History of the Jews in Japan

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Japanese Jews
日本のユダヤ人
יהודים יפנים
Total population
about 2,000 (2014)[1]
about 300[2]
Regions with significant populations
only around metropolis such as Tokyo, Kobe
Languages
Hebrew, English, Japanese
Religion
Judaism and other religions, including Buddhism

The history of the Jews in Japan is well documented in modern times with various traditions relating to much earlier eras.

Status of Jews in Japan[edit]

Jews and their culture, religion, are one of most heavily extremely minor ethnic and religious group in Japan, presently consisting of only about from 300[1] to 2,000 people or about from 0.0016% to about 0.0002% of Japan's total population. Almost all of them are not Japanese citizens, and almost all of them are foreigner short-term residents (a kind of gaijin).[3]

Jewish history in Japan[edit]

Early Jewish settlements in Japan[edit]

The earliest known Jews in Japan, came from Song Dynasty. There were 5 merchant communities, scattered on Honshu and Shikoku. By 1600, through displacement and assimilation, there were only 2 main communities that were identifiable as Jewish, in Kansai.

In 1572, Spanish Neapolitan Jews who had converted to Christianity to escape, entered Nagasaki on Black Ships from Portuguese Macau. Remaining in Nagasaki, some of them reverted to Judaism, even reclaiming their family names (notably a Levite).

In 1586, the community then consisting of at least 3 permanent families, was displaced by the Shimazu forces. The Jews of Settsu absorbed some of them into its own community (at the time, a population of over 130 Jews), while a minority left or died.

Jewish settlements in Edo Japan[edit]

Between 1848 - 1854, in Naha, Satsuma province, Bernard Jean Bettelheim (physician), a Jewish British national resided with his family. There is a plaque at Gokokuji Jinja (Naha).

In 1861, Pogrom refugees from Russia and Poland moved to the port of Nagasaki; these were the first Jews in Nagasaki since around 1584.

In 1867, over one week the Settsu Jewish community was pushed near extinction, disappearing altogether after the Meiji restoration.

Towards the end of the Edo period, with the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry following the Convention of Kanagawa and the end of Japan's "closed-door" foreign policy, Jewish families again began to settle in Japan. The first recorded Jewish settlers arrived at Yokohama in 1861. By 1895, this community, which by then consisted of about 50 families, established the first synagogue in Meiji Japan.[4] Part of this community would later move to Kobe after the great Kanto earthquake of 1923.

Another early Jewish settlement was one established in the 1880s in Nagasaki, a large Japanese port city opened to foreign trade by the Portuguese. This community was larger than the one in Yokohama, consisting of more than 100 families. It was here that the Beth Israel Synagogue was created in 1894. The settlement would continually grow and remain active until it eventually declined by the Russo-Japanese War in the early 20th century. The community's Torah scroll would eventually be passed down to the Jews of Kobe, a group formed of freed Russian Jewish war prisoners that had participated in the Czar's army and the Russian Revolution of 1905.

From the mid 1920s until the 1950s, the Kobe Jewish community was the largest Jewish community in Japan, formed by hundreds of Jews arriving from Russia (originating from the Manchurian city of Harbin), the Middle East (mainly from Iraq and Syria), as well as from Central and Eastern European countries (primarily Germany). It had both an Ashkenazi and a Sephardic synagogue.[5] During this time, Tokyo's Jewish community (now Japan's largest) was slowly growing with the arrival of Jews from the United States, Western Europe, and Russia.

Jewish settlement in Imperial Japan[edit]

In 1905, at the end of the Russo-Japanese War. The community of Nagasaki went extinct. While the Iraqi community is formed in Kobe (about 40 families in 1941)

Some Japanese leaders, such as Captain Inuzuka Koreshige (犬塚 惟重), Colonel Yasue Norihiro (安江 仙弘), and industrialist Aikawa Yoshisuke (鮎川 義介), came to believe that Jewish economic and political power could be harnessed by Japan through controlled immigration, and that such a policy would also ensure favor from the United States through the influence of American Jewry. Although efforts were made to attract Jewish investment and immigrants, the plan was limited by the government's desire not to interfere with its alliance with Nazi Germany. Ultimately, it was left up to the world Jewish community to fund the settlements and to supply settlers and the plan failed to attract a significant long-term population or create the strategic benefits for Japan that had been expected by its originators.

On December 6, 1938, Five ministers council (Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe, Army Minister Seishirō Itagaki, Navy Minister Mitsumasa Yonai, Foreign Minister Hachirō Arita, and Finance Minister Shigeaki Ikeda), which was the highest decision-making council, made a decision of prohibiting the expulsion of the Jews in Japan.[6][7]

During World War II, Japan was regarded as a safe refuge from the Holocaust, despite being a part of the Axis and an ally of Germany. Jews trying to escape German-occupied Poland could not pass the blockades near the Soviet Union and the Mediterranean Sea and were forced to go through the neutral country of Lithuania (which was occupied by belligerents in June 1940, starting with the Soviet Union, then Germany, and then the Soviet Union again).

