History of the People's Republic of China
|History of the People's|
Republic of China (PRC)
|Generations of leadership|
The history of the People's Republic of China details the history of mainland China since 1 October 1949, when Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen, after a near complete victory (1949) by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in the Chinese Civil War. The PRC is the most recent political entity to govern mainland China, preceded by the Republic of China (ROC; 1912–1949) and thousands of years of monarchical dynasties. The paramount leaders have been Mao Zedong (1949-1976); Hua Guofeng (1976-1978); Deng Xiaoping (1978-1989); Jiang Zemin (1989-2002); Hu Jintao (2002-2012); and Xi Jinping (2012 to present).
The origins of the People's Republic can be traced to the Chinese Soviet Republic that was proclaimed in 1931 in Ruijin (Jui-chin), Jiangxi (Kiangsi), with the backing of the All-Union Communist Party in the Soviet Union in the midst of the Chinese Civil War against the Nationalist government only to dissolve in 1937.
Under Mao's rule, China went through a socialist transformation from a traditional peasant society, leaning towards heavy industries under planned economy, while campaigns such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution wreaked havoc on the entire country. Since late 1978, the economic reforms led by Deng Xiaoping had made China the world's second-largest and one of the fastest growing economies, with a specialty in high productivity factories and leadership in some areas of high technology. Globally, after receiving support from the USSR in the 1950s, China became bitter enemy of USSR on a worldwide basis until Mikhail Gorbachev's visit to China in May 1989. In the 21st century, the new wealth and technology led to a contest for primacy in Asian affairs versus India, Japan and the United States, and since 2017 a growing trade war with the United States.
Mao era (1949–1976)
Following the Chinese Civil War and victory of Mao Zedong's Communist forces over the Kuomintang forces of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, who fled to Taiwan, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC) on 1 October 1949. Mao laid heavy theoretical emphasis on command economy and class struggle, and ruled as a dictator.
After the Korean War ended in 1953, Mao Zedong launched campaigns to persecute former landlords and merchants, starting the industrialisation program at the same time. Mao's first goal was a total overhaul of the land ownership system, and extensive land reforms, including the execution of more powerful landlords. China's old system of gentry landlord ownership of farmland and tenant peasants was replaced with a distribution system in favor of poor/landless peasants which significantly reduced economic inequality. Over a million landlords were executed in the Chinese land reform. In Zhangzhuangcun, in the more thoroughly reformed north of the country, most "landlords" and "rich peasants" had lost all their land and often their lives or had fled. All formerly landless workers had received land, which eliminated this category altogether. As a result, "middling peasants", who now accounted for 90% of the village population, owned 91% of the land. Drug trafficking and opium use were largely wiped out. Foreign investments were seized and outsiders were expelled.
At the same time, political movements and class struggles were launched nationwide. The Anti-Rightist Campaign of 1957–1958 significantly damaged the democracy in China, during which at least 550,000 people were persecuted, most of who were intellectuals and political dissidents. After the campaign, China entered the de facto one-party state of the Chinese Communist Party. Other major political movements in 1950s included the Suppression of Counter-revolutionaries, the Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns and the Sufan Movement, each of which resulted in a large number of deaths nationwide.
Great Leap Forward and aftermath
Mao Zedong believed that socialism would eventually triumph over all other ideologies, and following the First Five-Year Plan based on a Soviet-style centrally controlled economy, Mao took on the ambitious project of the Great Leap Forward in 1958, beginning an unprecedented process of collectivisation in rural areas (the People's commune). Mao urged the use of communally organised iron smelters to increase steel production, pulling workers off of agricultural labor to the point that large amounts of crops rotted unharvested. Mao decided to continue to advocate these smelters despite a visit to a factory steel mill which proved to him that high quality steel could only be produced in a factory. He thought that ending the program would dampen peasant enthusiasm for his political mobilisation, the Great Leap Forward.
The implementation of Maoism thought in China may have been responsible for the deadliest famine in human history, in which 15-55 million people died due to starvation and epidemics. By the end of 1961, the birth rate was nearly cut in half because of malnutrition. In 1958, the Xunhua uprising broke out and in 1959, a major uprising erupted in Tibet, resulting in the deaths of tens of thousands of Tibetans, and the Dalai Lama went into exile afterwards. Mao's failure with the Leap reduced his power in government, whose administrative duties fell to President Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, especially after the Seven Thousand Cadres Conference in early 1962. The power struggle between Mao Zedong and Liu Shaoqi together with Deng Xiaoping began after 1962. The Socialist Education Movement was launched by Mao from 1963 to 1965, as a result.
Much more successful was the "Two Bombs, One Satellite" program, launched in 1958, with the help at first of Moscow. It used leading scientists who returned to mainland China from abroad, including Qian Xuesen, Deng Jiaxian and Qian Sanqiang. China's first atomic bomb, nuclear missile, hydrogen bomb and artificial satellite were all successfully developed by 1970. However, the program had been seriously affected by the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution.
In 1963, Mao Zedong launched the Socialist Education Movement, which is regarded as the precursor of the Cultural Revolution. To impose socialist orthodoxy and rid China of "old elements", and at the same time serving certain political goals, Mao began the Cultural Revolution in May 1966, attempting to return to the center of political power in China. The campaign was far reaching into all aspects of Chinese life. Estimated death toll ranges from hundreds of thousands to 20 million. Massacres took place across the country while massive cannibalism also occurred; Red Guards terrorized the streets as many ordinary citizens were deemed counter-revolutionaries; education and public transportation came to a nearly complete halt; daily life involved shouting slogans and reciting Mao quotations; many prominent political leaders, including Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, were purged and deemed "capitalist roaders". The campaign would not come to a complete end until the Death and state funeral of Mao Zedong and arrest of the Gang of Four in 1976. The second constitution of China, known as the "1975 Constitution", was passed in 1975 during the Cultural Revolution.
On the other hand, by the time of Mao's death, China's unity and sovereignty were assured for the first time in a century, and there was development of infrastructure, industry, healthcare, education (only 20% of the population could read in 1949, compared to 65.5% thirty years later), which raised standard of living for the average Chinese. There is also an argument that campaigns such as the Great Leap Forward – an example of the concept New Democracy – and the Cultural Revolution were essential in jumpstarting China's development and "purifying" its culture: even though the consequences of both these campaigns were economically and humanly disastrous, they left behind a "clean slate" on which later economic progress could be built.
The primary foreign policy was to obtain diplomatic recognition in the face of strong American opposition. Thus in 1964, tensions between Washington and Paris allowed France to open relations.
In 1950, India became one of the first countries to recognize People's Republic of China and establish formal diplomatic relation. However, India had close ties to the USSR and in 1962, a one-month Sino-Indian war and also a one-month Second Sino-Indian war in 1967 broke out along their remote border. Border tensions flared from time to time ever since.
Beijing was very pleased that the success of the Soviet Union in the space race – the original Sputniks – demonstrated that the international communist movement had caught up in high technology with the Americans. Mao assumed that the Soviets now had a military advantage and should step up the Cold War; Khrushchev knew that the Americans were well ahead in military uses of space. The strains multiplied, quickly making a dead letter of the 1950 alliance, destroying the socialist camp unity, and affected the world balance of power. The split started with Nikita Khrushchev De-Stalinization program. It angered Mao, who admired Stalin. Moscow and Beijing became worldwide rivals, forcing communist parties around the world to take sides; many of them split, so that the pro-Soviet communists were battling the pro-Chinese communists for local control of the left-wing forces in much of the world.
Internally, the Sino-Soviet split encouraged Mao to plunge China into the Cultural Revolution, to expunge traces of Russian ways of thinking. Mao argued that as far as all-out nuclear war was concerned, the human race would not be destroyed, and instead a brave new communist world would arise from the ashes of imperialism. This attitude troubled Moscow, which had a more realistic view of the utter disasters that would accompany a nuclear war. Three major issues suddenly became critical in dividing the two nations: Taiwan, India, and China's Great Leap Forward. Although Moscow supported Beijing's position that Taiwan entirely belong to China, it demanded that it be forewarned of any invasion or serious threat that would bring American intervention. Beijing refused, and the Chinese bombardment of the island of Quemoy in August 1958 escalated the tensions. Moscow was cultivating India, both as a major purchaser of Russian munitions, and a strategically critical ally. However China was escalating its threats to the northern fringes of India, especially from Tibet. It was building a militarily significant road system that would reach disputed areas along the border. The Russians clearly favored India, and Beijing reacted as a betrayal. By far the major ideological issue was the Great Leap Forward, which represented a Chinese rejection of the Soviet form of economic development. Moscow was deeply resentful, especially since it had spent heavily to supply China with high-technology—including some nuclear skills. Moscow withdrew its vitally needed technicians and economic and military aid. Khrushchev was increasingly crude and intemperate ridiculing China and Mao Zedong to both communist and international audiences. Beijing responded through its official propaganda network of rejecting Moscow's claim to Lenin's heritage. Beijing insisted it was the true inheritor of the great Leninist tradition. At one major meeting of communist parties, Khrushchev personally attacked Mao as an ultra leftist — a left revisionist — and compared him to Stalin for dangerous egotism. The conflict was now out of control, and was increasingly fought out in 81 communist parties around the world. The final split came in July 1963, after 50,000 refugees escaped from Xinjiang in western China to Soviet territory to escape persecution. China ridiculed the Russian incompetence in the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 as adventurism to start with and capitulationism to wind up on the losing side. Moscow now was increasingly giving priority to friendly relationships and test ban treaties with the United States and United Kingdom.
