History of tablet computers
The tablet computer and the associated special operating software is an example of pen computing technology, and thus the development of tablets has deep historical roots. The first patent for a system that recognized handwritten characters by analyzing the handwriting motion was granted in 1915. The first publicly demonstrated system using a tablet and handwriting recognition instead of a keyboard for working with a modern digital computer dates to 1956.
In addition to many academic and research systems, there were several companies with commercial products in the 1980s: Pencept, Communications Intelligence Corporation, and Linus were among the best known of a crowded field. Later, GO Corp. brought out the PenPoint OS operating system for a tablet computer product: a patent from GO corporation was the subject of an infringement lawsuit concerning the Tablet PC operating system.
- 1 Early tablets
- 2 Apple's iPad
- 3 Other post-PC tablet computers
- 4 Post-PC tablet market share
- 5 Timeline
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
The tablet computer and the associated special operating software is an example of pen computing technology, and the development of tablets has deep historical roots. The first patent for a system that recognized handwritten characters by analyzing the handwriting motion was granted in 1915. The first publicly demonstrated system using a tablet and handwriting text recognition instead of a keyboard for working with a modern digital computer dates to 1956.
Fictional and prototype tablets
Tablet computers appeared in a number of works of science fiction in the second half of the 20th century, with the depiction of Arthur C. Clarke's NewsPad appearing in Stanley Kubrick's 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey, the description of the Calculator Pad in the 1951 novel Foundation by Isaac Asimov, the Opton in the 1961 novel Return from the Stars, by Stanislaw Lem, and The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy in Douglas Adams 1978 comedy of the same name, all helping to promote and disseminate the concept to a wider audience.
In 1968 Alan Kay envisioned a KiddiComp, while a PhD candidate he developed and described the concept as a Dynabook in his 1972 proposal: A personal computer for children of all ages, the paper outlines the requirements for a conceptual portable educational device that would offer functionality similar to that supplied via a laptop computer or (in some of its other incarnations) a tablet or slate computer with the exception of the requirement for any Dynabook device offering near eternal battery life. Adults could also use a Dynabook, but the target audience was children.
In addition to many academic and research systems, there were several companies with commercial products in the 1980s: Pencept, Communications Intelligence Corporation, and Linus were among the best known of a crowded field. Later, GO Corp. brought out the PenPoint OS operating system for tablet products such as the EO Personal Communicator: one of the patents from GO corporation was the subject of recent infringement lawsuit concerning the Tablet PC operating system.
In 1986, Hindsight, a startup in Enfield CT, developed the Letterbug, an 8086-based tablet computer for the educational market. Prototypes were shown at trade shows in New England in 1987, but no production models ever came out.
In 1987 Apple Computer started its tablet project, which considered release of devices of three sizes, with the one eventually released in 1993, Apple Newton, being the smallest (yet it was quite substantial device with 6 inch screen and 800 grams weight). It utilised Apple's own new Newton OS, initially running on hardware manufactured by Motorola and incorporating an ARM CPU, that Apple had specifically co-developed with Acorn Computers. The operating system and platform design were later licensed to Sharp and Digital Ocean, who went on to manufacture their own variants.
In 1991 AT&T released their first EO Personal Communicator, this was one of the first commercially available tablets and ran the GO Corporation's PenPoint OS on AT&T's own hardware, including their own AT&T Hobbit CPU.
The Compaq Concerto was released in 1993 with a Compaq-modified version of MS DOS 6.2 and Windows 3.1, aka Windows for PEN, with pen-entry and Wacom compatibility. Functionally the Concerto was a full featured laptop that could operate in pen-mode when the keyboard was removed.
In 1994 media company Knight Ridder made a concept video of a tablet device with a color display and a focus on media consumption. The company didn't create it as a commercial product because of deficiencies of weight and energy consumption in display technology.
In 1994 the European Union initiated the 'OMI-NewsPAD' project (EP9252), requiring a consumer device be developed for the receipt and consumption of electronically delivered news / newspapers and associated multi-media. The NewsPad name and project goals were borrowed from and inspired by Arthur C. Clarke's 1965 screen play and Stanley Kubrick's 1968 film: 2001: A Space Odyssey. Acorn Computers developed and delivered an ARM based touch screen tablet computer for this program, branded the NewsPad. The device was supplied for the duration of the Barcelona-based trial, which ended in 1997.
In 1996, The Webbook Company announced the first Internet-based tablet, then referred to as a Web Surfboard, that would run Java and utilize a RISC processor. However, it never went into production.
Again in 1996 Fujitsu released the Stylistic 1000 tablet format PC, running Microsoft Windows 95, on a 100 MHz AMD486 DX4 CPU, with 8 MB RAM offering stylus input, with the option of connecting a conventional Keyboard and mouse.
