History of the Philippines (1965–86)
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|Republic of the Philippines|
|Repúbliká ng Pilipinas|
Location of the Philippines in Southeast Asia.
presidential constitutional republic under a Military Dictatorship
|-||1973 Constitution||January 17, 1973|
|-||EDSA Revolution||February 25, 1986|
Part of a series on the
|History of the Philippines|
The history of the Philippines, from 1965-1986, covers the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos. The Marcos era includes the final years of the Third Republic (1965–72), the Philippines under martial law (1972–81), and the majority of the Fourth Republic (1981–86).
The Marcos administration (1965–72)
On 1965, Ferdinand Marcos won the Presidential election and became the 10th President of the Philippines. His first term was marked with increased industrialization and the creation of solid infrastructure nationwide, such as the North Luzon Expressway and the Maharlika Highway. Marcos also increased the funding of the Armed Forces, to help modernize Philippine capability to defend itself from foreign or internal threats. He soon mobilized the army to help in construction. Marcos also established schools and learning institutions nationwide, more than of his predecessors combined. Most of the projects created in Marcos administration are still being used today. Given that the dictator Marcos clung to his position for two decades, it was expected of him to create projects to make his overstay more palatable. To note some of the projects made over those 2 decades:
- Bataan Nuclear Power Plant, completed 1983 (mothballed because of design defects and its location on a potentially dangerous fault zone)
- Leyte Geothermal Power Plant, completed 1977
- Makiling-Banahaw Geothermal Power Plant, completed 1979
- Tiwi Geothermal Power Plant, completed 1980
- Angat Hydro Electric Power Plant, completed 1967
- Kalayaan Hydro Electric Power Plant, completed 1982
- Magat A Hydro Electric Power Plant, completed 1984
- Magat B Hydro Electric Power Plant, completed 1984
- Pantabangan Hydro Electric Power Plant, completed 1977
- August 2 Hydro Electric Power Plant, completed 1979
- August 4 Hydro Electric Power Plant, completed 1985
- August 5 Hydro Electric Power Plant, completed 1985
- August 7 Hydro Electric Power Plant, completed 1982
- Pulangi Hydro Electric Power Plant, completed 1985
- August 6 Hydro Electric Power plant, recommissioned in 1977
- Masiway Hydro Electric Power Plant, completed 1980
- Main Magat Hydro Electric Power Plant, completed 1983
- Calaca Coal Power PlantCompleted in 1984,
- Cebu Thermal Power Plant completed in 1981,
- Palinpinon 1 Southern Negros Geothermal production Field completed in 1983 and hundres of diesel plants.
- Biliran Bridge150 meters long of Leyte, completed 1975
- Buntun Bridge 1369 meters long of Tuguegarao-Solana, Cagayan, completed 1974
- Candaba Viaduct Pulilan 5000 meters long of Bulacan-San Simon, Pampanga, completed 1976
- Mactan-Mandaue Bridge 864 meters long of Lapu-Lapu-Mandaue, Cebu 1972
- Magapit Suspension Bridge 449 meters long of Lal-lo, Cagayan completed 1978
- Mawo Bridge 280 meters long Victoria, Northern Samar completed 1970
- Patapat Viaduct 1300 meters long Pagudpud, Ilocos Norte completed 1986
- San Juanico Bridge 2060 meters long Tacloban, Leyte-Santa Rita, Samar. Completed 1973 and unnamed hundreds of bridges under 100 meters long.
TOTAL LENGTH = 11472 meters long (supposedly built to appease Imelda Marcos over the Dovey Beams scandal).
Established/Founded State Colleges/Universities
- Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University in La Union founded in 1981
- Mariano Marcos State University in Ilocos Norte founded in 1978
- Kalinga-Apayao State College in Tabuk Kalinga founded in 1970
- Abra State Institute of Science and Technology in Abra founded in 1983
- Pangasinan State University founded in 1979
- University of Northern Philippines founded in 1965
- Philippine State College of Aeronautics founded in 1969
- Cagayan State University established in 1978
- Quirino State University established 1976
- Isabela State University established 1978
- Pampanga Agricultural College established 1974
- Mindoro State College of Agriculture and Technology-Calapan City established 1966
- Occidental Mindoro State College established 1966
- Palawan State University established 1965
- Bicol University established 1969
- Camarines Sur Polytechnic Colleges established 1983
- Rizal Technological University established 1969
- Technological University of the Philippines established 1971
- Capiz State University 1980
- Guimaras State College 1968
- Northern Negros State College of Science and Technology established 1971
- West Visayas State University became established as university in January 1986
- Leyte Normal University 1976
- SLSU- (Southern Leyte State University)- Sogod 1969
- SLSU- Hinunangan 1975
- SLSU- Tomas Oppus feb. 1 1986
- SLSU- Bontoc 1983
- SLSU- San Juan 1983
- Basilan State College 1984
- Western Mindanao State University became a university in 1978 followed with building the satellite campuses in.