Increasingly, Beijing began to consider the Soviet Union, which it viewed as Social imperialism, as the greatest threat it faced, more so than even the leading capitalist power, the United States. In turn, overtures were made between the PRC and the United States, such as in the Ping Pong Diplomacy, Panda Diplomacy and the 1972 Nixon visit to China.
Diplomatic relations established
China established formal relationships with several major western countries and Japan. Typically the other party broke relations it had with the government on Taiwan.
- In January 1964, PRC established formal diplomatic relations with France.
- In October 1970, PRC established formal diplomatic relations with Canada.
- In November 1970, PRC established formal diplomatic relations with Italy.
- In 1971, Albania's motion in the United Nations to recognize the People's Republic of China as the sole legal China (replacing the Republic of China) was passed as General Assembly Resolution 2758.
- In March 1972, China established formal diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom. The UK was the first major Western country to recognize the PRC in 1950.
- In September 1972, PRC established formal diplomatic relations with Japan.
- In October 1972, PRC established formal diplomatic relations with West Germany.
- In December 1972, PRC established formal diplomatic relations with Australia.
- In March 1973, PRC established formal diplomatic relations with Spain.
Only major disasters are presented below (click to show).
|1950||Assam–Tibet earthquake||Tibet||4,000||Around 4000 people died in Tibet, while over 1000 died in India.|
|1954||Yangtze floods||Yangtze River||33,000||Mostly in Hubei province.|
|1957-1958||Asian flu||Worldwide||The pandemic started in Guizhou in southern China, and killed 1–4 million worldwide.|
|1959-1961||Great Chinese Famine||Nationwide||15-55 million||Mainly caused by the Great Leap Forward.|
|1966||Xingtai earthquake||Hebei||8,064||Magnitude 6.8 Mw.|
|1968-1969||Hong Kong flu||Worldwide||The pandemic started in British Hong Kong, and killed 1–4 million worldwide.|
|1970||Tonghai earthquake||Yunnan||Over 10,000||Magnitude 7.1 Mw. The earthquake occurred during the height of the Cultural Revolution, and it was not widely publicized by the Chinese government for over a decade.|
|1975||Haicheng earthquake||Liaoning||1,328||Magnitude 7.5 Ms. Some claimed the death toll was 2,041.|
|1975||The Banqiao Dam failure||Henan||85,600-240,000||62 dams including the largest Banqiao Dam in Henan province collapsed due to Typhoon Nina of 1975, creating the third-largest flood in history (according to the Chinese government, the death toll was 26,000). It was rated No.1 in "The Ultimate 10 Technological Disasters" of the world by Discovery Channel in May 2005 (the Ultimate 10 show), beating the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Most of the dams that collapsed in this disaster were built with the help of experts from Soviet Union or during the Great Leap Forward.|
|1976||Tangshan earthquake||Hebei||At least 242,769||Magnitude 7.6 Mw.|
During the Mao era, tens of millions of people died during various political movements as well as during the Great Chinese Famine, while tens of millions of other people were persecuted and permanently crippled. China turned into a de facto one-party state after the Anti-Rightist Campaign starting in 1957, during which democracy and the rule of law were damaged while at least 550,000 intellectuals and political dissidents were persecuted. Moreover, the Cultural Revolution severely damaged the rule of law as well as traditional Chinese culture and moral values; massacres were committed across the country and acts of cannibalism were also committed on a massive scale (e.g., Guangxi Massacre). Higher education was halted during the Cultural Revolution and scientific research was also seriously affected because many scientists were persecuted, killed or committed suicide. Some doubt statistics or accounts given for death tolls or other damages incurred by Mao's campaigns, attributing the high death toll to natural disasters, famine, or other consequences of political chaos during the rule of Chiang Kai-shek.
Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) also exported the ideology of socialism and socialist revolution to other parts of the world, especially to Southeast Asia. Influenced and supported by Mao and the CCP, Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge conducted the Cambodian genocide during which 1.5-2 million people were killed in just three years.
Transition and the Deng era (1976–1989)
The transition period
Mao Zedong's death was followed by a power struggle between the Gang of Four, Hua Guofeng, and eventually Deng Xiaoping. The third constitution of China, known as the "1978 Constitution", was passed in 1978 under Hua's "Two Whatevers".
In December 1978, with the support of Ye Jianying and other high-ranking officials, Deng eventually replaced Hua and became the paramount leader of China during the 3rd Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of CCP. Deng's allies such as Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang also received promotions.
Invalidating the Cultural Revolution
In September 1977, Deng first proposed the idea of "Boluan Fanzheng", attempting to dismantle the far-left Maoist policies associated with the Cultural Revolution. In the same year, he resumed the National College Entrance Examination which was cancelled for ten years due to the Cultural Revolution. Moreover, within several years, victims of more than 3 million "unjust, false, wrongful cases" were rehabilitated by Deng and his allies such as Hu Yaobang, then General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party. However, on the subject of Mao's legacy, Deng coined the famous phrase "7 parts good, 3 parts bad" and avoided denouncing Mao altogether. A major document presented at the September 1979 Fourth Plenum, gave a "preliminary assessment" of the entire 30-year period of Communist rule. At the plenum, party Vice Chairman Ye Jianying declared the Cultural Revolution "an appalling catastrophe" and "the most severe setback to [the] socialist cause since ".
In June 1981, the Chinese government's condemnation of the Cultural Revolution culminated in the Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China, adopted by the Sixth Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. This resolution invalidated the Cultural Revolution as a "domestic havoc", but it stated that "Comrade Mao Zedong was a great Marxist and a great proletarian revolutionary, strategist and theorist. It is true that he made gross mistakes during the "Cultural Revolution", but, if we judge his activities as a whole, his contributions to the Chinese revolution far outweigh his mistakes. His merits are primary and his errors secondary". Today, the public perception of Mao has improved at least superficially; images of Mao and Mao related objects have become fashionable, commonly used on novelty items and even as talismans.
As an aftermath of the Cultural Revolution, nationwide public safety worsened in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and as a result Deng launched the "Strike Hard" Anti-crime Campaign in 1983 which lasted until early 1987. More than 1.7 million people were arrested and received legal punishment during the campaign.
Reforms and Opening-up
At the Third Plenum of the Eleventh National Party Congress Central Committee, Deng embarked China on the road to Reform and Opening-up (改革开放 Gaige Kaifang), policies that began with the de-collectivisation of the countryside, followed with industrial reforms aimed at decentralizing government controls in the industrial sector. In 1979, Deng emphasized the goal of "Four Modernizations" and further proposed the idea of "xiaokang", or "moderately prosperous society". Deng laid emphasis on light industry as a stepping stone to the development of heavy industries. The achievements of Lee Kuan Yew to create an economic superpower in Singapore had a profound effect on the Communist leadership in China. Leaders in China made a major effort, especially under Deng Xiaoping, to emulate his policies of economic growth, entrepreneurship, and subtle suppression of dissent. Over the years, more than 22,000 Chinese officials were sent to Singapore to study its methods.
Deng championed the idea of Special Economic Zones (SEZ), including Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Xiamen, areas where foreign investment would be allowed to pour in without strict government restraint and regulations, running on a basically capitalist system. On 31 January 1979, the Shekou Industrial Zone of Shenzhen was founded, becoming the first experimental area in China to "open up". Under the leadership of Yuan Geng, the "Shekou model" of development was gradually formed, embodied in its famous slogan "Time is Money, Efficiency is Life", which then widely spread to other parts of China. In January 1984, Deng Xiaoping made his first inspection tour to Shenzhen and Zhuhai, recognizing the "Shenzhen Speed" of development as well as the success of the special economics zones. With the help of Yuan Geng, the first joint-stock commercial bank in China — the China Merchants Bank — and the first joint-stock insurance company in China — the Ping An Insurance — were both established in Shekou. In May 1984, fourteen coastal cities in China including Shanghai, Guangzhou and Tianjin were named "Open Coastal Cities (沿海开放城市)".
Deng recognized the importance of science and technology in the "Four Modernizations", pointing out that "science and technology are the primary productive force". In December 1981, he approved the construction of "Beijing Electron–Positron Collider", the first high-energy particle collider in China, and had several meetings with Nobel laureate Tsung-Dao Lee who supported the project. In 1985, the Great Wall Station, the first Chinese research station in Antarctica, was established. In 1986, Deng approved the proposal from four leading Chinese scientists and launched the "863 Program"; in the same year, the nine-year compulsory education system was established under law (Law on Nine-Year Compulsory Education). In the 1980s, Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant in Zhejiang and Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant in Shenzhen were built, becoming the first two nuclear power plants in China. Deng also approved the appointments of foreign nationals to work in China, including the renowned Chinese-American mathematician Shiing-Shen Chern.
Supporters of the economic reforms point to the rapid development of the consumer and export sectors of the economy, the creation of an urban middle class that now constitutes 15% of the population, higher living standards (which is shown via dramatic increases in GDP per capita, consumer spending, life expectancy, literacy rate, and total grain output) and a much wider range of personal rights and freedoms for average Chinese as evidence of the success of the reforms. Critics of the economic reforms, both in China and abroad, claim that the reforms have caused wealth disparity, environmental pollution, rampant corruption, widespread unemployment associated with layoffs at inefficient state-owned enterprises, and has introduced often unwelcome cultural influences. Consequently, they believe that China's culture has been corrupted, the poor have been reduced to a hopeless abject underclass, and that the social stability is threatened. They are also of the opinion that various political reforms, such as moves towards popular elections, have been unfairly nipped in the bud.