In April 2000 Microsoft launched the Pocket PC 2000, utilising their touch capable Windows CE 3.0 operating system. The devices were manufactured by several manufacturers, based on a mix of: x86, MIPS, ARM, and SuperH hardware.
One early implementation of a Linux tablet was the ProGear by FrontPath. The ProGear used a Transmeta chip and a resistive digitizer. The ProGear initially came with a version of Slackware Linux, but could later be bought with Windows 98.
Microsoft Tablet PC
In 2000, Microsoft coined the term "Microsoft Tablet PC" for tablet computers built to Microsoft's specification, and running a licensed specific tablet enhanced version of its Microsoft Windows OS, popularizing the term tablet PC for this class of devices. Microsoft Tablet PCs were targeted to address business needs mainly as note-taking devices, and as rugged devices for field work. In the health care sector, tablet computers were intended for data capture – such as registering feedback on the patient experience at the bedside.
In 2002, original equipment manufacturers released the first tablet PCs designed to the Microsoft Tablet PC specification. This generation of Microsoft Tablet PCs were designed to run Windows XP Tablet PC Edition, the Tablet PC version of Windows XP. This version of Microsoft Windows superseded Microsoft's earlier pen computing operating environment, Windows for Pen Computing 2.0. After releasing Windows XP Tablet PC Edition, Microsoft designed the successive desktop computer versions of Windows, Windows Vista and Windows 7, to support pen computing intrinsically.
Tablet PCs failed to gain popularity in the consumer space because of unresolved problems. The existing devices were too heavy to be held with one hand for extended periods, the specific software features designed to support usage as a tablet (such as finger and virtual keyboard support) were not present in all contexts, and there were not enough applications specific to the platform – legacy applications created for desktop interfaces made them not well adapted to the slate format.
One early implementation of a Linux tablet was the ProGear by FrontPath. The ProGear used a Transmeta chip and a resistive digitizer. The ProGear initially came with a version of Slackware Linux, but could later be bought with Windows 98. Because these computers are general purpose IBM PC compatible machines, they can run many different operating systems. However, the device is no longer for sale and FrontPath has ceased operations. It is important to note that many touch screen sub-notebook computers can run any of several Linux distributions with little customization.
X.org supports screen rotation and tablet input through Wacom drivers, and handwriting recognition software from both the Qt-based Qtopia and GTK+-based Internet Tablet OS provide promising free and open source systems for future development.
Open source note taking software in Linux includes applications such as Xournal (which supports PDF file annotation), Gournal (a Gnome-based note taking application), and the Java-based Jarnal (which supports handwriting recognition as a built-in function). Before the advent of the aforementioned software, many users had to rely on on-screen keyboards and alternative text input methods like Dasher. There is a stand-alone handwriting recognition program available, CellWriter, in which users must write letters separately in a grid.
A number of Linux-based OS projects are dedicated to tablet PCs. Since all these are open source, they are freely available and can be run or ported to devices that conform to the tablet PC design. In 2003, Hitachi introduced the VisionPlate rugged tablet that was used as a point-of-sale device. Maemo (rebranded MeeGo in 2010), a Debian GNU/Linux based graphical user environment, was developed for the Nokia Internet Tablet devices (770, N800, N810 & N900). It is currently[timeframe?] in generation 5, and has a vast array of applications available in both official and user supported repositories. The Ubuntu Netbook Remix edition, as well as the Intel sponsored Moblin project, both have touchscreen support integrated into their user interfaces. Canonical Ltd has hinted at better supporting tablets with the Unity UI for Ubuntu 10.10.
TabletKiosk currently offers a hybrid digitizer / touch device running openSUSE Linux.
Initially developed by Palm, Inc. in January 2009 as the Palm OS, webOS was purchased by HP to be their proprietary operating system running on the Linux kernel. Versions 1.0 to 2.1 of webOS uses the patched Linux 2.6.24 kernel. HP has continued to develop the webOS platform for use in multiple products, including smartphones, tablet PCs, and printers. HP announced plans on March 2011 for a version of webOS by the end of 2011 to run within the Microsoft Windows operating system to be used in HP desktop and notebook computers in 2012.
HP TouchPad, the first addition to HP's tablet family, was shipped out with version 3.0.2. Version 3.0.2 gives the tablet support for multitasking, applications, and HP Synergy. HP have also claimed in its webcatalog to support over 200 apps with its release.
Nokia entered the tablet space with the Nokia 770 running Maemo, a Debian-based Linux distribution custom-made for their Nokia Internet Tablet line. The product line continued with the N900 which is the first to add phone capabilities. Intel, following the launch of the UMPC, started the Mobile Internet Device initiative, which took the same hardware and combined it with a Linux operating system custom-built for portable tablets. Intel co-developed the lightweight Moblin operating system following the successful launch of the Atom CPU series on netbooks.
