History of the University of Alabama
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2007)|
The History of The University of Alabama begins with an act of United States Congress in 1818 authorizing the newly formed Alabama Territory to set aside a township for the establishment of a "seminary of learning." Alabama was admitted to the Union on March 20, 1819 and a second township added to the land grant. The seminary was established by the General Assembly on December 18, 1820 and named The University of the State of Alabama. The legislature appointed a Board of Trustees to handle the building and opening of the campus, and its operation once complete. The Board selected Tuscaloosa, then capital of the Alabama, as the site of the university in 1827, and opened its doors to students on April 18, 1831.
The school in writing: 1820–1831
The original land grant included the entire area within the Tuscaloosa city limits stretching south of what is now University Boulevard to the AGS Railroad and west to Queen City Avenue. The land had been owned by William Marr, whose name is commemorated today in Marrs Spring and the literary Marrs Field Journal. A prominent architect, Captain William Nichols, was commissioned to design the campus.
Most of the material for the early buildings came from university land. Slaves quarried sandstone near the Black Warrior River, burned and made bricks on the spot, and cut lumber from the university's own timber tract. An extensive vineyard was situated in the area of Denny Field and Barnwell Hall.
The frontier school: 1831–1860
The Board of Trustee selected the Reverend Alva A. Woods to be the first president of the university. Educated at Phillips Andover, Harvard College and in Europe. Woods hoped to turn the university into a Harvard-style seminary.
Admission standards were set high. Simply to enter the university, one had to demonstrate the ability to read Classical Greek and Latin at an intermediate level, with advanced study in those languages to begin immediately. But Alabama, a frontier state a sizable amount of whose territory was still under the control of various Native American tribes, was decades away from possessing the infrastructure necessary to provide adequate education (public or even private) to meet such high standards.
The university was consequently forced to admit many students who were not adequately prepared for university education. For the duration of the Antebellum period, the university would graduate only a fraction of those young men who entered. Of the 105 student who enrolled in 1835, only eight graduated.
Within a month of the opening of the university, social societies emerged. Unlike the social fraternities that would emerge in the next decade, these clubs were academic debate societies by nature. The Erosophic Society was founded in May 1831, while the Philomathic Society came out eight months later.
For $80 a year, students received room and board at the Hotel, now known as the Gorgas House. Washington Hall and Jefferson Hall, called the "colleges," stood three stories high. Each contained twelve apartments, which in turn contained two bedrooms and a sitting room. Forty-eight students resided in each dormitory. Madison and Franklin Halls were built later. Following the American Civil War, the remains of Madison and Franklin Halls were made into memorial mounds. Madison Mound was removed during the 1920s, but Franklin Mound is still used for Honors Day ceremonies. Additionally, an archaeological excavation, conducted in 2007, examined the remains of Washington and Jefferson Halls foundations.
At the center of the campus, where the Gorgas Library is now situated, stood the "grande dame" of the university, the Rotunda. In the 1894 yearbook, Corolla, the building is described as "a circular edifice of three stories, seventy feet in diameter and seventy feet in height, and surrounded by a lofty peristyle of the Ionic order of architecture. The principal story was used for chapel service and academic recitations. This department was long celebrated as being the finest auditorium in the State. In the second story was the circular gallery, supported by carved columns of the Corinthian order. The third story contained the library and the collections in natural history." The Rotunda was destroyed by fire and was never rebuilt. Following an excavation in 1985, the Rotunda's remains were cushioned in sand and covered with concrete to mark where the building had once stood.
Greek life began at the university in 1847 when two young Mobilians visiting from Yale installed a chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon. When DKE members began holding secret meetings in the old state capitol building that year, the administration strongly voiced its disapproval. Over the next decade, four other fraternities appeared at Alabama: Alpha Delta Phi in 1851, Phi Gamma Delta in 1855, Sigma Alpha Epsilon in 1856, and Kappa Sigma in 1857. Anti-fraternity laws were imposed in that year, but were lifted in 1890s. Eager to have a social organization of their own, women at the university founded the Zeta Chapter of Kappa Delta sorority in 1903. Alpha Gamma Delta and Delta Delta Delta soon followed.
The military school: 1860–1902
In the 1850s, the school's president, Landon Garland, began lobbying the Legislature to transform the university into a military school. In 1860, in the wake a violent brawl which resulted in the death of student as well as the impending war, the legislature authorized Garland to make the transformation beginning in the Fall of 1860. As a result of this transformation, during the Civil War, the school trained troops for the Confederacy.
