History of the Jews in Udmurtia and Tatarstan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Jews from Udmurtia and Tatarstan. Udmurt and Tatar Jews are special territorial ethnocultural groups of the Ashkenazi Jews, which started to be formed in the residence areas of mixed Turkic-speaking (Tatars, Kryashens, Bashkirs, Chuvash people), Finno-Ugric-speaking (Udmurts, Mari people) and Slavic-speaking (Russians) population. Also from 1807 in the industrial and administrative centers of the Sarapulsky Uezd the Germans began to reside (predominantly in Izhevsk, Votkinsk, Sarapul).[1] Until this time the Germans in the region of formation of udmurt and tatar Jewry lived only to Kazan (from the 18th century).[2] The possibility of occurrence of Jewish communities in the region was made possible after the decree of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia on August 26, 1827 on the introduction of conscription for the Jews (see Cantonists).[3][4]

The Ashkenazi Jews on the territory of the Udmurt Republic first appeared in the 1830s.[5][6][7][8] On the territory of Tatarstan the Ashkenazim began to live in the same period of time.[4]

Geographic, ethnocultural and linguistic characteristics[edit]

Initially the Ashkenazi Jews lived in the vast majority in the workmen's settlement of Izhevsky Zavod (at present Izhevsk) [5][6][7][9][10] and the uezd city of Sarapul[9][11] (both inhabited localities were at that time a part of the Sarapulsky Uezd of the Vyatka Governorate,[12][13] are now the two largest cities in Udmurtia[14]), as well as in the city of Kazan[4] (at the time a town and the administrative center of the Kazan Governorate,[15] now the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan[4]). Jews of these territories were Yiddish-speaking.[9]

The local historian and linguist A.V. Altyntsev subdivided the Jews of the region on cultural and linguistic characteristics into two territorial groups: 1) Udmurt Jews (Udmurt Jewry), who lived on the territory of Udmurtia and the north of Tatarstan; 2) Tatar Jews or Kazan Jews (Tatar Jewry or Kazan Jewry), who lived mainly in the city of Kazan and its agglomeration.[9] According to A.V. Altyntsev, the udmurt Jewry (dos udmurtishe yidntum) had formed the local Idiom (see Идиом,[16] Idiom (Spracheigentümlichkeit)[17]) on the base of the Yiddish of Udmurtia till the 1930s and features of Yiddish of migrants "joined" into it (in the 1930-1940s);[9] as a result up to the 1970-1980s the Udmurt Idiom (Udmurtish) was divided into two linguistic subgroups: the Central subgroup (with centers – Izhevsk, Sarapul and Votkinsk) and the Southern subgroup (with centers – Kambarka, Alnashi, Agryz and Naberezhnye Chelny).[9] One of the characteristic features of the Udmurt Idiom is a noticeable number of Udmurt and Tatar loan words.[18][19][20][21] For example, ule "herd, flock, troop, drove" < udmurt ull'o "herd, flock, troop, drove, brood"; d'z'uče(r), džuče(r) "Russian (a person is appurtenant to the ethnic group)" < udmurt d'z'uč "Russian (a person is appurtenant to the ethnic group)"; kam "big river" < udmurt kam "big river"; šurχ "river" < udmurt šur "river"; botke "boiled rice, congee" < tatar botka "kasha, pap, porridge, gruel, stirabout",[19][22] (š)ulej "herd, flock, troop, drove" < udmurt ull'o "herd, flock, troop, drove, brood"; kiser, kis'er "failure, misfortune, reverse, bad luck, ill-luck" < udmurt kis'ör "failure";[21] vös'ašndorf < Yiddish vös'ašn- "priestly, sacerdotal (the word was used only in relation to udmurt pagan priests)" < Udmurt vös'as' "pagan priest in udmurt ethnic religion" + Yiddish dorf "village", the word וואָסיאַשןדאָרף vös'ašndorf [vəˈsʲaʃ(ə)ndɔʁf] is a Jewish appellation of the udmurt village of Kuzebaevo in the Alnashsky District of Udmurtia [23][24] where southern udmurts (inhabitants of the village) are performed pagan oblations up to the present day.[25][26][27][28][29] In connection with the Kazan "centralization" the Tatar Jewry on the main ethnocultural characteristics (language, food, holidays, religion, clothing, etc.) has been more or less holistic.[9] Also the Jewish community of Udmurtia and Tatarstan have had for the greater part cultural-ethnic rather than religious basis because among its members were representatives of different religious characteristics [10][18][30][31][32][33] – a confessional affiliation (Judaism, Atheism, Lutheranism, Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, Baptists, Adventism, Pentecostalism), a degree of religiosity and syncretic elements on the familial-ethnic level (for example some Jewish families celebrate Hanukkah and Christmas[34]). Currently, due to the assimilation processes the Jews of Udmurtia and Tatarstan were successfully integrated into the Russian-speaking space and is actively used the Russian language.[9]