MeeGo is an operating system developed by Intel and Nokia to support Netbooks, Smartphones and tablet PCs. In 2010, Nokia and Intel combined the Maemo and Moblin projects to form MeeGo. The first[clarification needed] MeeGo powered tablet PC is the Neofonie WeTab. The WeTab uses an extended version of the MeeGo operating system called WeTab OS. WeTab OS adds runtimes for Android and Adobe AIR and provides a proprietary user interface optimized for the WeTab device.
Mac OS X Modbook
Apple has never sold a tablet PC computer running Mac OS X, although OS X does have support for handwriting recognition via Inkwell. However, Apple sells the iOS-based iPad Tablet computer, introduced in 2010.
Before the introduction of the iPad, Axiotron introduced the Modbook, a heavily modified Apple MacBook, Mac OS X-based tablet computer at Macworld in 2007. The Modbook used Apple's Inkwell handwriting and gesture recognition, and used digitization hardware from Wacom. To support the digitizer on the integrated tablet, the Modbook was supplied with a third-party driver called TabletMagic. Wacom does not provide drivers for this device.
The tablet computer market was reinvigorated by Apple through the introduction of the iPad device in 2010. While the iPad places restrictions on the owner to install software thus deviating it from the PC tradition, its attention to detail for the touch interface is considered a milestone in the history of the development of the tablet computer that defined the tablet computer as a new class of portable device, different from a laptop PC or netbook. A WiFi-only model of the tablet was released in April 2010, and a WiFi+3G model was introduced about a month later, using a no-contract data plan from AT&T. Since then, the iPad 2 has launched, bringing 3G support from both AT&T and Verizon Wireless. The iPad has been characterized by some as a tablet computer that mainly focuses on media consumption such as web browsing, email, photos, videos, and e-reading, even though full-featured, Microsoft Office-compatible software for word processing (Pages), spreadsheets (Numbers), and presentations (Keynote) were released alongside the initial model. One month after the iPad's release Apple subsidiary FileMaker Inc. released a version of the Bento database software for it. With the introduction of the iPad 2 Apple also released full-featured first party software for multi-track music composition (GarageBand) and video editing (iMovie). As of the release of iOS 5 in October 2011 iPads no longer require being plugged into a separate personal computer for initial activation and backups, eliminating one of the drawbacks of using a non-PC architecture-based tablet computer.
On 20 May 2010, IDC published a press release defining the term media tablet as personal devices with screens from 7 to 12 inches, lightweight operating systems "currently based on ARM processors" which "provide a broad range of applications and connectivity, differentiating them from primarily single-function devices such as ereaders". IDC also predicted a market growth for tablets from 7.6 million units in 2010 to more than 46 million units in 2014. More recent reports show predictions from various analysts in the range from 26 to 64 million units in 2013. On 2 March 2011 Apple announced that 15 million iPads had been sold in three fiscal quarters of 2010, double the number that IDC then predicted.
Other post-PC tablet computers
Early competitors to Apple's iPad in the market for tablet computers not based on the traditional PC architecture were the 5 inch Dell Streak, released in June 2010, and the original 7 inch Samsung Galaxy Tab, released in September 2010.
At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, over 80 new tablets were announced to compete with the iPad. Companies who announced tablets included: Motorola with its Xoom tablet (Android 3.0), Samsung with a new Samsung Galaxy Tab (Android 2.2), Research in Motion demonstrating their BlackBerry Playbook, Vizio with the Via Tablet, Toshiba with the Android 3.0 – run Toshiba Thrive, and others including Asus, and the startup company Notion Ink. Many of these tablets are designed to run Android 3.0 Honeycomb, Google's mobile operating system for tablets, while others run older versions of Android like 2.3, or a completely different OS such as the BlackBerry Playbook's QNX. Other than the Motorola Xoom, by the time most competitors released devices of comparable size and price to the original iPad, Apple in March 2011 had already released their second generation iPad 2.
Hewlett-Packard announced its TouchPad based on the WebOS system in June 2011. HP released it a month later in July, only to discontinue it after less than 49 days of sales, becoming the first casualty in the post-PC tablet computer market. The fire sale on TouchPad tablets when its price was dropped from U.S. $499 to as low as $99 after it was discontinued resulted in a surge of interest. This dramatic increase in its popularity potentially raised its market share above all other non-Apple tablets, at least temporarily.