Of those who arrived, many (around 5,000) were sent to the Dutch West Indies with Japanese visas issued by Chiune Sugihara, the Japanese consul to Lithuania. Sugihara ignored his orders and gave thousands of Jews entry visas to Japan, risking his career and saving more than 6,000 lives. Sugihara is said to have cooperated with Polish intelligence, as part of a bigger Japanese-Polish cooperative plan.[8] They managed to flee across the vast territory of Russia by train to Vladivostok and then by boat to Kobe in Japan. The refugees – 2,185 in number – arrived in Japan from August 1940 to June 1941. Tadeusz Romer, the Polish ambassador in Tokyo, had managed to get transit visas in Japan; asylum visas to Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Burma; immigration certificates to Palestine; and immigrant visas to the United States and some Latin American countries. Most Jews were permitted and encouraged to move on from Japan to the Shanghai Ghetto, China, under Japanese occupation for the duration of World War II. Finally, Tadeusz Romer arrived in Shanghai on November 1, 1941, to continue the action for Jewish refugees.[9] Among those saved in the Shanghai Ghetto were leaders and students of Mir yeshiva, the only European yeshiva to survive the Holocaust. They – some 400 in number – fled from Mir to Vilna with the outbreak of World War II in 1939, and then to Keidan, Lithuania. In late 1940, they obtained visas from Chiune Sugihara, to travel from Keidan (then Lithuanian SSR) via Siberia and Vladivostok to Kobe, Japan.[10] By November 1941, the Japanese moved this group and most of others on to the Shanghai Ghetto in order to consolidate the Jews under their control.[11]

The secretary of the Manchurian Legation in Berlin Wang Tifu (王, 替夫. 1911-) also issued visas to 12,000 refugees, including Jews, from June 1939 to May 1940.[12][13]

Throughout the war, the Japanese government continually rejected requests from the German government to establish anti-Semitic policies. Towards the end, Nazi representatives pressured the Japanese army to devise a plan to exterminate Shanghai's Jewish population and this pressure eventually became known to the Jewish community's leadership. However, the Japanese had no intention of further provoking the anger of the Allies and thus delayed the German request for a time, eventually rejecting it entirely. One Orthodox Jewish institution saved in this manner was the Lithuanian Haredi Mir yeshiva. The Japanese government and people offered the Jews temporary shelter, medical services, food, transportation, and gifts, but preferred that they move on to reside in Japanese-occupied Shanghai.[citation needed]

The decision to declare the Shanghai Ghetto in February 1943 was influenced by the police attaché of the German embassy in Tokyo, Josef Meisinger. In autumn 1942 he had lengthy discussions with the Japanese Home Ministry. Because the Japanese were mostly not anti-Semitic, he used their espionage fear to provoke actions against the Jewish community. To the Japanese he declared, that he was ordered from Berlin to provide them all names of "anti-Nazis" among the German residents. Then he claimed that "anti-Nazis" were always "anti-Japanese" and added that "anti-Nazis" were primarily German Jews, of whom 20,000 had emigrated to Shanghai. Meisinger’s anti-Semitic intrigue worked. In response to his statements, the Japanese demanded from Meisinger a list of all "anti-Nazis". This list was, as Meisinger’s personal secretary later confirmed, already prepared. After consulting General Müller, Meisinger handed the list over to the Japanese Home Ministry and the Kenpeitai at the end of 1942. The list contained i. a. the names of all Jews with a German passport in Japan. Karl Hamel, the interpreter of Meisinger, who was present at the discussions with the Japanese authorities, later testified that this intervention led to a "real chasing of anti-Nazis" and to the "internment of quite a lot of people". He added that "this thesis may be regarded as the basic explanation of Mr. Meisinger’s activities in Japan with regard to the splitting up of the German Community into Nazis and anti-Nazis." This testimony of Karl Hamel to Allied interrogation specialists was kept strictly confidential for a long time. During lawsuits for compensation of inmates of the Shanghai Ghetto in the 1950s, former German diplomats were able to convince the judges, that the proclamation of the ghetto was a sovereign act of the Japanese and not related to German authorities.[14]

At war's end, about half of the Jews who had been in Japanese-controlled territories later moved on to the Western hemisphere (such as the United States and Canada) and the remainder moved to other parts of the world, mainly to Israel.

Since the 1920s, there have been occasional events and statements reflecting antisemitism in Japan,[15] generally promoted by fringe elements and tabloid newspapers.

Jews and Judaism in modern Japan[edit]

After World War II, a large portion of the few Jews that were in Japan left, many going to what would become Israel. Some of those who remained married locals and were assimilated into Japanese society.

Presently, there are several hundred Jewish families living in Tokyo, and a small number of Jewish families in and around Kobe. A small number of Jewish expatriates of other countries live throughout Japan, temporarily, for business, research, a gap year, or a variety of other purposes. There are always Jewish members of the United States Armed Forces serving on Okinawa and in the other American military bases throughout Japan.