Rural Jewish community of Alnashsky District[edit]

In the Alnashsky District of Udmurtia fairly large the rural Jewish community was located,[9][22][35][36] whose members spoke the Alnashic subdialect of the Udmurtish,[18][20][32] and also many Jews spoke Udmurt and/or Tatar languages.[19][20][37] The Ashkenazi Jews in the Alnashsky District first appeared early in the 20th century (in the 1910s and 1920s).[18][38] In the 1940s through the 1960s, the maximal quantity of the Jews in the district was 25-35 humans.[39] The primary residences of the Jews there were three settlements: the village of Alnashi, the village of Varzi-Yatchi and the hamlet of Garga.[18][32][40] The Alnashic Jewry celebrated all Jewish holydays except for Tu Bishvat. The most revered feasts were Passover (Pesach), Simchat Torah (Simches To(y)reh), Yom Kippur (Yom Kipper), Hanukkah and Purim.[18][32] The Udmurts of the district often mistook the Jews for Russians but sometimes for russianized Germans or Udmurts.[41][42] In the 1980s, the Jews practically left Alnashsky District.[19][37] However in 2015, a few Jews lived still in the district as members of interethnic (Jewish-udmurt) families.[19][37]

Besides, the Alnashsky District occasionally attended the Subbotniks (Hebrew/Yiddish gerim; Russian subbotniki literally "sabbatarians", novyye zhidy literally "new Jews", zhidovstvuyushchiye literally "Judaizers", iudeystvuyushchiye literally "Judaizers", zhidovery literally "Jewbelievers"; Russian endoethnonym gery to Hebrew ger). The Subbotniks came for a recreation (Varzi-Yatchi sanatorium) or on working affairs.[18][43]

It should be noted that the Alnashsky District's population has a complex ethnic structure. The district is one of 16 rural district of the Udmurt Republic where the Udmurts make up the majority,[44] as well as one of the four districts of compact residence of Mari people.[45] Besides, the Alnashsky District along with the Grakhovsky District and the Kiznersky District is the residence territory of the Kryashens in the rural area of Udmurtia.[46] As a result of the 2002 census, among the 4th largest ethnic group of the district population the udmurts turned out 81.7%, Russians - 12.2%, Tatars - 3.4%, Mari - 2.1%.[44][47]

Synagogues and Jewish ethnocultural formations[edit]

Under the moral pressure of leadership, Orthodox clergy and higher ranks of the Russian Empire the Jews of the region to improve their living conditions turned into the Christian faith (mainly Orthodox Christianity).[6][7][8] Such cases are known since 1831.[7]

Despite this fact in Izhevsk there were officially registered 56 orthodox Jews in 1846, 55 in 1847 and 130 in 1849. In 1897, there were 221 orthodox Jews in the city of Sarapul, and beyond, on the territory of the Sarapulsky Uezd (mostly in Izhevsk) there were 322 orthodox Jews.[7] In 1861, in the city of Kazan there were 184 Jews, mostly craftsmen and retired soldiers and their families. In 1897, the number of Jews in Kazan had risen to 1467 people (about 1% of the city population).[4]