After all, the path of modernisation and market-oriented economic reforms that China started since the early 1980s appears to be fundamentally unchallenged. Even critics of China's market reforms do not wish to see a backtrack of these two decades of reforms, but rather propose corrective measures to offset some of the social issues caused by existing reforms. On the other hand, in 1979, the Chinese government instituted a one child policy to try to control its rapidly increasing population. The controversial policy resulted in a dramatic decrease in child poverty. The law was eliminated in 2015.
On 18 August 1980, Deng Xiaoping gave a speech titled "On the Reform of the Party and State Leadership System (党和国家领导制度改革)" at an enlarged meeting of the Political Bureau of the CCP Central Committee in Beijing, launching the political reforms in China. He called for the end of bureaucracy, centralisation of power as well as patriarchy, proposing term limits to the leading positions in China and advocating the "democratic centralism" as well as the "collective leadership". In addition, Deng proposed to the National People's Congress a systematic revision of China's constitution (the 1978 Constitution), and emphasized that the Constitution must be able to protect the civil rights of Chinese citizens and must reflect the principle of separation of powers; he also described the idea of "collective leadership" and championed the principle of "one man, one vote" among leaders to avoid the dictatorship of the General Secretary of CCP. In December 1982, the fourth Constitution of China, known as the "1982 Constitution", was passed by the 5th National People's Congress, embodying Chinese-style constitutionalism with most of its content still being effective as of today.
In the first half of 1986, Deng repeatedly called for the revival of political reforms, as further economic reforms were hindered by the original political system while the country had seen an increasing trend of corruption and economic inequality, aggravated by the many social privileges enjoyed by governmental officials and their relatives. A five-man research unit for China's political reforms was established in September 1986, and the members included Zhao Ziyang, Hu Qili, Tian Jiyun, Bo Yibo and Peng Chong. Deng's intention of political reforms was to boost the administrative efficiency, further separate the responsibilities between the Communist Party and the Government, and to eliminate bureaucracy. Although he also mentioned "rule of law" and "democracy", Deng delimited the reforms within the one-party system and opposed the implementation of Western-style constitutionalism. In October 1987, at the 13th National Congress of CCP chaired by Deng, Zhao Ziyang delivered an important talk drafted by Bao Tong on the political reforms. In his speech titled "Advance Along the Road of Socialism with Chinese characteristics (沿着有中国特色的社会主义道路前进)", Zhao argued that the socialism in China was still in its primary stage and by taking Deng's speech in 1980 as guidelines, Zhao outlined a variety of steps to be taken for the political reforms, including promoting the rule of law and the separation of powers, imposing de-centralisation, and improving the election system. At this Congress, Zhao was elected as the new General Secretary of CCP.
However, after the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre, many leading reformists including Zhao and Bao were removed from their posts, and the majority of the planned political reforms (after 1986) ended drastically. Left-wing conservatives led by Chen Yun, President Li Xiannian and Premier Li Peng took control until Deng Xiaoping's southern tour in early 1992. On the other hand, many policies due to the political reforms launched by Deng in the early 1980s remain effective after 1989 (such as the new Constitution, term limits, and the democratic centralism), even though some of them have been reversed by Xi Jinping after 2012.
In 1983, left-wing conservatives initiated the "Anti-Spiritual Pollution Campaign".
In 1986, the student demonstrations led to the resignation of Hu Yaobang, then General Secretary of CCP and a leading reformist, and the left-wing conservatives continued to launch the "Anti-Bourgeois Liberalisation Campaign". The campaign ended in mid-1987 because Zhao Ziyang convinced Deng Xiaoping that the conservatives were taking advantage of the campaign to oppose the Reforms and Opening-up program.
Although standards of living improved significantly in the 1980s, Deng's reforms were not without criticism. Hard-liners asserted that Deng opened China once again to various social evils, and an overall increase in materialistic thinking, while liberals attacked Deng's unrelenting stance on wider political reforms. Liberal forces began gathering in different forms to protest against the Party's authoritarian leadership. In 1989, the death of Hu Yaobang, a liberal figure, triggered weeks of spontaneous protests in the Tiananmen Square. The government imposed martial law and sent in tanks and soldiers to suppress the demonstrations. Western countries and multilateral organisations briefly suspended their formal ties with China's government under Premier Li Peng's leadership, which was directly responsible for the military curfew and bloody crackdown.
In early 1979, China started a one-month war with Vietnam. Furthermore, China continued to support Khmer Rouge during Deng Xiaoping's time together with the United States, Thailand and several other countries to counter the regional influence of the Soviet Union.
In March 1981, Deng Xiaoping determined that a military exercise was necessary for the People's Liberation Army (PLA), and in September 1981, the North China Military Exercise took place, becoming the largest exercise conducted by the PLA since the founding of the People's Republic.
In 1985, in order to modernise the PLA and to save money, Deng cut 1 million troops from the military (百万大裁军) and ordered further modernisation.
On 1 January 1979, the People's Republic of China formally established its diplomatic relations with the United States. In January 1979, Deng Xiaoping visited the United States, which was first official visit by a paramount leader of China to the United States. In the same year, the Chinese Olympic Committee for PRC was recognized by the International Olympic Committee. Under the advice of Lee Kuan Yew, Deng Xiaoping agreed to further open up the country and stop exporting communist ideologies and revolutions to other countries like Mao did, and the decisions significantly improved the relations between China and many countries, especially those in south-east Asia.
In 1984, Xu Haifeng, a pistol shooter, won the first Olympic gold medal for China during the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. In the same year, the Sino-British Joint Declaration was signed by China and the United Kingdom, stipulating that the sovereignty and the administrative management of Hong Kong would be handed over back to China on 1 July 1997 under the "one country, two systems" framework. In 1987, the Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau was signed by China and Portugal, stipulating that the sovereignty and the administrative management of Macau would be handed over back to China 20 December 1999, again under the "one country, two systems" framework.
In 1989, the relation between China and the Soviet Union returned to normal for the first time since the Sino-Soviet split in the 1950s. Mikhail Gorbachev, then General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, visited Beijing and met with Deng Xiaoping during the Sino-Soviet Summit, which took place amid the Tiananmen Square protests.
After the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre, China faced strong backlash from the western countries. Deng, as a response, devised a new set of diplomatic strategies for China, which were summarised to be "hide your strength, bide your time, never take the lead". In the 1980s and early 1990s, People's Republic of China continued to establish formal diplomatic relations with a number of countries such as United Arab Emirates (1984), Qatar (1988), Saudi Arabia (1990), Singapore (1990), Israel (1992) and South Korea (1992).
Only major disasters are presented below (click to show).
|1977||Russian flu||Worldwide||The pandemic started in northern China and Siberia, during the transition period (1976–78). Around 700,000 deaths worldwide. The virus is widely believed to have been leaked from a lab.|
|1981||Dawu earthquake||Sichuan||150||Some 300 people were injured.|
|1982||Flight 3303 accident||Guangxi||112||CAAC Airlines plane crash.|
|1987||Black Dragon fire||Daxing'anling Prefecture, Heilongjiang||Over 200||The fire also spread to the Soviet Union. It was one of the largest wildfires in history.|
|1988||Flight 4146 accident||Chongqing||108||China Southwest Airlines plane crash.|
|1988||Lancang earthquake||Yunnan||748||Additionally, about 7700 were injured.|
After the Cultural Revolution, Deng started the Boluan Fanzheng program to correct the Maoist mistakes, but some of his policies and views were controversial. Deng insisted on praising that Mao had done "7 good and 3 bad" for the Chinese people, while attributing numerous disasters in the Cultural Revolution to Lin Biao and the Gang of Four. In addition, he stated and imposed the "Four Cardinal Principles" as the fundamental principles of the Constitution of China (1982), in order to maintain the one-party state in China for the Communist Party.
Moreover, the role that Deng played in the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre was rather controversial. In fact, he also cracked down the Democracy Wall movement as well as the Beijing Spring in early 1980s.
To cope with the population crisis after Mao's era, Deng Xiaoping, together with other senior officials including Chen Yun and Li Xiannian, supported the implementation of the "one-child policy". Some of the extreme measures in practice created many controversies such as human rights violations.
Jiang Zemin and the third generation (1989–2002)
Transition of power and Deng's Southern Tour
After the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre, Deng Xiaoping stepped away from public view and fully retired. Power passed to the third generation of leadership led by Jiang Zemin, who was hailed as its "core". However, owing to the Tiananmen massacre, the Reforms and Opening-up program went into stagnation in early 1990s, and Jiang, supported by left-wing conservatives, was not doing enough to continue the reforms.
In the spring of 1992, Deng made his famous tour to southern China, which is widely regarded as a critical point in the history of modern China as it saved China's economic reform as well as the capital market (Shanghai Stock Exchange and Shenzhen Stock Exchange), and preserved the stability of the society. Jiang eventually sided with Deng and publicly supported the Reforms and Opening-up program. Conservative Li Peng was the Premier of China until 1998, when reformist Zhu Rongji succeeded as the new Premier.