In September 2011 Amazon.com announced the Kindle Fire, a 7 inch tablet deeply tied into their Kindle ebook service, Amazon Appstore, and other Amazon services for digital music, video, and other content. The Kindle Fire runs on Amazon's custom fork of v2.3 of the Android operating system. Using Amazon's cloud services for accelerated web browsing and remote storage, Amazon has set it up to have very little other connection back to Google, aside from supporting Gmail as one of the several webmail services it can access. At a cost of only U.S. $199 for the Kindle Fire it has been suggested that Amazon's business strategy is to make their money on selling content through it, as well as the device acting as a storefront for physical goods sold through Amazon. Besides the Kindle Fire's low price, reviewers have also noted that it is polished on its initial release, in comparison to other tablets that often needed software updates.
Despite the large number of competing tablets released in 2011, so far none of them have managed to gain considerable traction as the market continued to be dominated by the iPad and iPad 2. Several manufacturers had to resort to deep discounts to move excess inventory, as what happened with the HP TouchPad (after its announced discontinuation) and the BlackBerry Playbook. It has been suggested that many companies, in their rush to jump on the "tablet bandwagon", had released products that might have had decent hardware but lacked refinement and came with software bugs that needed updates.
According to IDC, Android have 63% of all "media tablet" sales in 2013 and rising and Windows is also rising in market share. Apple's iPad had 83% of all "media tablet" sales in 2010 and 28% of market share in 2013. At the unveiling of the iPad 2 in March 2011 Steve Jobs claimed that the iPad held more than 90% market share, but the difference between the figures could be explained by the difference between the amount of hardware shipped into the channel versus the number that have been actually sold.
In August 2011, the iPad and iPad 2 dominated sales, outselling Android and other rival OS tablets by a ratio of eight to one. Apple's iPad held 66 percent of the global tablet market in Q1 of 2011, but the share is predicted to drop to 58 percent by the end of the year due to the influx of new products, mostly Android tablets. Technology experts[who?] suggest that Apple is getting court injunctions to stop the slide, although these injunctions are only preliminary measures as Apple has to provide more substantial evidence in subsequent court proceedings that the design of competing products infringed its patents or copied their designs in order to make any bans permanent. These cases take months or even years to come to court, unless there is no settlement, and if Apple loses it will be liable for the business lost by a competitor due to the injunction. Although risky, experts[who?] say that this kind of strategy gives time for Apple to hold off rivals and grab even greater market share with their iPad, since it is a market that is developing fast where Apple leads, regardless of the damages that they have to pay if they lose the case. Google's David Drummond complained "They (Apple) want to make it harder for manufacturers to sell Android devices. Instead of competing by building new features or devices, they are fighting through litigation."
On 14 September 2011 IDC announced that in the second calendar quarter of 2011 the market share of the iPad increased to 68.3% from 65.7% in the previous quarter, while market share for Android-based tablets decreased from 34.0% the previous quarter down to 26.8% in the second quarter. Besides being affected by the introduction of the iPad 2 in March 2011 this can also be partially attributed to the introduction of RIM's PlayBook tablet, which took 4.9% share of the market in the quarter.
On 22 September 2011 Gartner lowered their forecast for sales of tablet computers based on the Android OS by 28 percent from the previous quarter’s projection, explaining that "Android’s appeal in the tablet market has been constrained by high prices, weak user interface and limited tablet applications." Further, they state that they expect the iPad to have a "free run" through the 2011 holiday season and that Apple will "maintain a market share lead throughout our forecast period by commanding more than 50 percent of the market until 2014." Gartner revised their projection of Apple's worldwide tablet market share at the end of 2011 up to 73.4% after their previous projection of 68.7% for the year.
In October 2011 at the Launch Pad conference Ryan Block from gadget site gdgt showed slides identifying the makeup of the site's users who bought tablets in 2011 consisting of 76% iPad (39% iPad 2, 37% original iPad), 6% HP TouchPad, and no other tablet at over 4%. He noted that the numbers did not include previous purchases of the iPad or other tablets in 2010. In a breakdown by platform he showed a chart indicating Apple's iOS at 76%, Google's Android at 17%, HP's webOS at 6%, and RIM's PlayBook OS at 2%.
A report by Strategy Analytic showed that the share of Android tablet computers had risen sharply at the expense of Apple's iOS in the fourth quarter of 2011. According to Strategy Analytic, Android accounted for 39% of the global tablet market in the final three months of 2011, up from 29% a year earlier. Apple's share fell to 58% from 68%. A total of 26.8 million tablet computers were sold in the quarter, up from 10.7 million a year ago, the report said.
In China, according to an AlphaWise survey of 1,553 Chinese consumers across 16 cities over the summer of 2011, Apple's iPad currently holds a 65% share of that nation's tablet market. When asked about future purchases, 68% of those surveyed indicated an intent to buy an iPad, versus other brands' shares of 10% for Asus, 8% for Lenovo, 6% for Samsung, and 3% or less for any other brand.