Because of this role, Union troops burned down the campus in April 1865. Only seven buildings survived the burning, one of which was the President's Mansion - and its outbuildings. Frances Louisa Garland, wife of President Landon C. Garland, saved the home from destruction by the Union soldiers. When she saw flames in the direction of the campus, she ran from the Bryce home where the family had taken refuge and demanded the soldiers put out the fire in the parlor. The university reopened in 1871 and shortly after, the military structure was dropped. The other principal buildings today, have new uses. Gorgas House (http://gorgashouse.ua.edu/), at different times the dining hall, faculty residence, and campus hotel, now serves as a museum. The Roundhouse, then a sentry box for cadets, later a place for records storage, is a campus historical landmark. The Observatory, now Maxwell Hall, is home to the Computer-Based Honors Program.
In 1880, the United States Congress granted the university 40,000 acres (160 km²) of coal land as partial compensation for the $250,000 in war damages. Some of the money went toward the building of Manly and Clark Halls. In 1887, Clark became the home of the library, whose 7,000 volumes had been destroyed. It was not until 1900 that private donations, including the donation of 1,000 volumes collected by John Leslie Hibbard's father, restored the library to 20,000 books. Garland Hall, which housed the geology museum and lecture rooms, completed what became known as Woods Quad. Tuomey and Barnard Halls were also built before 1900.
The growing university: 1902–1941
The university was officially opened to women in 1892 after much lobbying by Julia Tutwiler to the Board of Trustees. In 1895, it was advertised that "young women of good character, who have attained the age of eighteen, may be admitted to the university, provided they are prepared to take up subjects of study not lower than those of the Sophomore class. They must reside in private families; but rooms for study during the study-hours of the day are provided at The University."
Although the university attempted to look forward to the 20th century, some elements of the past remained. Four tombstones marked the graves of Professor Horace S. Pratt and his family in a tiny cemetery beside the biology building. In celebration of the university's seventy-fifth anniversary in 1906, President Hill Ferguson and Robert Jemison launched a fund-raising campaign with the slogan, "A quarter million dollar improvement fund." The $5,000 which the campaign secured from the state legislature in 1909 went toward the building of Smith and Morgan Halls. Constructed of yellow Missouri brick with Indiana limestone trim, the buildings reflected the Beaux-Arts Greek Revival style of architecture that was popular at the turn of the 20th century.
The modern university: 1941–present
In 1941, Amelia Gayle Gorgas Library opened its doors in the same spot where the Rotunda once stood. Half a century later, its long wooden tables, stained glass windows, and worn books smelling of dust and age contrasted with the grey computer catalogue terminals and slick. Gorgas Library stood as a perfect symbol of the way, in all facets of the university, progress persisted amidst elements of the past.
In 1953, Autherine Lucy sued in Lucy v. Adams to prevent the university from denying admission solely based on race or color. Lucy became the first African-American to attend the school when she was admitted in 1956. On the third day of classes, a hostile mob assembled to prevent Lucy from attending classes. The police were called to secure her admission but, that evening, the University suspended Lucy on the grounds that it could not provide a safe environment. The university overturned her expulsion in 1980, and in 1992, Lucy earned her master's degree in elementary education from the university that she was admitted two decades earlier.
On June 11, 1963, George Wallace, the governor of Alabama, stood in front of a door at the University's Foster Auditorium in what became known as the "Stand in the Schoolhouse Door"—attempting to block the desegregation of that institution by the enrollment of two African-American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood. When confronted by federal marshals, Wallace stepped aside, allowing them to register for classes. Later in life, he apologized for his opposition at that time to racial integration.
The University paid tribute to Autherine Lucy, James Hood and Vivian Malone at the dedication of the Malone-Hood Plaza and Autherine Lucy Clock Tower at Foster Auditorium on November 3, 2010. A 40-foot-tall brick tower, with open arches and four large bronze plaques at its base, tells their stories.
- Sellers, James B. History of the University of Alabama. Volume 1: 1818–1902. Tuscaloosa (Ala.): University of Alabama Press, 1953. ASIN: B0007ECYJO
- Wolfe, Suzanne Rau. The University of Alabama: A Pictorial History. Tuscaloosa (Ala.): University of Alabama Press, 1983. ISBN 0-8173-0119-4
- Thomas, Grace Powers (1898). Where to educate, 1898-1899. A guide to the best private schools, higher institutions of learning, etc., in the United States. Boston: Brown and Company. p. 5. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- Staff Writer (2006-02-26). "Difficult Lessons—Desegregating the Schools, 1962-1963". The Birmingham News. Retrieved 2008-01-07.
- "Civil rights pioneer Vivian Jones dies". USA Today. 2005-10-13. Retrieved 2008-01-07.