History of the Hebrew alphabet

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Aleppo Codex: 10th century Hebrew Bible with Masoretic pointing
A page from a 16th-century Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary by Elijah Levita

The Hebrew alphabet is a development from the Aramaic alphabet taking place during the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman periods (c. 500 BCE – 50 CE). It replaced the so-called Paleo-Hebrew alphabet which was used in the earliest epigraphic records of the Hebrew language.

History[edit]

The history of the Hebrew alphabet is not to be confused with the history of the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, so called not because it is ancestral to the Hebrew alphabet but because it was used to write the earliest form of the Hebrew language.

"Paleo-Hebrew alphabet" is the modern term (coined by Solomon Birnbaum in 1954[1]) used for the script otherwise known as the Phoenician alphabet when used to write Hebrew, or when found in the context of the ancient Israelite kingdoms. This script was used in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah as well as throughout Canaan more generally, during the 10th to 7th centuries BCE.[2][3][4][5] By the 6th or 5th centuries, this script had diverged into numerous national variants, the most successful of these being the Aramaic script, which came to be widely adopted in the Persian empire.

Following the Babylonian exile, the Jews gradually stopped using the Paleo-Hebrew script, and instead adopted a "square" form of the Aramaic alphabet. A similar "square Aramaic script" is still used for contemporary western dialects of Aramaic (Western Neo-Aramaic).

This "square" variant of Aramaic developed into the Hebrew alphabet proper during the Second Temple period, in a process that was not complete before the 1st century CE; for example, the letter samekh developed its closed or circular form only in the middle Hasmonean period, around 100 BCE, and this variant becomes the standard form in early Herodian hands, in the 1st century CE.[6]

The Samaritan alphabet, on the other hand, remains a direct descendant of the Paleo-Hebrew script.[7]

The Hebrew alphabet was later adapted in order to write down the languages of the Jewish diaspora (Karaim, Judæo-Arabic, Ladino, Yiddish, etc.), and was retained all the while in relatively unadapted form throughout the diaspora for Hebrew, which remained the language of Jewish law, scriptures and scholarship. The Hebrew alphabet was also retained as the alphabet used for writing down the Hebrew language during its rebirth as an everyday modern language starting in the 18th to 19th century.

Talmudic views[edit]

In the Talmud, the Paleo-Hebrew script is known as the Libona'a, [8] associated with the Samaritan community who continued to preserve the script, and the Hebrew script is known as the Ashurith, associated with Assyria.[9]

The Talmudic sages did not share a uniform stance on the subject the development of the Hebrew alphabet. Some claimed that Paleo-Hebrew was the original script used by the Israelites at the time of the Exodus,[10] According to this tradition,[11] the block script seen today in Hebrew Torah Scrolls, called the "Assyrian script" (Kthav Ashurith) in the Talmud, was the original Hebrew script carved into the Ten Commandments.[12]

Others believed that Paleo-Hebrew merely served as a stopgap in a time when the ostensibly original script (the Hebrew alphabet) had been lost.[13] According to both opinions, Ezra the Scribe (c. 500 BCE) introduced, or reintroduced the Assyrian script to be used as the primary alphabet for the Hebrew language.[10] The arguments given for both opinions are rooted in Jewish scripture and/or tradition.

A third opinion[14] in the Talmud states that the script never changed altogether. It would seem that the sage who expressed this opinion did not believe that Paleo-Hebrew ever existed, despite the strong arguments supporting it. His stance is rooted in a scriptural verse,[15] which makes reference to the shape of the letter vav. The sage argues further that, given the commandment to copy a Torah scroll directly from another, the script could not conceivably have been modified at any point. This third opinion was accepted by some early Jewish scholars,[16] and rejected by others, partially because it was permitted to write the Torah in Greek.[17]

Ancestral scripts and script variants[edit]