- WMSU-Alicia campus, Zamboanga del Sur
WMSU-Aurora campus, Zamboanga del Sur
- WMSU Curuan, Zamboanga City
- WMSU-Diplahan, Zamboanga Sibugay
- WMSU-Imelda, Zamboanga Sibugay
- WMSU-Ipil, Zamboanga Sibugay
- WMSU-Mabuhay, Zamboanga Sibugay
- WMSU-Malangas, Zamboanga Sibugay
- WMSU-Molave, Zamboanga del Sur
- WMSU-Naga, Zamboanga Sibugay
- WMSUOlutanga, Zamboanga Sibugay
- WMSU-Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur
- WMSU-Pitogo, Zamboanga del Sur
- WMSU-San Ramon, Zamboanga City
- WMSU-Siay, Zamboanga Sibugay
- WMSU-Tungawan, Zamboanga Sibugay
- Central Mindanao University established 1965
- Misamis Oriental State College of Agriculture and Technology established 1983
- Northwestern Mindanao State College of Science and Technology estbalished 1971
- Davao del Norte School of Fisheries established 1969 ( now known as Davao del Norte State College)
- Mati Community College (MCC) founded in 1972 ( now known as Davao Oriental State College of Science and Technology)
- Malita Agri-Business and Marine and Aquatic School of Technology founded 1966 now known as
- Southern Philippines Agri-Business and Marine and Aquatic School of Technology
- University of Southeastern Philippines established 1978
- Cotabato Foundation College of Science and Technology established 1967
- Cotabato City State Polytechnic College established 1983
- Mindanao state university- Iligan city founded 1968
- Mindanao state university- Gensan city founded 1971
- Surigao del Sur State University founded 1982
- Surigao Del Norte School of Arts and Trades (Founded in 1969) now known as Surigao State College of Technology
- Sulu State College founded in 1982
- Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College founded in 1975
- Adiong Memorial Polytechnic State College founded in 1970's
- Improvement and re equipped the remaining colleges/ Universities that were established/ founded before 1965.
- Holy Child College of Davao - Davao City founded 1981
- National Manpower and Youth Council (NMYC) founded 1976. Now renamed to TESDA.
Projects accomplished and not just promised of:
- Refurnishing Manila International Airport, now known as NAIA
- LRT-1 (1st in Southeast Asia)
- Heart Center of the Philippines
- Kidney Center
- Nayong Filipino
- Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (defectively designed)
- Coconut Palace
- Philippines Lung Center
- Film Center (rushed construction which killed hundreds of workers)
- Golden Mosque for Muslims
- Folks Arts Theatre
- SLEX and NLEX (1st in Southeast Asia)
- San Juanico Bridge (formerly Marcos Bridge)
- 13th Month Pay
- Presidential Decree 1596 Proclaiming Philippines owns Spratly Islands, Panatag/Ayungin Shoal and Paracell Islands.
Marcos did this by appointing a cabinet composed mostly of technocrats, cronies and golf-buddies, and intellectuals, by increasing funding to the Armed Forces, and mobilizing them to help in construction. Marcos also established schools and learning institutions nationwide, more than of his predecessors combined.
In 1968, Sen. Benigno S. Aquino, Jr. warned that Marcos was on the road to establishing "a garrison state" by "ballooning the armed forces budget", saddling the defense establishment with "overstaying generals" and "militarizing our civilian government offices".
Marcos also sent 10,450 well equipped Filipino soldiers to Vietnam during his term, under the PHILCAG (Philippine Civic Action Group). The 12th President of the Philippines, Fidel Ramos, was then a part of this expeditionary force. Marcos also sent some Muslim youth to attack Sabah, and when this was exposed, resulted in the Jabiddah Massacre.
In 1969, Marcos ran for a second term (allowable under the 1935 constitution then in effect), and won versus 11 other candidates. Marcos began his second term by creating a personality cult of sorts around himself, mandating that all public institutions must carry a picture of the President, and even replacing some billboards with his propaganda messages.
Marcos' second term was marked by economic turmoil brought about by factors both external and internal, a restless student body who demanded educational reforms, a rising crime rate, and a growing Communist insurgency, among other things.
