History of rock climbing

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Although the practice of rock climbing was an important component of Victorian mountaineering in the Alps, it is generally thought that the sport of rock climbing began in the last quarter of the 19th century in at least three areas: Elbe Sandstone Mountains in Saxony near Dresden,[1] the north of England including the Peak district[2] and Lake District,[3] and the Dolomites in Italy.[4] Rock climbing evolved gradually from an alpine necessity to an athletic sport in its own right, making it imprudent to cite a primogenitor of the latter in each of these three locales. Nevertheless, there is some general agreement on the following:

  • Heralded as a sport in England in the late 1880s after the (well publicised) solo first ascent of the Napes Needle by Walter Parry Haskett Smith, rock climbing attracted increasing numbers of participants. An early benchmark approaching modern levels of difficulty was the ascent, by O. G. Jones, of Kern Knotts Crack (VS) in 1897. Jones was attracted to the new sport by a photo of the Needle in a shop window in the early 1890s. By the end of the Victorian era as many as 60 enthusiasts at a time would gather at the Wastwater Hotel in the Lake District during vacation periods.[5]
  • Inspired by the efforts of late 19th century pioneers such as Oskar Schuster (Falkenstein, Schusterweg 1892), by 1903 there were approximately 500 climbers active in the Elbe Sandstone region, including the well-known team of Rudolf Fehrmann and the American, Oliver Perry-Smith; their 1906 ascent of Teufelsturm (at VIIb) set new standards of difficulty. By the 1930s there were over 200 small climbing clubs represented in the area.[1]
  • The solo first ascent of Die Vajolettürme in 1887 by the 17-year-old Munich high school student, Georg Winkler, encouraged the acceptance and development of the sport in the Dolomites.[4]

As rock climbing matured, a variety of grading systems were created in order to more accurately compare relative difficulties of climbs. Over the years both climbing techniques and the equipment climbers use to advance the sport have evolved in a steady fashion...

Some historical benchmarks[edit]

  • 1492 : Antoine de Ville ascends Mont Inaccessible, Mont Aiguille, a 300-meter rock tower south of Grenoble, France. Under orders from his king, he used the techniques developed for sieging castles to attain an otherwise unreachable summit. The ascent is described by François Rabelais in his Quart Livre.[6]
  • 1695 : Martin Martin describes the traditional practice of fowling by climbing with the use of ropes in the Hebrides of Scotland, especially on St Kilda.[7]
  • 1786 : The first ascent of Mont Blanc is often referred to as the start of mountaineering’s “modern era”. It took another century before history documents the use of devices similar to today’s fixed anchors: pitons, bolts and rappel slings.

19th century[edit]

Napes Needle, first climbed by W P Haskett Smith in 1886
  • By the 19th century, climbing was developing as a recreational pastime. Equipment in the early 19th century began with an alpenstock (a large walking stick with a metal tip), a primitive form of three-point instep crampon, and a woodcutter's axe. These were the tools of the alpine shepherd, who was shortly to move from guiding sheep to guiding men, a much more lucrative enterprise. With time the alpenstock and the axe were combined into one tool: the ice-axe. Add a large, thick (and weak) rope, to help the client climb, and guide and novice were off to the mountains.[6]
  • 1848 : Sebastian Abratzky, a local chimney sweep, enters Königstein Fortress by climbing one of the chimneys in the sandstone faces of the plateau to avoid paying an entrance fee. This is now considered historically the first free climb in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains and still a climbing route known as Abratzkykamin (IV (ca 5.4)).
  • 1864 : Gustav Tröger, Ernst Fischer, J. Wähnert und H. Frenzel, members of the local gymnastics association in Bad Schandau, climb the Falkenstein with artificial aid like ladders after several failed attempts. This is nowadays considered the start of rock climbing as a sport in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains. The Turnerweg (III (ca 5.3)) remains the easiest route to the top.
  • 1869 : John Muir, famed naturalist and climber, wearing hiking boots, makes the first ascent of Cathedral Peak in Tuolumne Meadows as an on-sight, free solo.
  • 1874 : Otto Ewald Ufer and H. Frick make the first ascent of Mönch. This is the first free ascent of a climbing rock in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains without artificial aid for sport.
  • 1875 : Half Dome in Yosemite National Park was climbed by George Anderson. He used eye bolts in drilled holes as hand and toe holds. He used a fixed rope to return to his high point each day.[8][9][10]
  • 1876 : Donald McDonald a crofter from The Isle of Lewis climbs the great stack of Handa after rowing across. This is thought to be the first recorded climb for leisure in the country.[11] The feat was recreated by modern climbers in the show The First Great Climb for BBC2, which showed the difficulty of such a task.[12] This could also be considered the start of the Sport of Rock Climbing.
  • 1880s : The Sport of Rock Climbing begins in the Lake District, Peak District and Wales in Great Britain, Saxony near Dresden, and the Dolomites. W. P. Haskett Smith is frequently called the Father of Rock Climbing in the British Isles, and Oskar Schuster was an early climber in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains.
  • 1886 : W. P. Haskett Smith makes the first ascent (in free solo style) of the 70 foot Napes Needle, in the Lake District of England. The resulting publicity introduces the general British public to the new sport of rock climbing.
  • 1887 : Georg Winkler, at the age of 17, makes the first ascent - solo - of Die Vajolettürme in the Dolomites, initiating the sport of rock climbing in that area.
  • 1892 : Oscar Eckenstein, a British climber and early bouldering advocate, conducts a bouldering competition, with cash prizes, among the natives while on an expedition to the Karakoram Mountains. ([3]).
  • 1893 : Devils Tower is first summited by ranchers William Rogers and Willard Ripley through the use of wooden spike pounded into a crack and then connected with a rope. After 6 weeks they summited on the Fourth of July.[8][13]
  • 1897 : O. G. Jones leads Kern Knotts Crack VS 4b (ca 5.8) on the Great Gable in England