According to eMarketer & Forbes, advertisers will spend nearly $1.23 billion on mobile advertising in 2011 in the US, up from $743 million last year. By 2015, the US mobile advertising market is set to reach almost $4.4 billion. This includes spending on display ads (such as banners, rich media and video), search and messaging-based advertising, and covers ads viewed on both mobile phones and tablets.
- 1888: U.S. Patent granted to Elisha Gray on electrical stylus device for capturing handwriting.
- 1915: U.S. Patent on handwriting recognition user interface with a stylus.
- 1942: U.S. Patent on touchscreen for handwriting input.
- 1945: Vannevar Bush proposes the Memex, a data archiving device including handwriting input, in an essay As We May Think.
- Tom Dimond demonstrates the Stylator electronic tablet with pen for computer input and software for recognition of handwritten text in real-time.
- Early 1960s
- Hindsight develops and tests the Letterbug, an educational tablet computer before making the trade show tour in 1987.
- The first commercially available tablet-type portable computer was the GRiDPad from GRiD Systems, released in September. Its operating system was based on MS-DOS.
- Wang Laboratories introduces Freestyle, an application that captured a screen from a DOS application, and let users add voice and handwriting annotations. It was a sophisticated predecessor to later note-taking applications for systems like tablet computers. The operating system was MS-DOS.
- The Momenta Pentop was released.
- GO Corporation announced a dedicated operating system, called PenPoint OS, with control of the operating system desktop via handwritten gesture shapes.
- NCR released model 3125 pen computer running MS-DOS, Penpoint OS or Pen Windows.
- The Apple Newton entered development; although it ultimately became a PDA, its original concept (which called for a larger screen and greater sketching abilities) resembled the hardware of a tablet computer.
- Apple Computer announces the Newton PDA, also known as the Apple MessagePad, which includes handwriting recognition with a stylus.
- The IBM releases the ThinkPad, IBM's first commercialized portable tablet computer product available to the consumer market, as the IBM ThinkPad 750P and 360P.
- BellSouth released the IBM Simon Personal Communicator, an analog cellphone using a touchscreen and display. It did not include handwriting recognition, but did permit users to write messages and send them as faxes on the analog cellphone network, and included PDA and email features.
- AT&T introduced the EO Personal Communicator combining PenPoint with wireless communications.
- The first Palm Pilot introduced.
- Microsoft releases the Microsoft Tablet PC, designed and built by HP.
- Motion Computing releases their 1st slate Tablet PC the M1200.
- Nokia launches the Nokia 770 Internet Tablet.
- Motion Computing releases the LE1600 and paperback sized LS800 Tablet PC.
- Windows Vista released for general availability. Vista included the functionality of the special Tablet PC edition of Windows XP.
- On Disney Channel Original Movie, Read It and Weep, Jamie uses a Tablet PC for her journal.
- MTVs "Pimp My Ride" features multiple Motion Computing tablets PCs in customized automobiles
- Axiotron introduces Modbook, the first (and only) tablet computer based on Mac hardware and Mac OS X at Macworld.
- Archos launches Archos 605 WiFi, a PMP with WiFi. Virtually a tablet PC.
- Apple launches iPod touch, an MP3 player with WiFi. It took Apple two years to turn this concept into a tablet PC.
- In April 2008, as part of a larger federal court case, the gesture features of the Windows/Tablet PC operating system and hardware were found to infringe on a patent by GO Corp. concerning user interfaces for pen computer operating systems. Microsoft's acquisition of the technology is the subject of a separate lawsuit.
- HP releases the second multi-touch capable tablet: the HP TouchSmart tx2 series.
- Fusion Garage releases the JooJoo, running Linux.
- Apple Inc. unveils the iPad, running Apple iOS.
- Samsung unveils the Galaxy Tab, running Google Android.
- Neofonie releases the WeTab, a MeeGo-based slate tablet PC, featuring an 11.6 inch multi-touch screen at 1366×768 pixels resolution.
- Quaduro Systems unveils the 10 inch QuadPad 3G Plus, a 900 gram Microsoft Windows based 3G tablet PC with 8 hours of battery life.
- Dixons Retail plc unveils the Advent Vega, a 10 inch tablet PC running Android 2.2, having a micro SD card slot, a USB port and a 16h battery life for audio playback and 6.5h for 1080p video.
- Dell Announces the Inspiron Duo A flip screen netbook and tablet PC hybrid.
- HP releases the Slate 500, running a full-version of Windows 7.
- Motorola releases Xoom a 10 inch tablet running Android 3.0 (Honeycomb).
- RIM releases BlackBerry Playbook running BlackBerry Tablet OS, based on QNX Neutrino.
