or are sold or are transformed into Bloomingdales

In the 1990s, via a series of takeovers, the "big four" Los Angeles-based department stores: Bullock's, The Broadway, Robinson's and May Company, plus Bullocks Wilshire and I. Magnin, became part of Macy's, which in turn became part of Federated Department Stores (since renamed Macy's Inc.), and were turned into Macy's, Bloomingdales, or were sold or closed.

In 1988, Robert Campeau took over Federated and sold Bullock's and I. Magnin to Macy's.[71] In 1990 Bullock's Wilshire (BW) became part of I. Magnin and some BW branches were closed. However, Macy's went bankrupt in 1992, and Federated bought Macy's in 1994, and in 1995, Federated's Macy's closed the entire I. Magnin chain.[72]

In 1995 Federated bought Broadway Stores, Inc. and thus, The Broadway chain.[73] Macy's changed the nameplate of Broadway and Bullock's stores to Macy's, except some locations which it converted to Bloomingdales.[74]

Owner May Department Stores combined its midrange May Company and upscale Robinson's chains into a single 45-store midrange chain, Robinsons-May, in 1993.[75] In 2005, Federated took over May and Robinsons-May was dissolved, and as with Bullock's and Broadway nine years prior in 1996, some stores became branches of Macy's, while others were closed, sold, or transformed into Bloomingdales.[76]

National discount big box retailers like Walmart and Target became more popular during this people and some malls, like Panorama City Shopping Center, became anchored only by discount stores. The local discount store chains closed.


New models of shopping centers thrived. Large power centers with multiple big box retailers, and older malls were demolished to make way for community centers. The strip mall thrived. A renewed Downtown Burbank as well as Third Street Promenade in Santa Monica were successes, as are the outdoor, pedestrian-oriented spaces of The Grove at Farmer's Market and Westfield Century City. Lifestyle centers like Irvine Spectrum Center and outlet malls like The Citadel were built. Many of the largest traditional enclosed shopping malls still thrive, such as South Coast Plaza, Los Cerritos Center, and Westfield Santa Anita, to name a few. The formerly busy retail districts of suburban downtowns such as Santa Ana, City of Orange, Burbank, North Hollywood, Riverside, and Pasadena are now often entertainment and arts districts with outdoor dining and eclectic, artsy retail mix.

Today, no department store chains are based in Southern California except National Stores/Fallas Paredes, and Curacao, both discount retailers targeting the Hispanic market.