20th century[edit]

1910s[edit]

  • 1910 : Hans Fiechtl replaces the attached ring on pitons with an eye in the body of the piton - a design used to this day.[6]
  • 1910 : Otto Herzog designs the first steel carabiner, specifically made for climbing.[6]
  • 1910 : Austrian development of rappelling.[6]
  • 1910 : Oliver Perry-Smith, M. Matthaeus, H. Wagner ascend The Grosser Falknerturm, Matthäusriß in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains, 5.9.
  • 1911 : Paul Preuss makes the first ascent of the East Face of Campanile Basso, Italian Dolomites, free solo, 900 feet, 5.7-5.8 on friable rock in nailed boots, then climbs back down his route.
  • 1910 to 1914 : Hans Dülfer suggests using equipment to ascend otherwise unclimbable rock, devises dülfersitz rappelling technique.[6]
  • 1913 : Rudolf Fehrmann publishes the second edition of the guide book "Der Bergsteiger in der Sächsischen Schweiz" (The Climber in Saxon Switzerland), which includes the first binding rules for climbing in the area. These include that only natural holds of the rock are allowed for climbing. These rules for Free climbing are still in use and haven't changed significantly.
  • 1911 : Paul Preuss, an advocate of pure Free climbing, coins the term "artificial aid" to describe the use of mechanical aids, either to protect or progress up (or down!) a rock. His rule number four (of six) stated: "The piton is an emergency aid and not the basis of a system of mountaineering."[6]
    Note: The two principal uses of pitons on an ascent are as protective safeguards (not used for actual hand or footholds - climbers refrained from putting weight on them except in the event of a fall) and as direct aid (used to physically assist in ascending a steep or overhanging slope rather than merely as protection). Climbers like Paul Preuss and Geoffrey Winthrop Young argued strongly against direct aid, but others of that era, including Hans Dülfer and Tita Piaz, advocated using such devices as artificial aids in order to climb otherwise unscalable walls. After World War I most European climbers chose to employ artificial aid when necessary. However, from the beginning days of rock climbing as a sport, through the 1940s, another form of artificial assistance was at times employed by teams of two or more climbers: the shoulder stand. From our current perspective it seems odd that many of those climbers who strenuously objected to hanging on a piton found the shoulder stand to be quite acceptable. Occasionally, historical climbing photos, (e.g., [5]) illustrate this strategy, which arose from the perception that ascending a route was a team effort, with two climbers constituting one natural climbing unit. Something to keep in mind when reading of very early climbs in the 5.8 to 5.10 range.
  • 1914 : Siegfried Herford and companions climb the Flake Pitch on Central Buttress of Scafell (5.9), England's hardest climb at the time.
  • 1916 : Ivar Berg climbs Cave Arête Indirect at Laddow Rocks, Derbyshire, England, the first E1.[14]
  • 1918 : Emanuel Strubich ascend The Wilder Kopf, Westkante in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains, 5.10c, the world's hardest climb at the time
  • 1919 : Sees the publication of Guido Rey’s book, "Alpinisme Acrobatique", on the "artificial" techniques utilizing the latest, easily available pitons and carabiners