Economic growth achieved a sustained high rate by the mid-1990s. Jiang Zemin's macroeconomic reforms furthered Deng's vision for "Socialism with Chinese characteristics". Jiang laid heavy emphasis on scientific and technological advancement in areas such as space exploration. At the same time, Jiang's period saw a continued rise in social corruption in all areas of life. Unemployment skyrocketed as unprofitable State-owned enterprise (SOE) were closed to make way for more competitive ventures internally and abroad. The ill-equipped social welfare system was put on a serious test. In 2000, Jiang proposed his ideology of "Three Represents", which was ratified by the Chinese Communist Party at the Sixteenth Party Congress in 2002.
At the same time, Premier Zhu Rongji's economic policies held China's economy strong during the Asian Financial Crisis. Economic growth averaged at 8% annually, pushed back by the 1998 Yangtze River Floods. Standards of living improved significantly, although a wide urban-rural wealth gap was created as China saw the reappearance of the middle class. Wealth disparity between the Eastern coastal regions and the Western hinterlands continued to widen by the day, prompting government programs to "develop the West", taking on ambitious projects such as the Qinghai–Tibet railway. However, rampant corruption continued despite Premier Zhu's anti-corruption campaign that executed many officials. Corruption alone is estimated to amount to the equivalent of anywhere from 10 to 20 percent of China's GDP.
To sustain the increased electricity consumption, the Three Gorges Dam was built, attracting supporters and widespread criticism. Environmental pollution became a very serious problem as Beijing was frequently hit by sandstorms as a result of desertification.
In November 1991, China joined the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. The 1990s saw the peaceful Handover of Hong Kong and Macau by the United Kingdom and Portugal respectively to China. Hong Kong and Macau mostly continued their own governance, retaining independence in their economic, social, and judicial systems until 2019, when Beijing tried to expand national powers in the face of large-scale protests in Hong Kong.
Jiang Zemin and Bill Clinton exchanged state visits, but Sino-American relations took very sour turns at the end of the decade, especially after the third Taiwan Strait Crisis. On 7 May 1999, during the Kosovo War, U.S. aircraft bombed the Chinese embassy in Belgrade. The U.S. government claimed the strike was due to bad intelligence and false target identification. Inside the United States, the Cox Report stated that China had been stealing various top United States military secrets. In 2001, a United States surveillance plane collided with a Chinese fighter jet over international waters near Hainan, inciting further outrage with the Chinese public, already dissatisfied with the United States.
After a decade of talks, China was finally admitted into the World Trade Organization in 2001. The same year saw the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. In August 2002, due to the efforts of the renowned mathematician Shiing-Shen Chern, the quadrennial International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Beijing — the first time in a developing country, with Chern being the honorary president of the Congress and Wu Wenjun being the president.
Only major disasters are presented below (click to show).
|1990||Guangzhou Baiyun airport collisions||Guangdong||128||Hijacking of a plane led to runway collision.|
|1992||Eastern China flood||East China||At least 431||At least 267 deaths in Anhui and 164 in Jiangsu. Some other sources claim the death toll was over 1,000.|
|1992||Flight 7552 accident||Jiangsu||106-109||China General Aviation plane crash.|
|1992||Flight 3943 accident||Guangxi||141||China Southern Airlines plane crash.|
|1994||Flight 2303 accident||Shaanxi||160||China Northwest Airlines plane crash.|
|1994||Typhoon Fred||Zhejiang||1,426||Known as the Typhoon 9417 in China.|
|1994||Karamay fire||Xinjiang||325||A major controversy was that the students were told to remain seated to allow government officials to escape the fire first. 288 schoolchildren were killed.|
|1996||Lijiang earthquake||Yunnan||309||Magnitude 6.6 Mw.|
|1996||Typhoon Herb||Fujian||779||Known as the Typhoon 9608 in China.|
|1997||Asian financial crisis||Asia||Affected China's economy to an extent.|
|1998||Yangtze River floods||Yangtze River and others||3,000-4,150||The event was considered the worst Northern China flood in 40 years.|
|2002||Flight 6136 accident||Liaoning||112||China Northern Airlines plane crash.|
On the political agenda, China was once again put on the spotlight for the banning of public Falun Gong activity in 1999. Silent protesters from the spiritual movement sat outside of Zhongnanhai, asking for dialogue with China's leaders. Jiang saw it as a threat to the political situation and outlawed the group altogether, while using mass media propaganda to denounce it as an "evil cult".
Jiang Zemin, after formally retiring as the paramount leader of China in 2004, was believed to have moved behind the scenes and was still in control of the country even after his late step-down from the Chairman of the Central Military Commission in 2005. The Jiang faction, including Zhou Yongkang, Guo Boxiong and Xu Caihou, continued to impact China significantly after Hu Jintao succeeded as the paramount leader of China.
Hu Jintao and the fourth generation (2002–2012)
Transition of power
Hu Jintao succeeded as the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party in November 2002. In March 2003, Hu Jintao became the 6th President of the People's Republic of China, with Wen Jiabao being the Premier of China. In September 2004, Hu Jintao became the Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
The economy continued to grow in double-digit numbers as the development of rural areas became the major focus of government policy. In 2010, China overtook Japan as the world's second-largest economy. The assertion of the Scientific Perspective to create a Socialist Harmonious Society was the focus of the Hu Jintao - Wen Jiabao administration, as some Jiang Zemin-era excesses were slowly reversed. In late 2002, the South–North Water Transfer Project began construction.
In gradual steps to consolidate his power, Hu Jintao removed Shanghai Party secretary Chen Liangyu and other potential political opponents amidst the fight against corruption, and the ongoing struggle against once powerful Shanghai clique. In particular, in 2012, the Wang Lijun incident and the scandal of Bo Xilai received widespread attention and media coverage.
The continued economic growth of the country as well as its sporting power status gained China the right to host the 2008 Summer Olympics. However, this also put Hu Jintao's administration under intense spotlight. While the 2008 Olympics was commonly understood to be a come-out party for People's Republic of China, in light of the March 2008 Tibet protests, the government received heavy scrutiny. The Olympic torch was met with protest en route. Within the country, these reactions were met with a fervent wave of nationalism with accusations of Western bias against China.
Meanwhile, a number of scientific progresses and breakthroughs took place between 2002 and 2012, many of which originated from the 863 Program. In 2003, China successfully sent an astronaut, Yang Liwei, to the space via Shenzhou 5, becoming the third country in the world to do so independently after the United States and the Soviet Union. In 2010, Jiaolong, the Chinese manned deep-sea research submersible, was deployed. In 2011–2012, BeiDou-2, the Chinese satellite navigation system, became operational. In 2011, Tiangong-1, the first prototype space station of China, was successfully launched. In March 2012, results from the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment in Shenzhen received international attention. In October 2012, Mo Yan became the first Chinese citizen (mainland) to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
China's position in the war on terror drew the country closer diplomatically to the United States. In 2010, the Asian Games was held in Guangzhou, and in 2011, the Summer Universiade was held in Shenzhen. In 2010, another international event took place in China— Shanghai held the World Expo for the first time.
The political status and future of Taiwan remain uncertain, but steps have been taken to improving relations between the Communist Party and several of Taiwan's parties that hold a less antagonistic view towards China, notably former rival Kuomintang.
Hu's critics say that his government was overly aggressive in asserting its new power, overestimated its reach, and raised the ire and apprehension of various neighbours, including Southeast Asian countries, India, and Japan. Such policies are also said to be provocative towards the United States.
Only major disasters are presented below (click to show).
|2003||SARS epidemic||Nationwide||349 (mainland China)||SARS killed 774 people globally, with 349 in mainland China and 299 in Hong Kong.|
|2005||Sunjiawan mine disaster||Liaoning||214|
|2005||Shalan Town flood||Heilongjiang||117||105 students were killed.|
|2007-2008||Financial crisis||Global||Affected China's economy to an extent.|
|2008||Chinese winter storms||Southern and central China||At least 129|
|2008||Zibo train collision||Shandong||72||416 injuries.|
|2008||Sichuan earthquake||Sichuan||69,227||Magnitude 8.0 Ms.|
|2008||South China floods||South China||Over 200||Severe flooding in the provinces of Anhui, Hunan, Jiangxi, Fujian and Guangdong, with dozens of fatalities and over a million people forced to evacuate.|
|2008||Shanxi mudslide||Shanxi||277||4 missing.|
|2009||Heilongjiang mine explosion||Heilongjiang||108|
|2010||Yushu earthquake||Qinghai||2,698||270 missing.|
|2010||China floods||Nationwide||3,185||1060 missing.|
In the years after Hu Jintao's rise to power, respect of basic human rights in China continued to be a source of concern. Liu Xiaobo, Nobel Peace Prize winner and human rights activist, was arrested and sentenced to jail for 11 years in 2010. Liu Xiaobo, together with others, authored the Charter 08 and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010. Liu Xiaobo passed away in 2017.
In Hu Jintao's time, the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese government created the "50 Cent Party", attempting to "guide" public opinions online in favor of the Communist Party and the Chinese government.
Xi Jinping and the fifth generation (2012–present)
Transition of power
Xi Jinping became the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, the two most powerful positions on 15 November 2012. And on March 14, 2013, he became the 7th President of China. Li Keqiang became the Premier of China in March 2013.
A massive, long-term anti-corruption campaign has been carried out under Xi Jinping since 2012, mostly targeting Xi Jinping's political rivals such as members of the Jiang faction including Party senior leaders Zhou Yongkang, Guo Boxiong and Xu Caihou.