- Dell showcases the Streak 7 tablet and says it's working on the 10 inch Streak 10.
- ZTE announces the ZTE V11 that runs Android 3.0, and the Z-pad.
- Apple released the iPad 2.
- Toshiba announces the Toshiba Tablet, a 10 inch tablet powered by a Tegra 2 process and Android 3.0 (Honeycomb)
- HP releases the HP TouchPad with webOS & withdraws it in August 2011 (a month later).
- PaceBlade receives the "Innovation Award – Best solution" at NASF2012 (North Atlantic Seafood forum 2012).
- Amazon announced an Android-based tablet, the Kindle Fire, 28 September.
- Barnes & Noble introduces Nook Tablet, November.
- Apple releases the iPad 3, and then later in the year iPad 4 and the iPad Mini.
- Google unveiled the Nexus 7, a 7 inch tablet developed with Asus and the Nexus 10, a 10 inch tablet developed with Samsung.
- Samsung releases Samsung Galaxy Note 10.1, with stylus apps, running Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich with 1.4 GHz quad-core CPU.
- Microsoft releases Microsoft Surface RT with an ARM microprocessor and kickstand.
- Sony releases the Sony Xperia Tablet Z as well as having Ingress Protection Ratings of IP55 and IP57, making it dust-resistant, water-jet resistant, and waterproof.
- Apple releases the iPad Air and the iPad Mini 2 in November (first 64-bit tablets with iPhone 5S smartphone being the first 64-bit mobile device the month before)
- Microsoft releases the Surface 2 with an ARM microprocessor and two step Kickstand. Alongside the Surface Pro 2 was released with an Intel core I5 processor.
- Samsung releases a 2014 version of the Samsung Galaxy Note 10.1
- Microsoft releases the Surface Pro 3
- Nvidia releases the Shield Tablet, an Android tablet focused on gaming
- Google releases the Nexus 9 (first 64-bit Android tablet)
- Apple releases the iPad Air 2
- HP ships first 64-bit Windows 8.1 tablets with Intel Atom
- MobileDemand releases 11.6" rugged Windows tablet 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to History of tablet computers.|
- Comparison of tablet computers
- Graphics tablet
- Pen computing
- Personal digital assistant
- Tablet computer
- Ultra-Mobile PC
|Look up tablet computer or tablet PC in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tablet PC.|
- Jeff Han Talks About Touch-Driven Computer Screens at HowStuffWorks
- Microsoft Center for Research on Pen-Centric Computing
- Notes on the History of Tablet- and Pen-based Computing (YouTube)
- Annotated bibliography of references to handwriting recognition and tablet and touch computers
- Patterson, Elesha (31 July 1888), Telautograph (PDF), United States Patent 386,815 (full image)
- Goldberg, H.E. (28 December 1915), Controller (PDF), United States Patent 1,117,184 (full image)
- Dimond, Tom (1 December 1957), Devices for reading handwritten characters, Proceedings of Eastern Joint Computer Conference, pp. 232–237, retrieved 2008-08-23
- Mintz, Jessica (4 April 2008), Microsoft to Appeal $367M Patent Ruling, The Associated Press, retrieved 2008-09-04
- Did Arthur C Clarke invent the iPad?
- NewsPad depiction – 2001 A Space Odyssey
- Richards, Mike (January 23, 2008). "Why the iPhone makes 2008 seem like 1968 all over again". Open2.
- Steinberg, Daniel H. (April 3, 2003). "Daddy, Are We There Yet? A Discussion with Alan Kay". O'Reilly Media.
- Kay, Alan (1972). "A Personal Computer for Children of All Ages".
-  Howard Eglowstein's (one of the Letterbug developers) website
- Tom Hormby. "The Story Behind Apple’s Newton". Gizmodo.
- Atari ST-PAD The Atari Museum
- Pete Cashmore. "Knight-Ridder Predicted Apple Tablet in 1994: Didn’t Build It". Mashable.com.
- Outing, Steve (23 October 1996) "Digital Tablet Makes Strides in Europe and US" editorandpublisher.
- Visions and Realities in the NewsPad Constituency, by Alfonso H Molina
- technovelgy.com – Newspad, A notebook-sized computer and display screen for reading news stories or other text matter
- The Reading Appliance Revolution, by: Bill N. Schilit, Morgan N. Price, Gene Golovchinsky Kei Tanaka (FX Palo Alto Laboratory), Catherine C. Marshall (Xerox PARC). Published: IEEE 1999-01
- Editors Risc User Magazine. "The Story of NewsPAD". Risc User. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- "WebBook preps $700 Net device". CNET News. 24 January 1996. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "Net device takes new twist". CNET News. 24 January 1996. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "The WebBook: Artist's Impression". The WebBook Company. Archived from the original on 24 January 1997.