In October 30, 1970 a massive protest in Mendiola, were made by student protesters and communist elements known First Quarter Storm. They became violent, and started to destroy Government properties. They were later successfully quelled by Police forces using batons and fire trucks. This marked a period of student protesting around Metro Manila, especially near the University Belt. At one point, student activists and communist elements took over the Diliman campus of the University of the Philippines and declared it a free commune, which the government gave them time for their right to express themselves before dissolving the rally. Protests continued over the next few years. Criminals took advantage of this situation and started looting, while Communist elements started preaching about the benefits of a Communist Government. Due to the threat of Communism takeover and rising criminality, Martial Law was declared in 1972.
Plaza Miranda bombing
On August 21, 1971, the Liberal Party held a campaign rally at the Plaza Miranda to proclaim their Senatorial bets and their candidate for the Mayoralty of Manila. Two grenades were tossed on stage, injuring almost everybody present. Marcos exploited this as an opportunity to suspend the writ of habeas corpus - borrowing from Hitler's tactic to blame the opposition for burning the Reichstag as a means to get popular support for his Nazis in Germany in the 1930s- in order to arrest those behind the attack. Just like Hitler blaming a communist Dutch Jew to justify suppression, Marcos rounded up a list of supposed suspects, Maoists, and people he deemed undesirable. In an effort to eliminate rivals in the Liberal Party, Marcos and his allies took an investigation and which it turnout - coming from the opposition. The writ was briefly restored on January 11, 1972 amidst widespread protest. Decades later,the CPP under Jose Ma. Sison admitted that they were responsible for the Plaza Miranda attack, though Marcos got blamed for it presumably to eliminate the Opposition senatorial candidates considering that his own candidates are lagging.
Martial law (1972–1981)
In September 1972, then Defence Minister Juan Ponce Enrile was ambushed while en route home. The assassination attempt, which Enrile claims was real, along with the growing threat of the New People's Army, citizen unrest, a restless student body who demanded educational reforms, a rising crime rate and a growing Communist insurgency. On September 21 President Marcos issued Presidential Proclamation No. 1081, proclaiming a State of martial law in the Philippines.Due to uncontrolled situation of the country 
Marcos, who henceforth ruled by decree, curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties, abolished Congress, controlled media establishments, and ordered the arrest of opposition leaders and militant activists, including his staunchest critics Senators Benigno Aquino, Jr. and Jose W. Diokno. Initially, the declaration of martial law was well-received, given the social turmoil of the period. Crime rates decreased significantly after a curfew was implemented. Political opponents were forced to go to exile, imprisoned, or executed. As martial law went on for the next nine years, the excesses committed by the military emerged.
All media (TV, Radio, and Print) were seized, allowing only those friendly to the regime to remain in operation. Those which belonged to the perceived enemies of the regime were confiscated (like ABS CBN) and awarded to cronies. Only crony-owned media were allowed to operate. There were only three main newspapers allowed to be published: Bulletin Today (formerly Manila Bulletin), Daily Express, and Times Journal. All were owned by Marcos allies. Five channels were allowed to operate: the Government owned channel 4, the crony owned channels BBC-2, RPN-9 and IBC-13; GMA-7 retained some independence, and only if they cooperated with the regime. The TV and Movie Board of Censors had generals and military personnel manning the helm.
Though it was made clear that Martial law was no military take-over of the government, the immediate reaction of some sectors of the nation was of astonishment and dismay, for even if everyone knew that the gravity of the disorder, lawlessness, social injustice, youth and student activism and other disturbing movements had reached a point of peril, they felt that martial law over the whole country was not yet warranted. Worse, political motivations were ascribed to be behind the proclamation, what with the then constitutionally unextendible term of President Marcos about to expire, and this suspicion became more credible when opposition leaders and outspoken anti-administration media people who did not hesitate to resort even to libel were immediately placed under indefinite detention in military camps and other unusual restrictions were imposed on travel, communication, freedom of speech and of the press, etc. In a word, the martial law regime was anathema to no small portion of the populace.
It was in the light of the above circumstances and as a means of solving the dilemma aforementioned that the concept embodied in Amendment Number 6 was born in the Constitution of 1973. In brief, the central Idea that emerged was that martial law may be earlier lifted, but to safeguard our country and people against any abrupt dangerous situation which would warrant the exercise of some authoritarian powers, the latter must be constitutionally allowed, thereby to obviate the need to proclaim martial law and its concomitants, principally the assertion by the military of prerogatives that made them appear superior to the civilian authorities below the President. In other words, the problem was what may be needed for national survival or the restoration of normalcy in the face of a crisis or an emergency should be reconciled with the popular mentality and attitude of the people against martial law.
In a recent speech before his fellow alumni of the University of the Philippines College of Law, President Marcos declared his intention to lift martial law by the end of January 1981.