In March 2018, the Party-controlled National People's Congress passed a set of constitutional amendments including the removal of term limits for the president and vice president, the creation of a National Supervisory Commission, as well as enhancing the central role of the Communist Party. On 17 March 2018, the Chinese legislature re-appointed Xi Jinping as president, now without term limits. According to the Financial Times, Xi Jinping expressed his views of constitutional amendment at meetings with Chinese officials and foreign dignitaries. Xi Jinping explained the decision in terms of needing to align two more powerful posts — General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) — which have no term limits. However, Xi Jinping did not say whether he intended to serve as party general secretary, CMC chairman and state president, for three or more terms.
On the other hand, a series of scientific advances took place. In 2013, the Yutu rover was successfully deployed on the Moon after the Chang'e 3 lander landed on the Moon. In 2015, Tu Youyou became the first Chinese citizen (mainland) to win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. In December 2015, the Dark Matter Particle Explorer, China's first space observatory, was successfully launched. The Tiangong-2 space laboratory was successfully launched in 2016, and in the same year the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) was built in Guizhou. In 2018, the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge, world's longest sea-crossing bridge, was open to public.
As Xi Jinping continued to consolidate power domestically, he gradually abandoned the diplomatic principles ("hide your strength, bide your time, never take the lead") set by Deng Xiaoping and appeared more as a "strongman" in the global stage. He launched the "One Belt One Road initiative" to make infrastructure investment in dozens of countries, which received widespread attention (both receptions and criticism) from around the world.
Since Xi Jinping succeeded as the leader of China, he tried to change "China's passivity" into an assertive strategy to defend China's claims over border and territory disputes such as in the South China Sea and in Taiwan. In 2018, China–United States trade war started and significantly affected the global economy. In May 2020, China–India skirmishes along the border broke out and resulted in casualties.
On the other hand, after Xi Jinping came to power, a number of international summits were held in China. In 2014, the 22nd annual gathering of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) leaders was held in Beijing; in 2016, the G20 summit was held in Hangzhou; and in 2017, the 9th BRICS summit was held in Xiamen. Additionally, in 2015, the Ma–Xi meeting in Singapore was the first meeting between the political leaders of the two sides of the Taiwan Strait since the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1950.
Only major disasters are presented below (click to show).
|2013||Lushan earthquake||Sichuan||Over 200||Magnitude 7.0 Ms.|
|2014||Kunshan explosion||Jiangsu||146||114 injuries.|
|2014||Ludian earthquake||Yunnan||At least 617||Magnitude 6.5 ML.|
|2015||Sinking of Dongfang zhi Xing||Hubei||At least 442||On 1 June 2015, a river cruise named "Dongfang zhi Xing" with 454 people on board capsized in Jianli, Hubei.|
|2015||Tianjin explosions||Tianjin||173||798 injuries.|
|2015||Shenzhen landslide||Guangdong||At least 73||4 missing.|
|2016||China floods||Yangtze River and others||At least 449|
|2016||Jiangsu tornado||Jiangsu||99||846 injuries.|
|2019||Xiangshui chemical plant explosion||Jiangsu||78||617 injuries.|
|2019–present||COVID-19 pandemic||Global||Ongoing||In December 2019, an epidemic caused by a novel coronavirus (later identified as the cause of COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan, Hubei. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a pandemic.|
|2020||China floods||Southern China||219||63.46 million people affected.|
|2022||Flight 5735 accident||Guangxi||132|
Since 2012, Xi Jinping together with his allies has rolled back several policies from the Boluan Fanzheng period of Deng Xiaoping and promoted his cult of personality as Mao Zedong did. For example, in 2018, Xi Jinping eliminated the term limit in China's Constitution for Chinese President, which challenged some of the political legacies of Deng Xiaoping and triggered concerns of a new Cultural Revolution.
Domestic human rights violation has deteriorated. In July 2015, hundreds of Chinese lawyers and human rights activists nationwide were detained or arrested during the 709 crackdown. Moreover, the Xinjiang re-education camps since 2017, in which over a million Uyghurs and other ethnic minorities are being detained, and the massive protests in Hong Kong since 2019 have received widespread attention and extensive media coverage from around the world. The Hong Kong national security law published on 30 June 2020 also received widespread attention and raised considerable concern worldwide over the breach of the "One Country, Two Systems" principle.
After Xi Jinping came to power in 2012, the Communist Party along with the Chinese government have significantly strengthened their internet censorship and tightened their control over the Chinese internet environment, blocking Chinese citizens' access to many foreign websites and mobile apps using the "Great Firewall". At the same time, a large number of "50 Cent Party" members have been recruited to "guide" online narratives around the globe in favor of the Party and the Government. During the massive Hong Kong protests, for instance, Twitter and Facebook claimed to have removed or suspended over 200,000 accounts and pages linked with the Chinese government. As of 2020, the mass surveillance system and the "Social Credit System" keep the whole population under close watch.
Globally, the aggressive "wolf warrior diplomacy" under Xi Jinping Administration has created numerous controversies and backlashes. Controversies also surround the "One Belt One Road initiative" and the China–United States trade war. In 2019–2020, under Xi Jinping, China's handling of the outbreak of a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) as well as its relationship with the World Health Organization (WHO) was rather controversial. There have been a large number of conspiracy theories and misinformation related to COVID-19, including the origin of the virus. China has also launched its own disinformation campaign globally over the issues of the pandemic, of Hong Kong and Uyghurs, and more, promoting China as a global leader while attacking the United States for instance. Furthermore, manipulation of economic data by the Chinese government, such as publishing inflated GDP figures over the years, is also a major concern.
- History of China
- History of the Republic of China
- History of Hong Kong
- History of Macau
- Dynasties in Chinese History
- Economic History of China
- Foreign relations of China
- History of foreign relations of China
- Historiography of China
- History of Chinese Art
- History of education in China
- History of science and technology in China
- Legal History of China
- Linguistic History of China
- Military history of China
- Naval history of China
- Timeline of Chinese history
- Klaus Mühlhahn, Making China Modern: From the Great Qing to Xi Jinping (Harvard UP, 2019) pp 1–20.
- Qi'an, Zhang (张启安), Cradle of the Republic: The Chinese Soviet Republic (共和国摇篮： 中华苏维埃共和国), Xi'an: Shaanxi People's Press, 2003 
- Shen, Zhihua, ed. (2020). A Short History of Sino-Soviet Relations, 1917–1991. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-8641-1. ISBN 978-981-13-8640-4. S2CID 241226106.
- "That time Mao declared independence from China". 28 March 2017.
- Jonathan Fenby, The Penguin History of Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power 1850 to the Present (2019).
- Stephen Rosskamm Shalom. Deaths in China Due to Communism. Center for Asian Studies Arizona State University, 1984. ISBN 0-939252-11-2 p. 24
- Walter Scheidel, The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century (2017).
- Teiwes, Frederick C., and Warren Sun. 1999. China's road to disaster: Mao, central politicians, and provincial leaders in the unfolding of the great leap forward, 1955–1959. Contemporary China papers. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 52–55.
- Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power, 1850 to the Present. Ecco Press. 2008. p. . ISBN 978-0-06-166116-7.
Mao's responsibility for the extinction of anywhere from 40 to 70 million lives brands him as a mass killer greater than Hitler or Stalin, his indifference to the suffering and the loss of humans breathtaking
- MENG, XIN; QIAN, NANCY; YARED, PIERRE (2015). "The Institutional Causes of China's Great Famine, 1959-1961". The Review of Economic Studies. 82 (4 (293)): 1568–1611. doi:10.1093/restud/rdv016. ISSN 0034-6527. JSTOR 43869477.
- Wemheuer, Felix; Dikötter, Frank (1 July 2011). "SITES OF HORROR: MAO'S GREAT FAMINE [with Response]". The China Journal. 66: 155–164. doi:10.1086/tcj.66.41262812. ISSN 1324-9347. S2CID 141874259.
- MacFarquhar, Roderick. 1974. The origins of the Cultural Revolution. London: Published for Royal Institute of International Affairs, East Asian Institute of Columbia University and Research Institute on Communist Affairs of Columbia by Oxford University Press. p. 4.
- "Tibetan Uprising Day: Statement of the Dalai Lama". fas.org. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- Bradsher, Henry S. (1969). "Tibet Struggles to Survive". Foreign Affairs. 47 (4): 750–762. doi:10.2307/20039413. ISSN 0015-7120. JSTOR 20039413.
- .Brock, Darryl (2012). Mr. Science and Chairman Mao's Cultural Revolution : Science and Technology in Modern China. Lanham: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-4974-4. OCLC 853360078.
- "毛泽东与两弹一星". Renmin Wang (in Chinese). 27 May 2013. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Source List and Detailed Death Tolls for the Primary Megadeaths of the Twentieth Century". Necrometrics. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- Song, Yongyi. "文革中"非正常死亡"了多少人？". China in Perspective (in Chinese). Retrieved 16 February 2020.
- Ding, Shu (8 April 2016). "文革死亡人数统计为两百万人". Independent Chinese PEN Center (in Chinese). Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- ""四人帮"被粉碎后的怪事："文革"之风仍在继续吹". Renmin Wang (in Chinese). 30 January 2011. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- Galtung, Marte Kjær; Stenslie, Stig (2014). 49 Myths about China. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 189. ISBN 978-1442236226.
- Maurice Meisner, "China's communist revolution: A half-century perspective". Current History 98.629 (1999): 243+.