1920s[edit]

  • 1920s - 1930s : Robert L. M. Underhill and Miriam Underhill (Miriam E. O'Brien) - One of the early rock star climbing couples. Robert is remembered for introducing European climbing techniques to the west coast of the US through an article in the 1931 Bulletin of the Sierra Club.
  • 1922 : Hans Rost and party ascend the Rostkante on Hauptwiesenstein (5.10d), Elbe Sandstone Mountains, the world's hardest climb at the time
  • 1922 : Paul Illmer and party ascend the Illmerweg on Falkenstein (5.10b), Elbe Sandstone Mountains
  • 1923 : Willo Welzenbach creates the standard numerical rating system for the difficulty of a route (Grades I to VI) [6]
  • 1925 : Solleder and Gustl Lettenbauer climb the Northwest Face of the Civetta in a day, a 3800-foot 5.9 route in the Dolomites, using only 15 pitons for protection and belays.
  • 1925 : Albert Ellingwood and a party of three climb the 2000 foot Northeast Buttress of Crestone Needle (5.7, 14,197 feet).
  • 1927 : Laurent Grivel designs and sells the first rock drill and expansion bolt.[6]
  • 1927 : Joe Stettner and brother, Paul, apply European techniques in the USA on their ascent of the Stettner Ledges on the East Face of Long's Peak.[8][9]
  • 1927 : Fred Pigott's experiments with slinging natural chockstones and later machine nuts, for protection at Clogwyn Du'r Arddu on Snowdon, directly led to the development of the modern Stopper.[6]

1930s[edit]

1940s[edit]

  • 1940s : World War II leads to the development of inexpensive army surplus pitons, carabiners and the newly invented nylon rope.[6]
  • 1945 : Chris Preston climbs Suicide Wall (E2 5c (5.10d)) Ogwen, Wales
  • 1946 : Rene Ferlet climbs Marie-Rose (V3) Fontainebleau
  • 1946 : John Salathe, at the age of 46, attempts to rope-solo aid the first ascent of the Lost Arrow Spire, one of the most exposed features in Yosemite Valley. (The protection bolt he places on that attempt was the first, or one of the first, in the valley.) He is also known for his forged pitons made from the axle of a Model A Ford.[8][9]
  • 1949 : Harold Goodro ascends Goodro's Wall, 5.10c, Big Cottonwood Canyon, UT.
  • 1949 : Peter Harding leads Demon Rib (E3 5c (5.11a)),after a top-rope ascent, Black Rocks, Derbyshire, UK

1950s[edit]

  • 1952 : Lionel Terray ascends the Patagonian peak, Monte Fitz Roy, with Guido Magnone.
  • 1952 : Joe Brown pioneers on sight Right Eliminate (E3 5c (5.11a)) Curbar Edge, UK, a poorly-protected off-width crack.
  • 1952 : John Streetly makes the FA of Bloody Slab (E3 5b (5.10c x)) Llanberis Pass, Wales
  • 1952 : Royal Robbins makes the first free ascent (FFA) of Open Book (Tahquitz), thus climbing the first route to be rated 5.9 in the Yosemite Decimal System.
  • 1952 : A Climber's Guide to Tahquitz Rock is published, laying out the beginnings of the Yosemite Decimal System.[15]
  • 1952 : Harry Rost climbs Talseite on Schwager in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains, IXa, (ca. 5.11b). (With original shoulder stands VIIIc (ca. 5.11a). Very run-out.
  • 1953 : Robert Paragot climbs Le Joker (V5) Fontainebleau
  • 1954 : Joe Brown and Don Whillans climb the West Face of Aiguille de Blaitiere, including the famous Fissure Brown (5.10b R), in the Alps.
  • 1955 : Walter Bonatti Considered one of the greatest climbs of all time, his solo first ascent of a new route on the Southwest Pillar of the Dru takes six days.
  • 1955 : John Gill introduces chalk & modern dynamics; first V8 (1957), V9 (1959) ; freesolos FA Thimble overhang [6] (5.12a, though with the shoes of the time and before chalk bags, it was undoubtedly harder) (1961) [8][16][17]
  • 1957 : Layton Kor appears in the climbing community of Colorado and gains recognition as a notable climber. Makes landmark ascents, including Redguard, The Bulge, T2, Naked Edge, X-M, and the Yellow Wall. Kor is noted as one of the key forces behind the progression of climbing in the west.[8]
  • 1958 : Warren Harding and team climb the 3,000 foot Nose of El Capitan using siege tactics, taking a total of 45 days over an extended period. Almost entirely aid climbing, with many bolts (125), the climb is given worldwide recognition.
  • 1958 : Don Whillans climbs solo Goliath (E4 5c/6a (5.11b)), Burbage, (now South Yorkshire), UK, a wide, overhung, 30-foot crack.
  • 1959 : John Gill solos on sight Sometime Crack, 5.10c x at Devil's Lake, WI.
  • 1959 : Ray Northcutt free climbs Direct Start to Bastille Crack (5.10d) in Eldorado Canyon, Colorado. This was the hardest free climb in North America at the time (not including John Gill's ropeless climbs of long boulder problems done earlier in the decade).