- "The Webbook Company Filing For Patent Protection Coverage on Java Enabled Web 'Surfboard'". PR Newswire. 9 July 1996. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "Shboom Microprocessor Selected As Java Runtime Engine". PR Newswire. 24 January 1996. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Intel Web Tablet
- "Intel's NewsPad from Acorn… the saga continues…" The Register, 25 May 1999
- Intel made a Web Tablet?
- John Markoff, The New York Times, 30 August 1999, "Microsoft brings in top talent to pursue old goal: the tablet"
- Page, M Microsoft Tablet PC Overview, TransmetaZone, 2000-12-21
- "COMDEX/Fall 2000: Gates Tells Capacity Crowd That New Model of Software-to-Software Interaction Will Shape Future of Internet Computing". Microsoft News Center. 13 November 2000. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "Microsoft Tablet PC". Msdn.microsoft.com. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "Tablet PC: Coming to an Office Near You?".
- Microsoft (2005), Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005 Hardware Requirements, www.microsoft.com, retrieved 2009-03-14
- Bright, Peter Ballmer (and Microsoft) still doesn't get the iPad, Ars Technica, 2010
- Jim Rapoza. "Tablets, Slates Have Been Tried and Failed Before—Why Is Now Different?". eWeek.
- "Making Things Easier with Tablet computing?".
- Tuan Nguyen. "5 Reasons Tablets Suck And You Won't Buy One". Tom's Hardware.
- "Device profile: Hitachi VisionPlate wireless tablet". 18 February 2003.
- Sherri Buri McDonald. "Restaurateur Keeps In Touch With Trends". The Register-Guard.
- "Ubuntu gets multitouch support, Unity netbook UI". eWeek.
- "HP Touchpad 9.7 Inch Tablet PC". TabletPCfan. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
- "HP Touchpad Catalog". HP. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- "HP Confirms Discussions with Autonomy Corporation plc Regarding Possible Business Combination; Makes Other Announcements". Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- "HP kills webOS, spins off PC business to focus on software". Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- "the iPad could finally spark demand for the hitherto unsuccessful tablet PC" --Eaton, Nick The iPad/tablet PC market defined?, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2010
- Brown, Peter iPad is iBad for freedom, Free Software Foundation, 2010
- Cherry, Steven The iPad Is Not a Computer, IEEE Spectrum, 2010
- Conlon, Tom The iPad’s Closed System: Sometimes I Hate Being Right, Popular Science, 2010
- Jobs, Steve Thoughts on Flash, Apple, 2010
- "The iPad's victory in defining the tablet: What it means". Infoworld.
- Spence, Nick (28 May 2010). "FileMaker Puts Bento on iPad". PC World. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- IDC. "IDC Forecasts 7.6 million Media Tablets to be Shipped Worldwide in 2010" (Press release).
- Bright Side of News. "ZTE Pushes into US With Light 2 Tablet And Pixel Qi Display".
- 15 million iPads sold from April 2010 through December 2010, for 9.5 billion USD in 2010. Accessed 2011-03-02
- "Tablets are talk of the town at CES" Los Angeles Times 6 January 2011
- Mello, John P. (21 August 2011). "HP TouchPad Fire Sale Could Hurt Low-Volume Competitors". PCWorld. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Scheck, Justin; Lublin, Joann S. (20 August 2011). "Investors Rebel Against H-P Plan". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Olivarez-Giles, Nathan (20 August 2011). "HP TouchPad mania: TouchPads selling out in U.S. at $99.99". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Heater, Brian (22 August 2011). "HP TouchPad tops Amazon US sales, rumored for UK price drop". Engadget. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Hollister, Sean (28 September 2011). "Amazon’s Kindle Fire UI: it’s Android, but not quite". The Verge. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Lance Whitney (29 September 2011), "Amazon to lose $50 on each Kindle Fire, says analyst", news.cnet.com (CNET)
- John Naughton (2 October 2011), Kindle Fire: the tablet that knows your next move, London: The Observer
- "Review: Kindle Fire a decent and polished tablet at a bargain price". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). 6 December 2011.
- "The ultimate cheap tablet buyer's guide". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). 14 December 2011.