There are community centers serving Jewish communities in Tokyo[16] and Kobe.[17] The Chabad-Lubavitch organization has two official centers in Tokyo and in Kobe[18] and there is an additional Chabad house run by Rabbi Yehezkel Binyomin Edery.[19]

In the cultural domain, each year, hundreds, if not thousands, of Jews visit the Chiune Sugihara Memorial Museum located in Yaotsu, Gifu Prefecture, in central Japan. Chiune Sugihara's grave in Kamakura is the place where Jewish visitors pay their respect. Sugihara's actions of issuing valid transit visas are thought to have saved the lives of around 6,000 Jews, who fled across Russia to Vladivostok and then Japan to escape the concentration camps.[20] In the same prefecture, many Jews also visit Takayama city.

Rabbis[edit]

Tokyo Jewish Community[edit]

Chabad[edit]

Jewish Community of Kobe[edit]

List of notable Jews in Japan[edit]

People of Jewish descent
Refugees, short expatriates
Other related people to Judaism and Jews in Japan

Ambassadors[edit]

Films[edit]

  • Jewish Soul Music: The Art of Giora Feidman (1980). Directed by Uri Barbash.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Golub, Jennifer, JAPANESE ATTITUDES TOWARD JEWS. PACIFIC RIM INSTITUTE OF THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
  2. ^ by Kanji Ishizumi
  3. ^ Yoshito Takigawa [ja] (滝川義人) "図解ユダヤ社会のしくみ 現代ユダヤ人の本当の姿がここにある", p.54-57, 中経出版, 2001, ISBN 978-4-8061-1442-0
  4. ^ Daniel Ari Kapner and Stephen Levine, "The Jews of Japan," Jerusalem Letter, No. 425 24 Adar I 5760 / 1 March 2000, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Archived 8 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "History of Jewish Kobe, Japan". historyofjewishkobejapan.blogspot.sg. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  6. ^ "Question 戦前の日本における対ユダヤ人政策の基本をなしたと言われる「ユダヤ人対策要綱」に関する史料はありますか。また、同要綱に関する説明文はありますか。". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Archived from the original on 2011-09-16. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
  7. ^ "猶太人対策要綱". Five ministers council. Japan Center for Asian Historical Record. 1938-12-06. p. 36/42. Retrieved 2010-10-02.[dead link]
  8. ^ Palasz-Rutkowska, Ewa (13 March 1995). "Polish-Japanese Secret Cooperation During World War II: Sugihara Chiune and Polish Intelligence". Tokyo: The Asiatic Society of Japan Bulletin. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011 – via Tokyo International University.
  9. ^ Andrzej Guryn, "Tadeusza Romera Pomoc Żydom Polskim na Dalekim Wschodzie," Biuletyn Polskiego Instytutu Naukowego w Kanadzie, vol X,1993 Archived 2011-07-27 at the Wayback Machine. (in Polish)
  10. ^ "Shanghai Jewish History". Shanghai Jewish Center. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010.
  11. ^ Pamela Shatzkes. Kobe: A Japanese haven for Jewish refugees, 1940–1941. Japan Forum, 1469-932X, Volume 3, Issue 2, 1991, pp. 257–273
  12. ^ 歷史與空間:中國的「舒特拉」. Wen Wei Po. 2005-11-23. Archived from the original on 2009-03-29. Retrieved 2014-12-12.
  13. ^ Abe, Yoshio (July 2002), 戦前の日本における対ユダヤ人政策の転回点 (PDF), Studies in Languages and Cultures, No. 16, Kyushu University, p. 9, archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-01-16
  14. ^ Jochem, Clemens: Der Fall Foerster: Die deutsch-japanische Maschinenfabrik in Tokio und das Jüdische Hilfskomitee Hentrich & Hentrich, Berlin 2017, pp. 82–90 and pp. 229–233, ISBN 978-3-95565-225-8.
  15. ^ Jacob Kovalio, The Russian Protocols of Zion in Japan: Yudayaka/Jewish Peril Propaganda and Debates in the 1920s, Vol. 64 of Asian Thought and Culture, Peter Lang, 2009 ISBN 1433106094
  16. ^ "Jewish Community of Japan". Archived from the original on 2006-01-17.
  17. ^ "Jewish Community of Kansai". Archived from the original on 2013-01-29.
  18. ^ "Chabad Lubavitch of Japan, Tokyo". www.chabad.jp. Archived from the original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  19. ^ "Welcome to Chabad of Tokyo, Japan! - Chabad Tokyo Japan". Chabad Tokyo Japan. Archived from the original on 21 January 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  20. ^ "Japan Blog - Tokyo Osaka Nagoya Kyoto: Chiune Sugihara Memorial Museum". japanvisitor.blogspot.jp. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  21. ^ (ja)
  22. ^ (ja)
  23. ^ ja:石角完爾
  24. ^ ja:サリー・ワイル
  25. ^ (ja)
  26. ^ (ja)
  27. ^ Robert Whymant, Stalin's Spy: Richard Sorge and the Tokyo Espionage Ring, I.B.Tauris, 1996 ISBN 1860640443
  28. ^ A. M. Pollak, Ritter von Rudin"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-01-29. Retrieved 2018-01-28., "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-01-28. Retrieved 2018-01-28., "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-01-29. Retrieved 2018-01-28., "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-03-01. Retrieved 2015-02-22.

External links[edit]