1960s[edit]

  • 1961 : Royal Robbins, Chuck Pratt, and Tom Frost ascend the 3,000 foot Salathe Wall on El Capitan. Continuous ascent by Robbins & Frost in 1962.[18]
  • 1961 : John Gill makes first ascent of The Thimble, 5.12a/b, solo, 30 feet high. Hardest short climb in USA.
  • 1962 : Barry Brewster free climbs Vulcan (E4 6a, 5.11c) at Tremadoc, Wales, a former aid climb with many pitons already in place.
  • 1964 : Royal Robbins and Pat Ament free climb Athlete's Feat, 5.11a, Boulder CO. Five short, hard pitches. Most difficult multi-pitch in USA.
  • 1964 : Robbins, Pratt, Frost, and Yvon Chouinard climb the North American Wall on El Capitan,[18]
  • 1964 : Fritz Eske climb the Konigshangel on Frienstein in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains, 5.11b.
  • 1964 : Frank Sacherer, with Chuck Pratt, free climbs the Lost Arrow Chimney, 5.10b. The following year Sacherer frees the Direct North Buttress of Middle Cathedral, 5.10c, with Eric Beck. These two grade V routes, along with the Steck-Salathe, 5.10b A0, are the hardest long (12-17 pitch) free (or mostly free) routes in the USA.
  • 1965 : Europe's biggest vertical rock face, Norway's Troll Wall climbed by Norwegian and British teams
  • 1965 : Chuck Pratt leads the fearsome, classic off-width Twilight Zone in Yosemite, 5.10d x. Possibly the hardest on sight roped lead in America.
  • 1965 : Greg Lowe free climbs the world's first 5.11c with his on sight ascent of Crack of Doom at City of Rocks, Idaho.
  • 1967 : Pete Cleveland climbs Superpin in the Black Hills (5.11X) [8] Most daring first ascent in American rock climbing.
  • 1967 : John Stannard makes first free ascent of Foops, 5.11d, Shawangunks, possibly the hardest roped pitch in USA. Eight-foot horizontal roof a huge mental breakthrough. Maybe the first "project" in American free climbing.
  • 1967 : Greg and Jeff Lowe free climb Macabre Wall, 5.12a Ogden UT, six pitches. Most difficult multi-pitch climb in America.
  • 1968 : Royal Robbins solos the Muir Wall on El Capitan,[18]
  • 1968 : Tom Proctor leads Our Father (E4 6b/5.12a) at Stoney Middleton, UK, after placing 3 protection pitons on rappel.
  • 1969 : Pete Cleveland free climbs Bagatelle (5.12c/d) at Devil's Lake, Wisconsin, on top rope, ushering the 5.12+ grade to the world.