In Izhevsk, since 1849 under the Jewish religious needs the prayer house was allocated (the Dornbush's house).[6][7][48] A second synagogue was opened in 1917 on Verkhniy Uzskiy side street (at present Internatsionalnyiy side street) between Tserkovnaya Street (at present Vadim Sivkov Street) and Gospitalnaya Street (at present Krasnoarmeyskaya Street), it was moved to another location (22 Verkhniy Uzskiy side street) in 1927. Both synagogues were closed in 1930 (by the Soviet authorities).[6][7]

At the beginning of the 20th century there was a synagogue in the city of Sarapul. The location of the first synagogue is unknown, but from 1915 to 1926 the Sarapul synagogue was located in the wing of building on 38 Karl Marx Street.[7]

From 1993 through the present time in Udmurtia there is the Association of Jewish culture of the Udmurt Republic (Russian "Общество еврейской культуры Удмуртской Республики"). Created to study the history, culture and traditions of the Jewish people. There is a Sunday school. It has a connection with the Jewish Agency and the JDC. In 2000, it had about 400 members.[49]

In the city of Kazan until the late 19th century, the Jewish community was not officially registered.[4] Only March 18, 1897 the Jews were allowed to make a house of worship, and the Kazan Jewish community was registered. But because of various delays created by the authorities, the Jewish prayer house was only opened March 12, 1915, and before that the community rented for religious services the private house.[4][50] In 1929, the Kazan synagogue was closed by decision of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Council of Workers, Peasants and Red Army Deputies.[4][50] Once again, the Jewish religious community was registered in 1990. And after the return of the building of the former prayer house, the Kazan synagogue was opened anew in 1996.[4][50] It is located on 15 Profsoyuznaya Street in the city of Kazan.[50][51][52]

In 1989, it was established the club of Jewish culture "Menorah" in the Tatar branch of the Russian Cultural Foundation, which since 1993 is called the Kazan cultural center "Menorah".[4] Since 1991, in Kazan there is the branch of the Jewish Agency. Also, it is operated various institutions of education: since 1995 - the Sunday school, since 1998 - the secondary Jewish School №12; since 2000 - the center of World ORT and the Jewish kindergarten. In June 1997, it was officially registered the Jewish communal-charitable center "Hesed Moshe", where in the late of the 1990s received assistance about two thousand people. Since 1994, it is operated "Maccabi World Union" and the club "Golden Age" (Russian "Золотой возраст").[4] "Hesed Moshe" publishes the newspaper "Jewish Street" (Russian "Еврейская улица").[4]

Population[edit]

The number of Jews who lived on the territory of the Udmurt Republic.

1926
[53]
people
(excluding
Sarapul Jews)
% 1939
[54]
people
% 1959
[55]
people
% 1979
[56]
people
% 1989
[57]
people
% 2002
[58]
people
%
of
total
%
of
the number of people
who said ethnicity
2010
[59][60]
people
%
of
total
%
of
the number of people
who said ethnicity
Udmurtia 254 0,03 % 1158 0,09 % 2187 0,16 % 1815 0,12 % 1639 0,10 % 935 0,06 % 0,06 % 717 0,05 % 0,05 %

The number of Jews who lived on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan.