- R. Ovendale, “Britain, the United States, and the Recognition of Communist China.” Historical Journal 26#1 (1983), pp. 139–158. online.
- Garret Martin, "Playing the China Card? Revisiting France's Recognition of Communist China, 1963–1964." Journal of Cold War Studies 10.1 (2008): 52-80,
- Kanti Bajpai, Selina Ho, and Manjari Chatterjee Miller, eds. Routledge Handbook of China–India Relations (Routledge, 2020).
- O. Edmund Clubb, China and Russia: The Great Game (1971) pp. 419–423.
- John W. Garver, China's Quest: The History of the Foreign Relations of the People's Republic (2016) pp. 113-145.
- Julia Lovell, Maoism: a Global History (2019) pp. 88-150.
- Richard Evans, Deng Xiaoping and the making of modern China (1997) pp. 155-161.
- William Taubman, Khrushchev: the man and his era (2003) pp. 389-395.
- Donald S. Zagoria, The Sino-Soviet Conflict, 1956-1961 (Princeton University Press, 1962), passim.
- Gordon H. Chang, Friends and enemies : the United States, China, and the Soviet Union, 1948-1972 (1990) online
- Margaret MacMillan, Nixon and Mao: The Week That Changed the World (2007).
- étrangères, Ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires. "France and China". diplomatie.gouv.fr France Diplomacy - Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- "建交国家一览表". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- "UK Celebrates 45th Anniversary of Full Diplomatic Relations with China". gov.uk. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- "China and West Germany Establish Diplomatic Ties". The New York Times. 11 October 1972. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- "Pandemic Influenza Risk Management: WHO Interim Guidance" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2013. p. 19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 January 2021.
- Smil, Vaclav (18 December 1999). "China's great famine: 40 years later". BMJ : British Medical Journal. 319 (7225): 1619–1621. doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7225.1619. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 1127087. PMID 10600969.
- "关于建国以来党的若干历史问题的决议". The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China. 23 June 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
- "Today in Earthquake History". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 8 May 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Alexander, David C. (29 July 1993). Natural Disasters. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-85728-094-4.
- Xu, Y. (2008). "Lessons from catastrophic dam failures in August 1975 in Zhumadian, China". repository.ust.hk. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "1975年那个黑色八月（上）（史海钩沉）". Renmin Wang (in Chinese). 20 August 2012. Archived from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- IChemE. "Reflections on Banqiao". thechemicalengineer.com. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "75年河南水灾：滔天人祸令十万人葬身鱼腹". Phoenix New Media (in Chinese). 10 August 2008. Archived from the original on 7 January 2021. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "The Catastrophic Dam Failures in China in August 1975". San Jose State University. Archived from the original on 23 December 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "75·8板桥水库溃坝 20世纪最大人类技术灾难". Phoenix Television (in Chinese). 3 September 2012. Archived from the original on 7 January 2021. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "The Forgotten Legacy of the Banqiao Dam Collapse". internationalrivers.org. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "1975年那个黑色八月（下）（史海钩沉）". Renmin Wang (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "230,000 Died in a Dam Collapse That China Kept Secret for Years". ozy.com. 17 February 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- Huixian, Liu; Housner, George W.; Lili, Xie; Duxin, He (1 January 2002). "The Great Tangshan Earthquake of 1976". resolver.caltech.edu. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- "Story Map Journal". arcgis.com. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- Song, Yongyi (25 August 2011). "Chronology of Mass Killings during the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)". Sciences Po. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
- King, Gilbert. "The Silence that Preceded China's Great Leap into Famine". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Yang, Songlin (2021), Yang, Songlin (ed.), "There Were 2.6–4 Million Deaths in the Three Years of Difficulty in Excess of Normal Years", Telling the Truth: China’s Great Leap Forward, Household Registration and the Famine Death Tally, Singapore: Springer, pp. 117–131, doi:10.1007/978-981-16-1661-7_7, ISBN 978-981-16-1661-7, S2CID 236692549, retrieved 6 April 2022
- "When Pol Pot lounged by Mao's pool: how China exported Maoism". South China Morning Post. 8 March 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
- Wang, Chenyi (December 2018). "The Chinese Communist Party's Relationship with the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s: An Ideological Victory and a Strategic Failure". Wilson Center.
- Liu, Jintian (5 January 2015). "邓小平推动冤假错案的平反". Renmin Wang (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 3 January 2021. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- "1989年6月1日 吴林泉、彭飞：胡耀邦同志领导平反"六十一人案"追记". www.hybsl.cn (in Chinese). People's Daily. 23 January 2008. Archived from the original on 3 January 2021. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
- Poon, Leon. "The People's Republic Of China: IV". The University of Maryland. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "关于建国以来党的若干历史问题的决议". The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China (in Chinese). 23 June 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
- "Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party since the Founding of the People's Republic of China" (PDF). Wilson Center. 27 June 1981.
- Sixth Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (27 June 1981). "Comrade Mao Zedong's Historical Role and Mao Zedong Thought -- Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China (abridged)". Communist Party of China. Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
- Tao, Ying (20 October 2010). "1983年"严打"：非常时期的非常手段". Renmin Wang (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
- The rise of China's 'Silicon Valley' - CNN Video, retrieved 25 May 2020
- "Xinhua Headlines: The rise of China's Silicon Valley - Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
- "Meet "moderately prosperous" China". The Economist. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- "Commentary: Sprinting toward a moderately prosperous society". Xinhuanet. 4 March 2019. Archived from the original on 28 August 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- Chris Buckley, "In Lee Kuan Yew, China Saw a Leader to Emulate", New York Times March 23, 2015
- Holmes, Frank. "China's New Special Economic Zone Evokes Memories Of Shenzhen". Forbes. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- "Unsung hero of China's opening up is star of Shenzhen museum". South China Morning Post. 27 December 2018. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- "Shekou Industrial Zone — firsts in reform and opening-up". China Daily. 9 October 2016. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- Cheong, Danson (7 December 2018). "Shenzhen - from village to city of opportunities". The Straits Times. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- "January 24-29,1984: Deng Xiaoping visits Shenzhen and Zhuhai". China Daily. 24 January 2011. Archived from the original on 26 November 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- Yuan, Yiming (15 March 2017). Studies on China's Special Economic Zones. Springer. ISBN 978-981-10-3704-7.
- "China bids farewell to a pioneer of reform". theaustralian.com.au. 2 February 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- "OPENING TO THE OUTSIDE WORLD: Special Economic Zones and Open Coastal Cities". China Internet Information Center. Archived from the original on 14 November 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
- ""Science and technology are primary productive forces" in 1988". China Daily. 30 October 2008. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- "邓小平与共和国重大历史事件（84）--邓小平纪念网". Renmin Wang (in Chinese). 18 January 2018. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- Tao, Liqing; Berci, Margaret; He, Wayne. "Historical Background: Expansion of Public Education - New York Times". archive.nytimes.com. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- "中华人民共和国义务教育法（主席令第五十二号）". www.gov.cn (in Chinese). 30 June 2006. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- "25 years on, Daya Bay NPP elevates Chinese nuclear power". en.cgnpc.com.cn. 6 May 2019. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- "纪念邓小平"引进国外智力"重要谈话20周年(图)". Sina (in Chinese). 8 August 2003. Archived from the original on 19 December 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- Malcolm Moore (15 November 2013). "China to ease one-child policy". Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
- "China's two-child policy will underwhelm". The Economist. 31 October 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- Deng, Xiaoping (18 August 1980). "ON THE REFORM OF THE SYSTEM OF PARTY AND STATE LEADERSHIP". Renmin Wang. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
- "August 18, 1980: Deng Xiaoping calls for reform in leadership system". China Daily. 18 August 2011. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Ng-Quinn, Michael (1982). "Deng Xiaoping's Political Reform and Political Order". Asian Survey. 22 (12): 1187–1205. doi:10.2307/2644047. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2644047.
- Whyte, Martin King (1993). "Deng Xiaoping: The Social Reformer". The China Quarterly. 135 (135): 515–535. doi:10.1017/S0305741000013898. ISSN 0305-7410. JSTOR 654100. S2CID 135471151.
- "1. Rereading Deng Xiaoping's "On the Reform of the System of Party and State Leadership"". Chinese Law & Government. 20 (1): 15–20. 1 April 1987. doi:10.2753/CLG0009-4609200115. ISSN 0009-4609.
- Finch, George (2007). "Modern Chinese Constitutionalism: Reflections of Economic Change". Willamette Journal of International Law and Dispute Resolution. 15 (1): 75–110. ISSN 1521-0235. JSTOR 26211714.
- Shigong, Jiang (2014). "Chinese-Style Constitutionalism: On Backer's Chinese Party-State Constitutionalism". Modern China. 40 (2): 133–167. doi:10.1177/0097700413511313. ISSN 0097-7004. JSTOR 24575589. S2CID 144236160.
- Wu, Wei (18 March 2014). "邓小平为什么重提政治体制改革？". The New York Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Bao, Tong (4 June 2015). "鲍彤纪念六四，兼谈邓小平与中国的腐败". The New York Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Yan, Jiaqi (1992). Toward a Democratic China: The Intellectual Autobiography of Yan Jiaqi. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1501-1.
- Ning, Lou (1 January 1993). Chinese Democracy and the Crisis of 1989: Chinese and American Reflections. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-1269-5.