The reassuring words for the sceptic came on the occasion of the University of the Philippines law alumni reunion on 12 December 1980 when the President declared: "We must erase once and for all from the public mind any doubts as to our resolve to bring martial law to an end and to minister to an orderly transition to parliamentary government." The apparent forthright irrevocable commitment was cast at the 45th anniversary celebration of the Armed Forces of the Philippines on December 22, 1980 when the President proclaimed: "A few days ago, following extensive consultations with a broad representation of various sectors of the nation and in keeping with the pledge made a year ago during the seventh anniversary of the New Society, I came to the firm decision that martial law should be lifted before the end of January, 1981, and that only in a few areas where grave problems of public order and national security continue to exist will martial law continue to remain in force."
During the early years of Martial Law, the Philippine economy grew a significant amount, spurred by heavy borrowing from transnational banking companies and government-to-government loans. By 1980, however, the heavy burden of foreign debt servicing took its toll in the economy, and mismanagement of important industries due to crony capitalism led the economy to a downturn. The assassination of popular opposition leader Benigno Aquino in 1983 led to the pull-out of foreign capital from the country, resulting in negative GDP growth in 1983 and 1984.
The first formal elections since 1969 for an interim Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly) were held on April 7, 1978. Sen. Aquino, then in jail, decided to run as leader of his party, the Lakas ng Bayan party, but were not allowed to win any seats in the Batasan, despite public support and their apparent victory. The night before the elections, supporters of the LABAN party showed their solidarity by setting up a "noise barrage" in Manila, creating noise the whole night until dawn.
The Fourth Republic (1981–1986)
|“||We love your adherence to democratic principles and to the democratic process, and we will not leave you in isolation.||”|
The opposition boycotted the June 16, 1981 presidential elections, which pitted Marcos and his Kilusang Bagong Lipunan party against retired Gen. Alejo Santos of the Nacionalista Party. Marcos won by a margin of over 16 million votes, which constitutionally allowed him to have another six-year term. Finance Minister Cesar Virata was elected as Prime Minister by the Batasang Pambansa.
In 1983, opposition leader Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. was assassinated at Manila International Airport upon his return to the Philippines after a long period of exile in the United States. This coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began a series of events, including pressure from the United States, that culminated in a snap presidential election on February 7, 1986. The opposition united under Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, and Salvador Laurel, head of the United Nationalists Democratic Organizations (UNIDO). The election was marred by widespread reports of violence and tampering with results by the Marcos side.
The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections (COMELEC), declared Marcos the winner, despite a walk-out staged by disenfranchised computer technicians on February 9. According to the COMELEC's final tally, Marcos won with 10,807,197 votes to Aquino's 9,291,761 votes. By contrast, the final tally of NAMFREL, an accredited poll watcher, said Aquino won with 7,835,070 votes to Marcos's 7,053,068.
End of the Marcos regime
The fraudulent result was not accepted by Aquino and her supporters. International observers, including a U.S. delegation led by Senator Richard Lugar (R-Ind.), denounced the official results. Gen. Fidel Ramos and Defence Minister Juan Ponce Enrile then withdrew their support for the administration, defecting and barricading themselves within Camp Crame. This resulted in the peaceful 1986 EDSA Revolution that forced Marcos into exile in Hawaii while Corazon Aquino became the 11th President of the Philippines on February 25, 1986. Under Aquino, the Philippines would adopt a new constitution, ending the Fourth Republic and ushering the beginning of the Fifth Republic.
- "1935 Constitution, as amended". Official Gazette. http://www.gov.ph.
- Presidential Proclamation No. 1081, September 21, 1972, Proclaiming a State of Martial Law in the Philippines, The LawPhil Project.
- "G.R. No. L-58289 July 24, 1982".
- Legaspoi, Valentino. "G.R. No. L-58289 July 24, 1982".
- Tan, Silverio Benny. "THE PHILIPPINES AFTER THE LIFTING OF MARTIAL LAW: A LINGERING AUTHORITARIANISM" (PDF). Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- Carag, Carlo. "THE LEGAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE LIFTING OF MARTIAL LAW IN THE PHILIPPINES" (PDF).
- Philippines: Together Again, TIME Magazine, July 13, 1981
- Peter Ackerman; Jack DuVall (2001), A force more powerful: a century of nonviolent conflict, Macmillan, p. 384, ISBN 978-0-312-24050-9;
^ Isabelo T. Crisostomo (1987), Cory--profile of a president, Branden Books, p. 193, ISBN 978-0-8283-1913-3 (showing a reproduction of NAMFREL's announcement of the results).