History of the Internet in Sweden
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The history of Internet in Sweden can be considered to have begun in 1984, when the first Swedish network was connected to the Internet in Gothenburg. In the past, however, were data links between some colleges and universities with access via modem and UUCP to the European part of the Internet. Internet's predecessor ARPANET took its start around 1969 in California, USA.
It took until 1988 before any access to the Internet of importance came to Sweden, where the higher education network SUNET got a direct connection to the USA. Internet became available to the Swedish public in 1994 when Algonet as the first operator connected the Swedish Internet with the Swedish telephone network via modem pools. The usage cost were made up of a fixed monthly fee and per minute charges as with any other telephone call. In 1996 the Internet became available for a flat monthly fee in Ängelholm where the local cable TV company began to offer connectivity via Cable TV modems with an Ethernet interface. A big change started in 1999 when Bredbandsbolaget concluded a Framework Agreement with housing movement HSB and a large number of condominium apartments were given access to the Internet. This led Telia to come up with a similar offer, and soon a market was created where Bredbandsbolaget and Telia were just two of several players. In 2001, ADSL were made available, in beginning only from Telia who decided over the existing copper cables.
1971 Televerket (later Telia) abolished the monopoly on mobile (radio) terminals.
1978 The first electronic discussion forum (BBS) were started in Sweden by Stockholms Datamaskincentral (QZ).
1979-1993 Televerket run their Datavision service that people connected to with a modem and a special software and subscription. It was offered commercially in 1982. Many larger companies embraced the service, but it didn't become widespread elsewhere. Steve Jobs declared in 1984 that the service were "too single minded". It was shutdown later. But even during their active time resistance arose to electronic alternatives: "The association of newspaper publishers to the government asserted a strong concern about the competition Videotex would entail for the newspapers. An inquiry majority proposed a ban on advertising." (But it didn't became like that) this service did anyway cost the equivalent of 0.55 SEK/minute - 0.11 US$/minute.
1983 Some Swedish Social Democrats tried to get a tax on the use of computers, see motion "1983/84:596 av Kurt Ove Johansson (s) och Stig Gustafsson (s) I molionen yrkas atl riksdagen hos regeringen begär en utredning om alt beskatta eller avgiftsbelägga användningen av datorer." (sic!) ("1983/84: 596 Kurt Ove Johansson (s) and Stig Gustafsson (s) in the motion claims insist that the parliament to the government request an investigation into taxing or charging for the use of computers").
1988 The Swedish University Network (Sunet) was created with X.25 links domesticly at 9.6 kbit/s and were connected via Nordunet created that same year to the United States with a 56 kbit/s link to Princeton University. this got most university- and Högskole students access to the Internet for real. The choice of IP as the network protocol was not settled or clear: "many networkers within the nordunet community never really regarded osi as an option, but were from the start determined to build a tcp/ip network. osi remained in the nordunet plans only because it was pushed so strongly by the European Commission."
- mobilen50ar.se - Fakta om mobilen. En resa genom tiderna. 2007
- http://www.jpe.se/To11.htm - Journalist Per Eriksson, Minnet av en gulbrun dator 2008
- http://www.teldok.se/TeldokArkiv/pdf/via3.pdf via Teldok, 3/1987 (död länk)
- "1979 US Dollar to Swedish Krona, 1979 USD to SEK Currency Converter". Retrieved 2016-04-22.
1979 US Dollar = 16,107 Swedish Krona
- http://www.sunet.se/download/18.6d7c8917128274d3dd080005975/De%2520byggde%2520Internet_2009_inlaga_webb.pdf sunet.se - De byggde internet i Sverige, upplaga-2, 2009
- tidskriftenfabrik.com - Copyright finns inte V3.0, Linus Walleij 1999-12-31
- c2i.net - Chapter 3, The grass-roots of hacker culture 1999
- "Hur 80-talets svenska IT-under nästan kraschlandade". 2012-03-08. Retrieved 2013-07-03.
Att Televerket dessutom hade monopol på att leverera modem med hastigheter på upp till 1200 baud fram till 1983 framstår idag som närmast vansinnigt, men så var det på den tiden.
- riksdagen.se - Kammarens protokoll 1983
- riksdagen.se - Betänkande 1983/84:SkU22 om nya förfaranderegler för punktskatter och prisregleringsavgifter (prop. 1983/84:71) 1983
- idg/eforum - Ta upp ett gammalt inlägg 2000
- RFC900 juni 1984
- metro.se - Ulf Bilting kopplade in Sverige på internet, 2009-06-16
- NorduNet history.pdf 2005