- Wu, Wei (15 December 2014). "赵紫阳与邓小平的两条政改路线". The New York Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Wu, Wei (7 July 2014). "邓小平谈不要照搬三权分立". The New York Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- hermes (4 June 2019). "Tiananmen 30 years on: A China that's averse to political reforms for now". The Straits Times. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Schram, Stuart R. (1988). "China after the 13th Congress". The China Quarterly. 114 (114): 177–197. doi:10.1017/S0305741000026758. ISSN 0305-7410. JSTOR 654441. S2CID 154818820.
- Dirlik, Arif (2019). "Postsocialism? Reflections on "socialism with Chinese characteristics"". Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars. 21: 33–44. doi:10.1080/14672715.1989.10413190.
- "1987: 13th CPC National Congress starts". China Internet Information Center. 25 October 2012. Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
- Wang, Yuhua (3 June 2019). "Analysis | How has Tiananmen changed China?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "Why China's Political Reforms Failed". The Diplomat. June 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "Why Abolishing China's Presidential Term Limits Is Such A Big Deal". NPR. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- Lo, Carlos W. H. (1992). "Deng Xiaoping's Ideas on Law: China on the Threshold of a Legal Order". Asian Survey. 32 (7): 649–665. doi:10.2307/2644947. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2644947.
- Wang, Chuanzhi (7 November 2013). "Democratic Centralism: The Core Mechanism in China's Political System". Qiushi. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- "The Impact of Tiananmen on China's Foreign Policy". 4 April 2014. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- "China-Cambodia Relations". www.rfa.org. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
- "Troop Cut to Save Money, Deng Says". Los Angeles Times. 6 May 1985. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
- "Milestones: 1977–1980 - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 27 May 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "40 Years of Friendship". www.cartercenter.org. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- "面对现实, 实事求是, 邓小平认错感动李光耀". Renmin Wang (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 8 January 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- Ni, Anna; Wart, Montgomery Van (20 August 2015). Building Business-Government Relations: A Skills Approach. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-50327-9.
- Kristof, Nicholas D. (16 May 1989). "Gorbachev Meets Deng in Beijing; Protest Goes On". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- McFadden, Robert D. (5 June 1989). "The West Condemns the Crackdown". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- "Emperor Xi's China Is Done Biding Its Time". Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- Heydarian, Richard Javad. "Hide your strength, bide your time". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- "Influenza Pandemic Plan. The Role of WHO and Guidelines for National and Regional Planning" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 1999. pp. 38, 41. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 December 2020.
- Michaelis M, Doerr HW, Cinatl J (August 2009). "Novel swine-origin influenza A virus in humans: another pandemic knocking at the door". Medical Microbiology and Immunology. 198 (3): 175–83. doi:10.1007/s00430-009-0118-5. PMID 19543913. S2CID 20496301.
- Wertheim JO (June 2010). "The re-emergence of H1N1 influenza virus in 1977: a cautionary tale for estimating divergence times using biologically unrealistic sampling dates". PLOS ONE. 5 (6): e11184. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...511184W. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011184. PMC 2887442. PMID 20567599.
- Rozo M, Gronvall GK (August 2015). "The Reemergent 1977 H1N1 Strain and the Gain-of-Function Debate". mBio. 6 (4). doi:10.1128/mBio.01013-15. PMC 4542197. PMID 26286690.
- Hamilton, Reviewed by John Maxwell. "THE FIERY BREATH OF BLACK DRAGON". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- "The Black Dragon Fire of 1987". www.arcgis.com. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- Yang, Jideng; Wang, Shiqin. "1988年11月6日云南省澜沧-耿马7.6、7.2级地震". National Seismology Data Center (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 11 July 2021.
- "毛主席功过"七三开"". Sina (in Chinese). 8 August 2004. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- "Why the real legacy of June 4 in China may be economic reform". South China Morning Post. 3 June 2019. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- Buckley, Chris (30 May 2019). "New Documents Show Power Games Behind China's Tiananmen Crackdown". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- Brodsgaard, Kjeld Erik (1981). "The Democracy Movement in China, 1978-1979: Opposition Movements, Wall Poster Campaigns, and Underground Journals". Asian Survey. 21 (7): 747–774. doi:10.2307/2643619. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2643619.
- Greenhalgh, Susan (2005). "Missile Science, Population Science: The Origins of China's One-Child Policy". The China Quarterly. 182 (182): 253–276. doi:10.1017/S0305741005000184. ISSN 0305-7410. JSTOR 20192474. S2CID 144640139.
- "The End of China's One-Child Policy Isn't Enough". Time. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
- "Zhu Rongji on the Record: The Road to Reform: 1998-2003". Brookings Institution. 3 February 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- Fenby, The Penguin History of Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power 1850 to the Present (2019).
- Bruce Gilley, "China's Changing of the Guard: The Limits of Authoritarian Resilience". Journal of Democracy 14.1 (2003): 18-26.
- Jianguo Wu, et al. "The three gorges dam: an ecological perspective". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2.5 (2004): pp. 241-248.
- "WTO Ministerial Conference approves China's accession - Press 252". World Trade Organization. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
- David W. Chang, and Richard Y. Chuang, The politics of Hong Kong's reversion to China (1998).
- Pomfret, Greg Torode, James (15 April 2020). "Hong Kong judges battle Beijing over rule of law as pandemic chills protests". Reuters. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
- "China Poised To Expand Control Over Hong Kong". NPR.org. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
- Simon Shen, "Nationalism or nationalist foreign policy? Contemporary Chinese nationalism and its role in shaping Chinese foreign policy in response to the Belgrade embassy bombing". Politics 24.2 (2004): pp. 122-130.
- John M. Spratt Jr, "Keep the facts of the Cox Report in perspective". Arms Control Today 29.3 (1999): pp. 24+.
- John W. Garver, "Sino-American relations in 2001: the difficult accommodation of two great powers". International Journal 57.2 (2002): pp. 283-310. online
- "About SCO | SCO". eng.sectsco.org. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- "ICM 2002 in Beijing" (PDF). American Mathematical Society.
- "1991年的华东水灾". Phoenix New Media (in Chinese). 18 November 2008. Archived from the original on 19 December 2020. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- "China - Floods June 1991 UNDRO Situation Reports 1-9 - China". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- Kristof, Nicholas D. (27 January 1992). "China's Floods of July: Misery Lingers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- Lei, Xiaotu; Chen, Peiyan; Yang, Yuhua; Qian, Yanzhen (2009). "中国台风灾情特征及其灾害客观评估方法". Acta Metallurgica Sinica. 67. Archived from the original on 15 December 2020.
- "China 1994 fire killed 288 pupils as officials fled-expose". Reuters. 8 May 2007. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- "China braces for "severe" flooding on Yangtze River". Reuters. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- "Why China's massive floods this year are different from 1998's catastrophic disaster that killed 3,000". South China Morning Post. 6 July 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- "The Perfect Example of Political Propaganda: The Chinese Government's Persecution against Falun Gong". Globalmediajournal.com. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- Chiung Hwang Chen, "Framing Falun Gong: Xinhua news agency's coverage of the new religious movement in China." Asian Journal of Communication 15.1 (2005): 16-36.
- "Don't Forget About Hu Jintao". The Diplomat. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- "Jiang Zemin faction wins in China's game of thrones". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- Wong, Edward (7 November 2012). "Long Retired, Ex-Leader of China Asserts Sway Over Top Posts". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- Kahn, Joseph (15 November 2002). "CHANGE IN CHINA: MAN IN THE NEWS; Mystery Man At the Helm Hu Jintao". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- Hays, Jeffrey. "HU JINTAO: PRESIDENT OF CHINA 2003-2013 | Facts and Details". factsanddetails.com. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- Barboza, David (15 August 2010). "China Passes Japan as Second-Largest Economy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "China overtakes Japan as world's second-largest economy". The Guardian. Associated Press. 16 August 2010. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "Bo Xilai scandal: Timeline". BBC News. 11 November 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- "Insight: China's Bo exits stage left in succession drama". Reuters. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- "Yang Liwei: China's first astronaut". China Internet Information Center. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
- Corum, Jonathan (31 March 2018). "The Rise and Fall of Tiangong-1, China's First Space Station". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
- Preuss, Paul (7 March 2012). "Announcing the First Results from Daya Bay: Discovery of a New Kind of Neutrino Transformation". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- "Chinese author Mo Yan wins Nobel". BBC News. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- "America in the Asia-Pacific: We're back". The Economist. 19 November 2011. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- "WHO | Summary of probable SARS cases with onset of illness from 1 November 2002 to 31 July 2003". WHO. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- "WHO | SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)". WHO. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- Yang, Jun; Chen, Jinhong; Liu, Huiliang; Zheng, Jingchen (1 September 2014). "Comparison of two large earthquakes in China: the 2008 Sichuan Wenchuan Earthquake and the 2013 Sichuan Lushan Earthquake". Natural Hazards. 73 (2): 1127–1136. doi:10.1007/s11069-014-1121-8. ISSN 1573-0840.