Letter[18] Name Scripts
Hebrew Ancestral Related
Cursive Rashi Braille[19] Hieroglyphic base
of Proto-Sinaitic
(assumed)
Proto-Sinaitic
(reconstructed)[citation needed]
Phoenician Paleo-Hebrew Aramaic Greek Latin Cyrillic Arabic
א Alef Hebrew letter Alef handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Alef Rashi.png ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
F1
Aleph Aleph Aleph Aleph.svg Αα Aa Аа ا
ב Bet, Vet Hebrew letter Bet handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Bet Rashi.png ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236) ⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
O1
Bet Beth Bet Beth.svg Ββ Bb Бб
Вв
ﺑ ﺏ
ג Gimel Hebrew letter Gimel handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Gimel Rashi.png ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
T14
Gimel Gimel Gimel Igimel.png Γγ Cc
Gg
Гг ﺟ ﺝ
ד Dalet Hebrew letter Daled handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Daled Rashi.png ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
O31
Dalet Daleth Daled Daleth.svg Δδ Dd Дд دذ
ה Hei Hebrew letter He handwriting.svg Hebrew letter He Rashi.png ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)
A28
Heh He Heh He0.svg Εε Ee Ее
Єє
ه هـ
ـهـ ـه
ו Vav Hebrew letter Vav handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Vav Rashi.png ⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456) ⠬ (braille pattern dots-346)
O30
Vov Waw Vav Waw.svg Υυ
Ϝϝ
FfUuVv
WwYy
Ѵѵ
Уу
ז Zayin Hebrew letter Zayin handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Zayin Rashi.png ⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)
U7
Zayin Zayin Zayin Zayin.svg Ζζ Zz Зз
ח Het Hebrew letter Het handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Het Rashi.png ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
O6
Khet Heth Khet Heth.svg Ηη Hh Ии ﺣﺡ or خ
ט Tet Hebrew letter Tet handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Tet Rashi.png ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)
F35
Tet Teth Tet Teth.svg Θθ Ѳѳ
י Yud Hebrew letter Yud handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Yud Rashi.png ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
D36
Yud Yodh Yud Yod.svg Ιι Jj
Ii
Јј
Іі
ﻳ ﻱ
כ ך Kaf, Khaf Hebrew letter Kaf handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Kaf-final handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Kaf-nonfinal Rashi.png Hebrew letter Kaf-final Rashi.png ⠡ (braille pattern dots-16) ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13)
D46
Khof Kaph Khof Kaph.svg Κκ Kk Кк ﻛ ﻙ
ל Lamed Hebrew letter Lamed handwriting.svg Lamed (Rashi-script - Hebrew letter).svg ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
S39
Lamed Lamedh Lamed Lamed.svg Λλ Ll Лл ﻟ ﻝ
מ ם Mem Hebrew letter Mem handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Mem-final handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Mem-nonfinal Rashi.png Hebrew letter Mem-final Rashi.png ⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
N35
Mem Mem Mem Mem.svg Μμ Mm Мм ﻣ ﻡ
נ ן Nun Hebrew letter Nun handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Nun-final handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Nun-nonfinal Rashi.png Hebrew letter Nun-final Rashi.png ⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345)
I10
Nun Nun Nun Nun.svg Νν Nn Нн ﻧ ﻥ
ס Samech Hebrew letter Samekh handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Samekh Rashi.png ⠎ (braille pattern dots-234)
K1
Samekh Samekh Samekh Samekh.svg Ξξ
Χχ
Ss or Xx Ѯѯ
Хх
ص or س
ע Ayin Hebrew letter Ayin handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Ayin Rashi.png ⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246)
D4
Ayin Ayin Ayin Ayin.svg Οο Oo Оо ﻋ ع
غـ غ
פ ף Pei, Fei Hebrew letter Pe handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Pe-final handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Pe-nonfinal Rashi.png Hebrew letter Pe-final Rashi.png ⠋ (braille pattern dots-124) ⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234)
D21
Pey Pe Pey Pe0.svg Ππ Pp Пп ﻓ ﻑ
צ ץ Tsadi Hebrew letter Tsadik handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Tsadik-final handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Tsadik-nonfinal Rashi.png Hebrew letter Tsadik-final Rashi.png ⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346)
V33
Tsadi Sade Tzadi Sade 1.svg, Sade 2.svg Ϻϻ Цц
Чч
ﺻ ص
ضـ ض
ק Kuf Hebrew letter Kuf handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Kuf Rashi.png ⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345)
V24
Quf Qoph Quf Qoph.svg Ϙϙ Qq Ҁҁ ﻗ ﻕ
ר Reish Hebrew letter Resh handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Resh Rashi.png ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
D1
Resh Res Resh Resh.svg Ρρ Rr Рр
ש Shin, Sin Hebrew letter Shin handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Shin Rashi.png ⠩ (braille pattern dots-146) ⠱ (braille pattern dots-156)
F18
Shin Sin Shin Shin.svg Σσς Ss Сс
Шш
سـ س
شـ ش
ת Tav Hebrew letter Taf handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Taf Rashi.png ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456) ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256)
Z11
Tof Taw Tof Taw.svg Ττ Tt Тт ﺗ ﺕ
ﺛ ﺙ