- "Press Release: Nearly 18 Million Media Tablets Shipped in 2010 with Apple Capturing 83% Share; eReader Shipments Quadrupled to More Than 12 Million, According to IDC". IDC. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Oliver, Sam (10 March 2011). "IDC: Apple's iPad took 83% share of tablets shipped in 2010". Apple Insider. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "Press Release: Media Tablet and eReader Markets Beat Second Quarter Targets, Forecast Increased for 2011, According to IDC". IDC. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Gilbert, Jason (19 August 2011). "HP TouchPad Bites The Dust: Can Any Tablet Dethrone The IPad?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Williams, Christopher (19 August 2011). "HP TouchPad crushed by Apple iPad". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Jin, Hyunjoo; Gupta, Poornima (10 August 2011). "Apple blocks Samsung's Galaxy tablet in EU". Reuters. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "Press Release: Gartner Says Apple iOS to Dominate the Media Tablet Market Through 2015, Owning More Than Half of It for the Next Three Years". Gartner Newsroom. 11 April 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "Press Release: Gartner Says Apple Will Have a Free Run in Tablet Market Holiday Season as Competitors Continue to Lag". Gartner Newsroom. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "media.gdgt.com/etc/ryan/launch-pad-2011-tablets-keynote.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "Android's share of tablet market jumps". BBC News. 26 January 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Ong, Josh (9 November 2011). "Apple most desirable PC brand in China as 21% of buyers look to Mac as next purchase". Apple Insider. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Mobile Ad Spending Finally Arrives (Even With No IPhone 5), Forbes
- Gray (31 July 1888), Telautograph, United States Patent 386,815
- Goldberg, H.E. (28 December 1915), Controller, United States Patent 1,117,184
- Moodey, H.C. (27 December 1942), Telautograph System, United States Patent 2,269,599
- Moodey, H.C. (27 December 1942), Telautograph System (PDF), United States Patent 2,269,599 (full image)
- Bush, Vannevar (15 July 1945), As We May Think, The Atlantic Monthly
- RAND Tablet, 1 September 1961
- 50 Years of Looking Forward, RAND Corporation, 1 September 1998
- technovelgy.com – An early reference and description of electronic book hardware and operation
- Pencept Penpad (TM) 200 Product Literature, Pencept, Inc., 15 August 1982
- Inforite Hand Character Recognition Terminal, Cadre Systems Limited, England, 15 August 1982
- Users Manual for Penpad 320, Pencept, Inc., 15 June 1984
- Handwriter (R) GrafText (TM) System Model GT-5000, Communication Intelligence Corporation, 15 January 1985
-  Howard Eglowstein's (one of the original developers) website
- The BYTE Awards: GRiD System's GRiDPad, BYTE Magazine, Vol 15. No 1, 12 January 1990, p. 285
- WANG Freestyle demo, Wang Laboratories, 1989, retrieved 2008-09-22
- Lempesis, Bill (1990-05), What's New in Laptops and Pen Computing, Flat Panel Display News Check date values in:
- Agulnick, Todd (13 September 1994), Control of a computer through a position-sensed stylus, United States Patent 5,347,295
- Agulnick, Todd (13 September 1994), Control of a computer through a position-sensed stylus (PDF), United States Patent 5,347,295 (full image)
- NCR announces pen-based computer press release, FindArticles, archived from the original on 2 May 2008, retrieved 2007-04-20
- Penpoint OS shipping press release, FindArticles, archived from the original on 30 August 2007, retrieved 2007-04-20
- "Lenovo – The history of ThinkPad". IBM. 3 February 2006. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "The Webpad By Cynix Is A Product To Watch" Seattle Times, (22 November 1998)
- "Cyrix WebPad", Tom's Hardware, (30 November 1998)
- Trends at COMDEX Event 1999, retrieved 2008-08-11
- "PaceBlade launches Tablet PC". Allbusiness.com. 7 November 2002. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Fingerworks, Inc. (2003), iGesture Game Mode Guide, www.fingerworks.com, retrieved 2009-04-30
- Boggs, Tiffany (9 January 2007). "Axiotron and OWC Unveil the ModBook". Tablet PC Review. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- [dead link]
- "A New Antitrust Lawsuit – Go Corp. v. Microsoft". Groklaw. 4 July 2005. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- HP TouchSmart tx2z, HP, retrieved 2008-11-28
- "WeTab ships in Germany". The H. 22 September 2010.
- BAETZ, Juergen (12 April 2010), German tablet PC sets out to rival Apple's iPad, Associated Press, retrieved 2010-04-15
- WeTab specifications (PDF), Neofonie, 12 April 2010, retrieved 2010-04-15
- "Full tech specification of the Dixons Advent Vega Android 2.2 tablet". Gary C. 8 October 2010.
- "ZTE Launches Two Android Tablets: Dual-core Z-pad and Android 3.0 V11 at MWC". Gadgets & Geek World. 16 February 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- McEntegart, Jane (5 January 2011). "Toshiba Announces 10.1 inch Tegra 2 Tablet". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "Samsung Galaxy Tab 10.1". Suggesters.org. full specs list.
- "Sony Xperia Tablet Z". Retrieved 30 April 2013.