1926
[61]
people
% 1939
[62]
people
% 1959
[63]
people
% 1979
[64]
people
% 1989
[65]
people
% 2002
[58]
people
%
of
total
%
of
the number of people
who said ethnicity
2010
[59][60]
people
%
of
total
%
of
the number of people
who said ethnicity
Tatarstan 4265 0,16 % 6050 0,21 % 10360 0,36 % 8650 0,25 % 7294 0,20 % 3472 0,09 % 0,09 % 2624 0,07 % 0,07 %

References[edit]

  1. ^ Шепталин А.А., "Немцы". Удмуртская Республика: Энциклопедия. Ижевск: Издательство "Удмуртия", 2000. С. 513. ISBN 5-7659-0732-6 (in Russian)
  2. ^ Kazan ethnic communities
  3. ^ Шумилов Е.Ф., "Евреи: элита инженерная, торговая, медицинская..." Свое дело. 2001. №11. С. 18-19. (in Russian)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Казань. Электронная еврейская энциклопедия. = אתר האנציקלופדיה היהודית בשפה הרוסית (in Russian)
  5. ^ a b Шумилов Е.Ф., "Евреи: элита инженерная, торговая, медицинская..." Свое дело. 2001. №11. С. 18. (in Russian)
  6. ^ a b c d e Карпенко И., "В окрестностях Хаимграда". Лехаим. 2009. №1 (201). (in Russian)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Шумилов Е.Ф., "Евреи на Ижевском оружейном заводе". (in Russian)
  8. ^ a b Ренев Е.,"Шалом. Народ Торы в старом Ижевске. Инвожо. 2012. № 8. С. 47. (in Russian)
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Altyntsev A.V., "The Concept of Love in Ashkenazim of Udmurtia and Tatarstan", Nauka Udmurtii. 2013. № 4 (66), p. 131. (Алтынцев А.В., "Чувство любви в понимании евреев-ашкенази Удмуртии и Татарстана". Наука Удмуртии. 2013. №4. С. 131: Комментарии.) (in Russian)
  10. ^ a b Ренев Е.,"Шалом. Народ Торы в старом Ижевске. Инвожо. 2012. № 8. С. 46-47. (in Russian)
  11. ^ Пюрияйнен Д.М., "Население уездного города Сарапула во второй половине XIX - начале XX в.: социокультурный аспект" : автореф. дис. на соиск. учен. степ. канд. ист. наук. Ижевск, 2009. С. 18. (in Russian)
  12. ^ "Памятная книжка и адресъ-календарь Вятской губернiи на 1916 годъ. " Вятка: Изданiе губернскаго статистическаго комитета, 1916. C. 78. (in Russian)
  13. ^ Гришкина М.В., "Сарапульский Уезд.". Удмуртская Республика: Энциклопедия. Ижевск: Издательство "Удмуртия", 2000. С. 623-624. ISBN 5-7659-0732-6 (in Russian)
  14. ^ "Численность населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2015 года." Таблица 29. (in Russian)
  15. ^ Шaйдуллин Р.В.,"Казанская Губерния." Татарская энциклопедия. История РТ и общественной мысли. Институт Татарской энциклопедии Академии наук Татарстана. (in Russian)
  16. ^ ru:Идиом (in Russian)
  17. ^ de:Idiom (Spracheigentümlichkeit) (in German)
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Goldberg-Altyntsev A.V., "A short ethnographic overview of the Ashkenazic Jews' group in Alnashsky District of Udmurt Republic". Die Sammlung der wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten der jungen jüdischen Wissenschaftler. Herausgegeben von Artur Katz, Yumi Matsuda und Alexander Grinberg. München, Dachau, 2015. S. 51.
  19. ^ a b c d e Гольдберг-Алтынцев А.В., "Краткий этнографический обзор группы ашкеназских евреев в Алнашском районе Удмуртской Республики / пер. с англ. яз. А.Й. Каца." Jewish studies in the Udmurt Republic: Online. Part 1. Edited by A. Greenberg. February 27, 2015 published. P. 3. (in Russian)