1970s[edit]

  • 1970 : Bernd Arnold climb the North face on the Schwager in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains, 5.11d
  • 1971 : Peter Haan free climbs on sight Left Side of the Hourglass, Yosemite, 5.11a x.
  • 1971 : Al Rouse climbs Positron (E5 6a / 5.11d) Gogarth, Anglesey
  • 1971 : Tom Frost and Yvon Chouinard design Hexcentrics.[8] Chalk use on roped climbs becomes common in USA.
  • 1972 : Jimmie Dunn creates Cosmos, the first time a new El Capitan route is done solo.
  • 1973 : Jim Erickson establishes Cassandra, 5.11a/b free solo, on sight, 3 pitches, on Ralston Buttes, Colorado.
  • 1973 : John Bragg free climbs Kansas City roof in the Shawangunks, 5.12c.
  • 1973 : John Long free climbs Paisano Overhang,5.12d Tahquitz/Suicide California after placing a protection piton on rappel. Probably hardest off-width crack in the world.
  • 1973 : Beverly Johnson and Sibylle Hechtel are the first female team to ascend El Capitan following the Triple Direct route, Yosemite.
  • 1974 : Steve Wunsch ascends Super Crack, 5.12d Shawangunks, USA.
  • 1974 - 1977 : Jim Holloway establishes - in Colorado - the hardest bouldering problems in the world, at the time. These include Slapshot (V13) and Meathook (V11),[16][17]
  • 1975 : David Breashears creates Perilous Journey, 5.11c x on Eldorado Mountain, CO. On sight, 80 feet, no protection.
  • 1976 : Mick Fowler climbs Linden, Curbar Edge, Derbyshire, UK. E6 6b (5.12c); Ron Fawcett climbs Slip 'n' Slide E6 6a (5.12b), Crookrise, Yorkshire, UK; Steve Bancroft climbs Narcissus E6 E6 6b (5.12c), Froggatt, Derbyshire, UK
  • 1976 : John Bachar initiates an era of free soloing with his ascent of New Dimensions 5.11a [8]
  • 1977 : Ray Jardine climbs Phoenix (5.13a) after chipping a couple holds at the start, in Yosemite Valley. The beginning of "hangdogging" on free climbing projects in the US.
  • 1977 : Pete Cleveland climbs on top rope Phlogiston (5.13a/b) at Devil's Lake, Wisconsin.[8]
  • 1978 : Ray Jardine begins selling the first modern spring-loaded camming device (SLCD or cam), which he invented several years earlier.
  • 1979 : Tony Yaniro climbs Grand Illusion, Sugarloaf (CA), 5.13b/c [8]

1980s[edit]

  • 1980 : Boreal introduces the first "sticky rubber" shoe, the Fire
  • 1980 : John Redhead, climbs The Bells, The Bells Gogarth, Wales. E7 6b (5.13a)
  • 1980 : Bill Price climbs Cosmic Debris, Yosemite, 5.13b[8]
  • 1981 : Maurizio Zanolla (Manolo) climbs Il mattino dei maghi, Totoga, Italy, 7c+ (5.13a) with 4 protection (only 2 spit) on 130 feet route.
  • 1983 : Ron Fawcett climbs Master's Edge at Millstone Quarry in the Peak District, graded E7 6c.
  • 1983 : Alan Watts introduces sport climbing to the US, with Watts Tots, 5.12b at Smith Rock, Oregon [8]
  • 1983 : Bernd Arnold climbs Schallmauer on Amselspitze, Elbe Sandstone Mountains. (first Xa in the area, ca 5.12c)
  • 1985 : Peter Croft free solos the Rostrum, North Face route, IV 5.11c in Yosemite Valley.
  • 1985 : Wolfgang Gullich climbs Punks in the Gym, Mt. Arapiles, (some say the first 5.14a/b some say 5.13d)
  • 1986 : Johnny Dawes climbs Indian Face, Clogwyn Du'r Arddu, Wales. E9 6c (5.12c X)
  • 1986 : Antoine Le Menestrel climbs La Rage de Vivre, Buoux, (many credit this as the first 5.14a) [17]
  • 1987 : Wolfgang Gullich climbs Wallstreet, Frankenjura, 5.14b
  • 1987 : Peter Croft climbs, free solo, Astroman V 5.11c in Yosemite.