  1. ^ Newmark, Marco (1942). "Pioneer Merchants of Los Angeles". Historical Society of Southern California: 77.
  2. ^ "Stern Cahn and Loeb - City of Paris - 1883 - 105-107 N Spring St". Los Angeles Times. October 26, 1883. p. 2 – via newspapers.com.
  3. ^ a b "The Jacoby Brothers: Pioneer Jewish Merchants of Los Angeles". Jewish Museum of the American West. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  4. ^ "Ready to Welcome: Grand opening of vast and fine establishment: People's Store". Los Angeles Times. June 1, 1899. In April 1899 it added the Ponet store 20 ft to the north of the Bumiller Block.
  5. ^ a b Knapp, Dan "A Retail History on the Shelf", USC News, November 12, 2010, University of Southern California. Retrieved April 30, 2019
  6. ^ Wilson, Karen (3 May 2013). Jews in the Los Angeles Mosaic. p. 6. ISBN 9780520275508.
  7. ^ "Maurice Kremer: Very Early Pioneer Jewish Merchant and Civil Servant of Los Angeles". Jewish Museum of the American West. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
  8. ^ "Legal notice". Los Angeles Express. February 15, 1878. p. 2.
  9. ^ "Advertisement by L. Harris/Quincy Hall". Los Angeles Herald. October 24, 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  10. ^ "Desmond's in Seventy-Sixth Year", Los Angeles Times, 21 Oct 1937, Page 8
  11. ^ "Concentrating: The Growth of a Business and a Great Bazaar: A Grand Rally of Wholesale and Retail: Outposts and Pickets Under One Large Roof: The Jacoby Bros. Occupy Their New and Magnificent Building and Receive the Congratulations of Their Many Friends". Los Angeles Times. November 14, 1891. p. 3.
  12. ^ "Framework is now finished: Construction Started Late Last Fall: Additional Will Be Completed During July: Department Store Growth Is Consistent". Los Angeles Times. March 23, 1924. p. 91. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  13. ^ "Clipped from Los Angeles Herald". Los Angeles Herald. 15 April 1906. p. 20.
  14. ^ "Department Store Addition Now Rising Into Space", Los Angeles Times, 11 January 1923
  15. ^ pcad.lib.washington.edu/building/9453/
  16. ^ "Ville de Paris 1901". Calisphere, University of California Library. Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 9 Sep 2018.
  17. ^ a b "Ad for Ville de Paris". Los Angeles Herald. August 15, 1907.
  18. ^ "Los Angeles Herald 22 August 1899 — California Digital Newspaper Collection". cdnc.ucr.edu.
  19. ^ "Advertisement for Jacoby Bros./May Co". Los Angeles Times. May 19, 1935.
  20. ^ a b c "Pioneers' Modern Home: Jacoby Bros.Will Open New Store Soon". Los Angeles Times. January 31, 1936. p. 11.
  21. ^ "Will Go Up Rapidly: Work on the Jacoby Building Was Begun Today: Most of the Material for the Big Business Structure Is Already on the Ground". Los Angeles Evening Post-Record. September 1, 1899. p. 1. Architect John Parkinson
  22. ^ "Boston Store Los Angeles 1939 - 331 S. Broadway (old Jacoby Bros.) and 4755 Whittier Blvd". The Los Angeles Times. 1939-11-06. p. 10. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  23. ^ "We move Monday to 251 South Broadway", I. Magnin advertisement in the Los Angeles Times, 31 Dec 1898, p.4
  24. ^ "Great Store for Coulter". Los Angeles Times. August 2, 1904. p. 13.
  25. ^ "Moving to Broadway: J. M. Hale Co. Go to Petticoat Lane". Los Angeles Evening Express. January 23, 1909. p. 4.
  26. ^ "Los Angeles Herald 4 August 1895 — California Digital Newspaper Collection". cdnc.ucr.edu. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  27. ^ "Framework is now finished: Construction Started Late Last Fall: Additional Will Be Completed During July: Department Store Growth Is Consistent". Los Angeles Times. March 23, 1924. p. 91. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  28. ^ "Magnificent Pile That Now Graces Broadway Corner". Los Angeles Times. August 31, 1920. p. 9.
  29. ^ a b "Broadway Buildings: To Cost Million". Los Angeles Times. April 22, 1917. p. part V p. 13. Eight stories…plus basement and sub-basement…172 feet on Broadway by 162 feet on Fifth
  30. ^ "Great Store's First Drill: Hamburger Army Through Paces for Opening; Get Familiar With "Lay" of New Establishment; Many Delights for Shoppers Are in Prospect". Los Angeles Times. July 26, 1908. p. V13. Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  31. ^ "Hamburger's Big Store Celebrates: Thirty-Fifth Anniversary Sale To Mark Event; Started in Small Room on Main Street, Now Occupies Building with Thirteen Acres of Floor Space---History of the Great Emporium's Growth and Success". Los Angeles Times. October 29, 1916. p. III_A15. Alternate Link(subscription required) via ProQuest.
  32. ^ "Advertisement for May Company". Los Angeles Times. March 25, 1930. p. 10.
  33. ^ "Bullock's Department Store #1, Downtown, Los Angeles, CA (1906-1907)", PCAD
  34. ^ "New Department Store Opens Doors to Public". Los Angeles Herald. March 26, 1907. p. 4.
  35. ^ "New Department Store Opens Doors to Public". Los Angeles Herald. March 26, 1907. p. 4.
  36. ^ "Walter P. Story Building". Los Angeles Conservancy. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