  20. ^ a b c Goldberg-Altyntsev A.V., "Some characteristics of the Jews in Alnashsky District of Udmurt Republic." The youth. The creativity. The science. Edited by V. Cox, A. Katz and A. Greenberg. Trenton, 2014, p. 28. (גאלדבערג-אלטינצעוו א.ו., ". איניגע באזונדערהייטן פון די יידן אין אלנאשסקער רייאן פון ודמורטישע רעפובליק" The youth. The creativity. The science. = Die Jugend. Die Kreativität. Die Wissenschaft. = נוער. יצירתיות. מדע Edited by V. Cox, A. Katz and A. Greenberg. Trenton, 2014. P. 28.) (in Yiddish)
  21. ^ a b Altyntsev A.V., "The Concept of Love in Ashkenazim of Udmurtia and Tatarstan", Nauka Udmurtii. 2013. № 4 (66), p. 132. (Алтынцев А.В., "Чувство любви в понимании евреев-ашкенази Удмуртии и Татарстана". Наука Удмуртии. 2013. №4. С. 132: Комментарии.) (in Russian)
  22. ^ a b Goldberg-Altyntsev A.V., "A short ethnographic overview of the Ashkenazic Jews' group in Alnashsky District of Udmurt Republic". Die Sammlung der wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten der jungen jüdischen Wissenschaftler. Herausgegeben von Artur Katz, Yumi Matsuda und Alexander Grinberg. München, Dachau, 2015. S. 51-52.
  23. ^ Altynzew A.W., Tuganaew W.W., "Die kurze Charakteristik des ökologischen Zustands des udmurtischen sakralen Orts Lud neben dem Dorf Kusebajewo im Rajon Alnaschi der Udmurtischen Republik ". Die Sammlung der wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten der jungen jüdischen Wissenschaftler / Herausgegeben von Artur Katz, Yumi Matsuda und Alexander Grinberg. München, Dachau, 2015. S. 17. (in German)
  24. ^ Goldberg-Altyntsev A.V., Tuganaev V.V. "Brief ecological overview of south-udmurt sacral territory Lud near the village Kuzebaevo of Alnashsky District of Udmurt Republic". The modern rural economy: Actual issues of development. Edited by J. Johnson. Topeka, 2014. P. 39.
  25. ^ Шутова Н.И., "Дохристианские культовые памятники в удмуртской религиозной традиции: Опыт комплекстного исследования". Ижевск: Удмуртский институт истории, языка и литературы УрО РАН, 2001. С. 49-58, С. 265-267 (in Russian)
  26. ^ Altyntsev A.V., Tuganaev V.V., "A short description of ecological state of udmurt sacred place Lud near the village Kuzebaevo in Alnashsky District of Udmurt Republic." Сельскохозяйственные науки и агропромышленный комплекс на рубеже веков: сборник материалов X Международной научно-практической конференции. Под общ. ред. С.С. Чернова. Новосибирск: Издательство ЦРНС, 2015. С. 8.
  27. ^ Kosareva I.A., "On Lud and Kuala social-cult groups of the Udmurts. " Herald of Chelyabinsk State University. 2011. № 34 (249). P. 13-15. (Косарева И.А., "О социально-культовых группах Луда и Куалы у удмуртов ." Вестник Челябинского государственного университета. 2011. № 34 (249). С. 13-15.) (in Russian)
  28. ^ Kosareva I.A., "The spread of Bulda cult and the problem of discovering ethnographic subdivisions of Southern Udmurts ." Herald of Chelyabinsk State University. 2011. № 34 (249). P. 17-18. (Косарева И.А., "Распространение культа Булды и проблема выявления этнографических подразделений южных удмуртов." Вестник Челябинского государственного университета. 2011. № 34 (249). С. 17-18.) (in Russian)
  29. ^ Овсянникова Е., "Кузёбай вӧсьёс." Инвожо. 2001. №12. 60-68-тӥ б. (in Udmurt)
  30. ^ Altyntsev A.V., "The Concept of Love in Ashkenazim of Udmurtia and Tatarstan", Nauka Udmurtii. 2013. № 4 (66), p. 128, p. 130-131. (Алтынцев А.В., "Чувство любви в понимании евреев-ашкенази Удмуртии и Татарстана". Наука Удмуртии. 2013. №4. С. 128, С. 130-131: Комментарии.) (in Russian)