1990s[edit]

2000s[edit]

2010s[edit]

  • 2012: June 5–6, Alex Honnold, first to solo (roped) the "Yosemite Triple Crown " (Mt. Watkins, El Capitan, and Half Dome); it took him 18 hours and 50 minutes.[19]
  • 2012: Adam Ondra climbs Change, Flatanger, Norway, 9b+
  • 2014: January 15, Alex Honnold became the first person to free-solo El Sendero Luminoso (the Shining Path), a climbing route in El Potrero Chico, Mexico.
  • 2015: March 7, Chris Sharma made the first ascent of El Bon Combat at Cova de Ocell near Barcelona, at a proposed grade of 5.15b/c, one of the five hardest routes in the world.[20]
  • 2015: March 17, Ashima Shiraishi climbed Open Your Mind Direct, in Santa Linya, Spain at only 13 years old. Originally rated as a 9a (5.14d), there has been some controversy over the rating due to a broken hold at the end of the route. Some claim the broken hold bumps the rating to a 9a+ (5.15a).[21]
  • 2015: Tommy Caldwell and Kevin Jorgeson are the first to free climb "Dawn Wall", Yosemite Valley, California. (5.14c[22])
  • 2016: On August 3, 2016, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) formally announced that sport climbing would be a medal sport in the 2020 Summer Olympics[23]. The event debut has been postponed to 2021, due to Covid-19.
  • 2017: February 26, Margo Hayes becomes the first woman to redpoint a 9a+ (5.15a) by climbing La Rambla at the Spanish crag Siurana.[24]
  • 2017: June 3, Alex Honnold free solos the 3,000 foot wall of El Capitan in 3hrs and 56mins[25]
  • 2017: September 3, Adam Ondra climbs Silence in Flatanger, Norway, suggesting a grade of 9c (5.15d)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Goldammer, Albert & Wächtler, Martin (1936). "Bergsteigen in Sachsen", Dresden
  2. ^ Craddock, J. P. (2009-09-07). Jim Puttrell: Pioneer Climber and Cave Explorer (First ed.). Matador. ISBN 9781848761803.
  3. ^ Jones, Owen Glynne (1900). "Rock Climbing in the English Lake District", G. P. Abraham & Sons, Keswick
  4. ^ a b "Bergakrobaten: Die Dolomiten und die Erfindung des Kletterns", Città di Bolzano, Bolzano 2006
  5. ^ Hankinson, Alan (1972). "The First Tigers", J. M. Dent & Sons, London
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Middendorf, John (1999). "The Mechanical Advantage". Ascent. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  7. ^ Martin, Martin (1703) "A Voyage to St. Kilda" in A Description of The Western Islands of Scotland Archived 2007-03-13 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 3 March 2007.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p A History of Free Climbing in America, Wizards of Rock by Pat Ament
  9. ^ a b c d Climbing in North America by Chris Jones
  10. ^ Muir, John (1912). "The Yosemite".
  11. ^ The Guga Hunters, Donald S. Murray[1]
  12. ^ The First Great climb, BBC News[2]
  13. ^ National Park Service. "Devils Tower Study".
  14. ^ Craggs, Chris (2009). "Western Grit", Rockfax, Sheffield
  15. ^ Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills, 6th Edition, The Mountaineers, Seattle, Washington, ISBN 0-89886-427-5. P. 550.
  16. ^ a b Sherman, John (1994). Stone Crusade: A Historical Guide to Bouldering in America. The Mountaineers Books. ISBN 978-0-930410-62-9. Retrieved November 24, 2018.[page needed]
  17. ^ a b c "Hard rock climbs - First routes of each grade". stanford.edu. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  18. ^ a b c Spirit of the Age by Pat Ament
  19. ^ Bacon, Sean. "Honnold's Biggest, Baddest Solo Yet". Climbing. Cruz Bay Publishing, Inc. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  20. ^ "Watch Chris Sharma Send His Hardest FA: El Bon Combat (5.15b/c)". Climbing.com. Cruz Bay Publishing, Inc. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  21. ^ "Ashima Shiraishi Climbs Possible 5.15". Climbing.com. Cruz Bay Publishing. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  22. ^ "Rock Climb Dawn Wall Free, Yosemite National Park". Mountain Project. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
  23. ^ "Olympic Games Tokyo 2020". International Federation of Sport Climbing. 2020.
  24. ^ "Margo Hayes repeats La Rambla, first woman to climb 9a+". Planet Mountain. PlanetMountain. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  25. ^ "Exclusive: Alex Honnold Completes the Most Dangerous Free-Solo Ascent Ever". 3 October 2018.

External links[edit]