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Hebrew scripts, Volume 2, Salomo A. Birnbaum, Palaeographia, 1954, "To apply the term Phoenician to the script of the Hebrews is hardly suitable. I have therefore coined the term Palaeo-Hebrew."
  2. ^ Deem, Rich (June 2006). "Early (10th Century B.C.) Evidence of Written Hebrew Language at Tel Zayit, Israel". God And Science.org.
  3. ^ "Hebrew – (12th century BC? – today)". Mnamon Ancient writing systems in the Mediterranean A critical guide to electronic resources.
  4. ^ Rollston, Christopher (April 2018). "The Oldest Hebrew Script and Language". Biblical Archaeology Society.
  5. ^ NOBLE WILFORD, JOHN (November 2005). "A Is for Ancient, Describing an Alphabet Found Near Jerusalem". The New York Times.
  6. ^ Frank Moore Cross, Leaves from an Epigrapher's Notebook: Collected Papers in Hebrew and West Semitic Palaeography and Epigraphy (2018), p. 30.
  7. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Alphabet, The Hebrew: Samaritan Alphabet: "While the Jews adopted the Aramaic alphabet, gradually abandoning their own, the Samaritans held fast to the original forms, in order to show themselves the veritable heirs of ancient Hebraism. ... It is the same character used in all the Samaritan books of to-day, and remains the only offshoot of the old Hebrew script extant, while the modern Hebrew Alphabet is of Aramaic origin."
  8. ^ This name is most likely derived from Lubban[disambiguation needed], i.e. the script is called "Libanian" (of Lebanon), although it has also been suggested that the name is a corrupted form of "Neapolitan", i.e. of Nablus. James A. Montgomery, The Samaritans, the earliest Jewish sect (1907), p. 283.
  9. ^ Klein, Reuven Chaim, Lashon HaKodesh: History, Holiness, & Hebrew. Mosaica Press 2014. pages 185–205. ISBN 978-1937887360.
  10. ^ a b Sanhedrin 21b
  11. ^ "The Script of the Torah". Jerusalem, Israel: Aishdas. 2002., Sanhedrin 21b-22a
  12. ^ Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Shabbat 104a, Tractate Megilla 2b. "Rav Chisda says that the (final) mem and samech in the tablets were miraculously hanging in the air." This can only happen in Kthav Ashurith and not in Kthav Ivri.
  13. ^ Megillah 3a, Shabbat 104a
  14. ^ Sanhedrin 22a
  15. ^ Exodus 27, 10
  16. ^ Rabbeinu Chananel on Sanhedrin 22a
  17. ^ Maimonides. "Mishne Torah Hilchos Stam 1:19".
  18. ^ A second print letter is the form found at the end of a word.
  19. ^ A second braille letter corresponds to the letter plus dagesh (dot) in print.