  31. ^ Алтынцев А.В., "Основные аспекты семейного воспитания традиционных духовных ценностей евреев-ашкенази Удмуртии." Созидающая природа человека: материалы Петраковск. чтений (Рос. науч.-теорет. конф.), 2-3 дек. 2011 г. Ижевск: Удмурт. ун-т, 2011. С. 10. (in Russian)
  32. ^ a b c d Гольдберг-Алтынцев А.В., "Краткий этнографический обзор группы ашкеназских евреев в Алнашском районе Удмуртской Республики / пер. с англ. яз. А.Й. Каца." Jewish studies in the Udmurt Republic: Online. Part 1. Edited by A. Greenberg. February 27, 2015 published. P. 2. (in Russian)
  33. ^ "Основные аспекты семейного воспитания традиционных духовных ценностей евреев-ашкенази Удмуртии." Literjewsudmurtia. The Literature about the Jews of Udmurtia. (in Russian)
  34. ^ Altyntsev A.V., "The Concept of Love in Ashkenazim of Udmurtia and Tatarstan", Nauka Udmurtii. 2013. № 4 (66), p. 130. (Алтынцев А.В., "Чувство любви в понимании евреев-ашкенази Удмуртии и Татарстана". Наука Удмуртии. 2013. №4. С. 130: Комментарии.) (in Russian)
  35. ^ Гольдберг-Алтынцев А.В., "Краткий этнографический обзор группы ашкеназских евреев в Алнашском районе Удмуртской Республики / пер. с англ. яз. А.Й. Каца." Jewish studies in the Udmurt Republic: Online. Part 1. Edited by A. Greenberg. February 27, 2015 published. P. 1-4. (in Russian)
  36. ^ Goldberg-Altyntsev A.V., "Some characteristics of the Jews in Alnashsky District of Udmurt Republic." The youth. The creativity. The science. Edited by V. Cox, A. Katz and A. Greenberg. Trenton, 2014, p. 27-29. (גאלדבערג-אלטינצעוו א.ו., ". איניגע באזונדערהייטן פון די יידן אין אלנאשסקער רייאן פון ודמורטישע רעפובליק" The youth. The creativity. The science. = Die Jugend. Die Kreativität. Die Wissenschaft. = נוער. יצירתיות. מדע Edited by V. Cox, A. Katz and A. Greenberg. Trenton, 2014. P. 27-29.) (in Yiddish)
  37. ^ a b c Goldberg-Altyntsev A.V., "A short ethnographic overview of the Ashkenazic Jews' group in Alnashsky District of Udmurt Republic". Die Sammlung der wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten der jungen jüdischen Wissenschaftler. Herausgegeben von Artur Katz, Yumi Matsuda und Alexander Grinberg. München, Dachau, 2015. S. 52.
  38. ^ Гольдберг-Алтынцев А.В., "Краткий этнографический обзор группы ашкеназских евреев в Алнашском районе Удмуртской Республики / пер. с англ. яз. А.Й. Каца." Jewish studies in the Udmurt Republic: Online. Part 1. Edited by A. Greenberg. February 27, 2015 published. P. 1. (in Russian)
  39. ^ Goldberg-Altyntsev A.V., "The Jews in Alnashsky District." Theses about the Jewry of Alnashsky District of Udmurt Republic. Edited by A. Greenberg. January 7, 2014 published. (in Yiddish)
  40. ^ Goldberg-Altyntsev A.V., "Some characteristics of the Jews in Alnashsky District of Udmurt Republic." The youth. The creativity. The science. Edited by V. Cox, A. Katz and A. Greenberg. Trenton, 2014, p. 27. (גאלדבערג-אלטינצעוו א.ו., ". איניגע באזונדערהייטן פון די יידן אין אלנאשסקער רייאן פון ודמורטישע רעפובליק" The youth. The creativity. The science. = Die Jugend. Die Kreativität. Die Wissenschaft. = נוער. יצירתיות. מדע Edited by V. Cox, A. Katz and A. Greenberg. Trenton, 2014. P. 27.) (in Yiddish)
  41. ^ Алтынцев А.В. Основные социологические особенности населения на территории Варзи-Ятчинского сельского поселения Алнашского района Удмуртской Республики // Осінні наукові читання / Збірка наукових праць за матеріалами Міжнародної наукової конференції «Осінні наукові читання-2012», 28 листопада 2012 року. Київ: НАІРІ, 2012. Частина 1. С. 67. (in Russian)