  37. ^ "Material Progress: Millions Going into Broadway Buildings: New Blackstones". Los Angeles Times. April 22, 1917. 90 feet of frontage on Broadway and 165 feet on 9th Street…with 6 stories plus two basement levels
  38. ^ "Ad for Desmond's Downtown LA Removal Sale". Los Angeles Times. February 10, 1972. p. 7.
  39. ^ a b Vincent, Roger. "Historic home of clothier Desmond's is ready for its comeback on Broadway". latimes.com. Retrieved on 16 April 2019.
  40. ^ Gray, Olive (September 16, 1924). "New Desmond Store Opened". Los Angeles Times.
  41. ^ "Eastern-Columbia closes down 1957". The Los Angeles Times. 1957-02-03. p. 26. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  42. ^ "Concern Occupies New Home Tomorrow". Los Angeles Times. September 11, 1930. p. 8.
  43. ^ "Eastern-Columbia expansion 1950". The Los Angeles Times. 1950-06-18. p. 26. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  44. ^ "Advertisement for liquidation of Jacoby Bros". Los Angeles Times. September 30, 1938. p. 45.
  45. ^ "Downtown Broadway Store Leased in $1,000,000 Deal: Business Prepares to Expend $150,000 in Converting Property to Its Uses". Los Angeles Times. February 11, 1940. p. 63.
  46. ^ "Harris & Frank advertisement". Los Angeles Times. January 17, 1980. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  47. ^ "Los Angeles Union Station Run-through Tracks Project", p. RA6-PP8
  48. ^ "24 May 1914, 79 - The Los Angeles Times at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  49. ^ "11 Jan 1923, 27 - The Los Angeles Times at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  50. ^ "Haggarty's advertisement". June 23, 1963. p. 59.
  51. ^ "J.J. Haggarty Growth Laid to Enterprise". Los Angeles Times. 10 November 1940. p. 67 (Part IV Society, p.9).
  52. ^ Auerbach, Alexander (27 May 1970). "J.J. Haggarty Dress Chain Forced Out of Business by Debt". Los Angeles Times. p. 56 (part III Business & Finance, p.1). Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  53. ^ "New York Store's Life Dream Comes True: J. J. Haggarty Ready to Open New Emporium at Seventh and Grand Tomorrow". Los Angeles Evening Express. September 19, 1917.
  54. ^ "The "New York" to Start Building". Los Angeles Times. November 19, 1916. p. 27.
  55. ^ "Ad for Barker Bros". Los Angeles Times. September 24, 1984. p. 6.
  56. ^ Whitaker, Alma (July 13, 1931). "Furniture Has Its Romance: Fascinating Tale Found in Barker Brothers: Enormous Business Started by Outraged Man: Fourth Generation Working at Present Time". Los Angeles Times. p. 23. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  57. ^ "Broadway Plaza", Pacific Coast Architecture Database
  58. ^ "Grand Opening for Downtown Mall Scheduled : Bullock's, May Co. Anchor Stores in Seventh Market Place". Los Angeles Times. 1986-04-06. Retrieved 2020-12-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  59. ^ "Advertisement for Boadway Bros., Inc". Holly Leaves (magazine). July 1, 1922. p. 37. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
  60. ^ Williams, Gregory Paul (2002). The Story of Hollywood. p. 233. ISBN 9780977629930.
  61. ^ Longstreth, Richard (1997). City Center to Regional Mall. MIT Press. pp. 84–86. ISBN 0262122006.
  62. ^ "Broadway's New Crenshaw Store to Open Today". Los Angeles Times. November 21, 1947.
  63. ^ "Lakewood Center". L. A. Conservancy. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
  64. ^ Esquivel, Ralph (May 1, 1956). "Survey of Sales Reveals Record by Valley Plaza". Valley Times (North Hollywood, CA).
  65. ^ "'Copter Takes Group To Broadway–Valley". Valley Times. October 10, 1955.
  66. ^ Galante, Mary Ann (July 3, 1988). "MainPlace: The Selling Job Isn't Over : The Reborn Mall's Developers Are Happy, but Some Tenants Are Disappointed". Los Angeles Times.
  67. ^ Cole, David K. (1976). Main Place: a Look at a Multi-use Redevelopment (PDF) (Bachelor of Science thesis). University of Illinois.
  68. ^ "Fiesta Broadway lives on as the street slowly loses its Latino heart". Los Angeles Times. 23 April 2016.
  69. ^ "How Santa Monica’s pedestrian mall became too successful for its own good", Hadley Meare, L.A. Curbed, May 22, 2020
  70. ^ "Chains that no longer exist", Newsday
  71. ^ Sanchez, Jesus (April 2, 1988). "Campeau Gets Federated; Macy's to Buy Bullock's". Los Angeles Times.
  72. ^ White, George & Gendel, Debra (November 19, 1994). "Venerable I. Magnin to Pass Into History". Los Angeles Times.
  73. ^ "Federated to Buy Broadway Stores For $1.6 Billion". New York Times. August 15, 1995.
  74. ^ White, George & Apodaca, Patrice (October 13, 1995). "All Bullock's Stores to Be Converted to Macy's". Los Angeles Times.
  75. ^ White, George (October 17, 1992). "Robinson's, May Co. to Merge Stores: Economy: Twelve Southland locations will close and 550 people will be laid off in the cost-cutting move". Los Angeles Times.
  76. ^ Herman, Valli (6 August 2005). "With Robinsons-May stores closing, few midrange department stores are left. Is shopping becoming polarized? Yes, and no". Los Angeles Times.