- "Floods, landslides leave 3,185 dead in China this year: MCA - China.org.cn". www.china.org.cn. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- Brown, Kerry (15 October 2010). "China's leader Hu Jintao leads a country in ferment". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- "Factbox: Who is Liu Xiaobo?". Reuters. 7 December 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- "China's Fifty Cent Party". Harvard Political Review. 7 February 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- Sterbenz, Christina. "China Banned The Term '50 Cents' To Stop Discussion Of An Orwellian Propaganda Program". Business Insider. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- Branigan, Tania (15 November 2012). "Xi Jinping takes reins of Communist party and Chinese military". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "Xi Jinping named China president". BBC News. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Shih, Gerry. "In China, investigations and purges become the new normal". Washington Post. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "Xi Jinping's anti-corruption campaign". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Shi, Jiangtao; Huang, Kristin (26 February 2018). "End to term limits at top "may be start of global backlash for China"". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- Phillips, Tom (4 March 2018). "Xi Jinping's power play: from president to China's new dictator?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- Wen, Philip (17 March 2018). "China's parliament re-elects Xi Jinping as president". Reuters. Archived from the original on 17 March 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- Bodeen, Christopher (17 March 2018). "Xi reappointed as China's president with no term limits". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 17 March 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- Mitchell, Tom (7 September 2019). "China's Xi Jinping says he is opposed to life-long rule". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
President insists term extension is necessary to align government and party posts
- "In Depth | Yutu". NASA Solar System Exploration. Retrieved 25 May 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "TU YOUYOU, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2015". The Nobel Prize. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- Wong, Maggie Hiufu. "How to cross the world's longest sea-spanning bridge". CNN. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
- Perlez, Jane; Hernández, Javier C. (25 February 2018). "President Xi's Strongman Rule Raises New Fears of Hostility and Repression". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- "What the 'Tough Guy' Era Means for Global Politics". Time. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- Huang, Zheping (15 May 2017). "Your guide to OBOR, China's plan to build a new Silk Road". Quartz. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Greer, Tanner. "One Belt, One Road, One Big Mistake". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Chubb, Andrew (22 January 2019). "Xi Jinping and China's maritime policy". Brookings. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- Tharoor, Ishaan. "Analysis | The end of Xi Jinping's Taiwan dream". Washington Post. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- "US-China trade war in 300 words". BBC News. 16 January 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "What is the US-China trade war?". South China Morning Post. 13 April 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Panda, Ankit. "A Skirmish in Galwan Valley: India and China's Deadliest Clash in More Than 50 Years". The Diplomat. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- "Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) - events as they happen". www.who.int. WHO. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
- "Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by Johns Hopkins CSSE". Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
- "Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) - events as they happen". www.who.int. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "The WHO Just Declared Coronavirus COVID-19 a Pandemic". Time. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Hong, Zhenkuai (16 August 2016). ""新文革"使中国人不安". The New York Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- Yu, Kung (23 August 2018). "Xi Jinping's brand new Cultural Revolution". Taipei Times. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- Denyer, Simon (26 February 2018). "With a dash of Putin and an echo of Mao, China's Xi sets himself up to rule for life". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- Lian, Yi-Zheng (7 September 2018). "Opinion | Could There Be Another Chinese Revolution?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- "China: On "709" Anniversary, Legal Crackdown Continues". Human Rights Watch. 7 July 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- Christian Shepherd. "EU urges China to free activists on third anniversary of "709" crackdown". Reuters. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- "Hong Kong protests explained in 100 and 500 words". BBC News. 28 November 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Wu, Jin; Lai, K. K. Rebecca; Yuhas, Alan. "Six Months of Hong Kong Protests. How Did We Get Here?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "China's Xinjiang records revealed: Uyghurs thrown into detention for growing beards or bearing too many children, leaked Chinese document shows". CNN. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Ramzy, Austin (17 February 2020). "How China Tracked Detainees and Their Families". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "Why Hong Kong's National Security Law Is Having Such a Chilling Effect". Time. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
- "Hong Kong security law: What is it and is it worrying?". BBC News. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
- "Anger as China passes controversial Hong Kong security law". France 24. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
- Economy, Elizabeth C. (29 June 2018). "The great firewall of China: Xi Jinping's internet shutdown". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- Ables, Kelsey. "The forbidden images of the Chinese internet". CNN. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- "The Great Firewall of China". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- Allen, Kerry (26 February 2018). "Why China is censoring Winnie the Pooh again". BBC News. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- King, Gary; Pan, Jennifer; Roberts, Margaret E. (2017). "How the Chinese Government Fabricates Social Media Posts for Strategic Distraction, not Engaged Argument" (PDF). Harvard University.
- "Facebook, Twitter remove accounts they say Chinese government was using to undermine in Hong Kong protests". ABC News. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- Paul, Kari (20 August 2019). "Twitter and Facebook crack down on accounts linked to Chinese campaign against Hong Kong". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- Kobie, Nicole (7 June 2019). "The complicated truth about China's social credit system". Wired. Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Westcott, Ben; Jiang, Steven (29 May 2020). "China is embracing a new brand of wolf warrior diplomacy". CNN. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
- Cheng, Dean. "Challenging China's "Wolf Warrior" Diplomats". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
- "Why China's wolf warrior diplomacy is a historic mistake". Australian Financial Review. 12 July 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
- Tan, Huileng (24 April 2020). "China 'owes us': Growing outrage over Beijing's handling of the coronavirus pandemic". CNBC. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- "Macron questions China's handling of coronavirus". BBC News. 17 April 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- Griffiths, James. "China's Xi plays the long game as he accepts WHO investigation". CNN. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- Cohen, Jon (10 July 2020). "A WHO-led mission may investigate the pandemic's origin. Here are the key questions to ask". Science. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
- "The disinformation tactics used by China". BBC News. 12 March 2021. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
- "Beijing Is Getting Better at Disinformation on Global Social Media". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
- "How China Ramped Up Disinformation Efforts During the Pandemic". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
- "China's economic census uncovers more fake data". South China Morning Post. 20 June 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- "Study Suggests That Local Chinese Officials Manipulate GDP". Yale University. 11 February 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- "China's GDP Growth Pace Was Inflated for Nine Years, Study Finds". Bloomberg. 7 March 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- Benson, Linda. China since 1949 (3rd ed. Routledge, 2016). excerpt; also online review
- Chang, Gordon H. Friends and enemies: the United States, China, and the Soviet Union, 1948-1972 (1990) online free to borrow
- Coase, Ronald, and Ning Wang. How China became capitalist. (Springer, 2016).
- Economy, Elizabeth C. "China's New Revolution: The Reign of Xi Jinping." Foreign Affairs 97 (2018): 60+. online
- Economy, Elizabeth C. The Third Revolution: Xi Jinping and the New Chinese State (Oxford UP, 2018), 343 pp.
- Evans, Richard. Deng Xiaoping and the making of modern China (1997)
- Ezra F. Vogel. Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China. ISBN 9780674725867. 2013.
- Falkenheim, Victor C. ed. Chinese Politics from Mao to Deng (1989) 11 essays by scholars
- Fenby, Jonathan. The Penguin History of Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power 1850 to the Present (3rd ed. 2019)
- Fravel, M. Taylor. Active Defense: China's Military Strategy since 1949 (Princeton University Press, 2019) online reviews
- Garver, John W. China's Quest: The History of the Foreign Relations of the People's Republic (2nd ed. 2018) comprehensive scholarly history. excerpt
- Lampton, David M. Following the Leader: Ruling China, from Deng Xiaoping to Xi Jinping (2014) online
- Lynch, Michael. Access to History: Mao's China 1936–97 (3rd ed. Hachette UK, 2015)
- MacFarquhar, Roderick, ed. The politics of China: The eras of Mao and Deng (Cambridge UP, 1997).
- Meisner, Maurice. Mao's China and after: A history of the People's Republic (3rd ed. 1999).
- Mühlhahn, Klaus. Making China Modern: From the Great Qing to Xi Jinping (Harvard UP, 2019) excerpt
- Shambaugh, David, ed. China and the World (Oxford UP, 2020). essays by scholars. excerpt
- Sullivan, Lawrence R. Historical Dictionary of the People's Republic of China (2007)
- Wasserstrom, Jeffrey. Vigil: Hong Kong on the Brink (2020) Political protest 2003–2019.
- Westad, Odd Arne. Restless empire: China and the world since 1750 (2012) Online free to borrow
Historiography and memory
- Eben V. Racknitz, Ines. "Repositioning History for the Future – Recent Academic Debates in China" History Compass (2014) 12#6 pp. 465–472.
- Finnane, Antonia. "Reinventing Modern China: Imagination and Authenticity in Chinese Historical Writing." Asian Studies Review 39#1 (2015): 163–164.
- Fromm, Martin T. Borderland Memories: Searching for Historical Identity in Post-Mao China (Cambridge UP, 2019).
- Longxi, Zhang. "Re-conceptualizing China in our Time: From a Chinese Perspective." European Review 23#2 (2015): 193–209.
- Smith, Stephen A. "Recent historiography of the People's Republic of China, 1949-76." Twentieth Century Communism 3.3 (2011): 196–216.
- Unger, Jonathan. Using the Past to Serve the Present: Historiography and Politics in Contemporary China (Routledge, 2015)
- Wu, Guo. "Recalling bitterness: Historiography, memory, and myth in Maoist China." Twentieth-Century China 39.3 (2014): 245–268. online[dead link]
- Cold War International History Project: Document Collection on China in the Cold War
- "Rethinking ‘Capitalist Restoration’ in China" by Yiching Wu
- Peoples Republic of China by P.M. Calabrese
- China Timeline: A Chronology of Key Events in China by Gerhard K. Heilig
- China from the Inside – 2006 PBS documentary. KQED Public Television and Granada Television for PBS, Granada International and the BBC.
- Map of situation in East Asia at the time of declaration of the People's Republic of China (omniatlas.com)