  42. ^ "Некоторые аспекты межэтнических отношений в Алнашском районе Удмуртской Республики." Literjewsudmurtia. The Literature about the Jews of Udmurtia. (in Russian)
  43. ^ Гольдберг-Алтынцев А.В., "Краткий этнографический обзор группы ашкеназских евреев в Алнашском районе Удмуртской Республики / пер. с англ. яз. А.Й. Каца." Jewish studies in the Udmurt Republic: Online. Part 1. Edited by A. Greenberg. February 27, 2015 published. P. 1-2. (in Russian)
  44. ^ a b ru:Алнашский район#.D0.9D.D0.B0.D1.86.D0.B8.D0.BE.D0.BD.D0.B0.D0.BB.D1.8C.D0.BD.D1.8B.D0.B9 .D1.81.D0.BE.D1.81.D1.82.D0.B0.D0.B2 (in Russian)
  45. ^ Попова Е.В., "Марийцы Удмуртии: Краткие историко-этнографические сведения." Марийцы Удмуртии: история, традиции и современность: материалы межрегиональной научно-практической конференции с международным участием, 6 декабря 2015 года, г. Ижевск / Под общ. ред. А.Е. Загребина. Ижевск: Изд-во "Монпоражен", 2015. С. 24. ISBN 978-5-906306-09-8 (in Russian)
  46. ^ "Кряшены Удмуртии." Кряшенская духовная миссия. (in Russian)
  47. ^ "Алнашский район". Аппарат Главного федерального инспектора по Удмуртской Республике. Archived from the original on 2008-05-18. Retrieved 2010-01-09.  (in Russian)
  48. ^ Ренев Е.,"Шалом. Народ Торы в старом Ижевске. Инвожо. 2012. № 8. С. 46. (in Russian)
  49. ^ "Общество еврейской культуры УР." Удмуртская Республика: Энциклопедия. Ижевск: Издательство "Удмуртия", 2000. С. 523. ISBN 5-7659-0732-6 (in Russian)
  50. ^ a b c d Варшавская Л., "Казанская синагога: 100 лет и сегодня." (in Russian)
  51. ^ "Казанская иудейская религиозная община (синагога Хабад-Любавич)." (in Russian)
  52. ^ "История синагоги в Казани." (in Russian)
  53. ^ Демоскоп. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1926 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России: Вотская АО
  54. ^ Демоскоп. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1939 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России: Удмуртская АССР
  55. ^ Демоскоп. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1959 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России: Удмуртская АССР
  56. ^ Демоскоп. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России: Удмуртская АССР
  57. ^ Демоскоп. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России: Удмуртская АССР
  58. ^ a b Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года: Население по национальности и владению русским языком по субъектам РФ Archived 2006-11-04 at the Wayback Machine.
  59. ^ a b Официальный сайт Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года. Информационные материалы об окончательных итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года
  60. ^ a b Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Официальные итоги с расширенными перечнями по национальному составу населения и по регионам.: см.
  61. ^ Демоскоп. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1926 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России: Татарская АССР
  62. ^ Демоскоп. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1939 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России: Татарская АССР
  63. ^ Демоскоп. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1959 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России: Татарская АССР
  64. ^ Демоскоп. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России: Татарская АССР
  65. ^ Демоскоп. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России: Татарская АССР