History of video game consoles (eighth generation)
|Part of a series on the:|
|History of video games|
In the history of video games, the eighth generation includes consoles released since 2012 by Nintendo, Microsoft, and Sony Computer Entertainment. For home consoles, the eighth generation began on November 18, 2012 with the release of the Wii U, and continued with the release of the PlayStation 4 on November 15, 2013, and Xbox One on November 22, 2013. These video game consoles follow the seventh generation: Sony's PlayStation 3, Nintendo's Wii and Microsoft's Xbox 360. For video game handhelds, the generation began in February 2011 with the release of the Nintendo 3DS, successor to the Nintendo DS, in Japan, followed by a North American and European release in March. Nintendo released the New Nintendo 3DS XL in North America on February 13, 2015. The successor of the PlayStation Portable, the PlayStation Vita, was released in Japan in December 2011, and in Western markets in February 2012.
The generation was predicted to face competition from smartphones, tablets, and smart TVs. Due to the proliferation of these devices, some analysts speculate the eighth generation to be the last generation of home consoles. In 2013, gaming revenue on Android overtook portable game console revenue, while remaining a distant second to iOS gaming revenue. In FY 2013 (ending early 2013), Nintendo sold 23.7 million consoles, while Apple sold 58.2 million iPads in FY 2012 (ending late 2012).
All three of the eighth generation home consoles use AMD GPUs, and two of them use AMD CPUs. Microsoft, Nintendo, and Sony were not aware that they were all using AMD processors until all their consoles were announced. Both AMD and Nvidia are optimistic for the PC market, as the unified CPU/GPU processors in the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One use the same x86 programming architecture found in PCs, with AMD planning to introduce similar processors to desktop and laptop PCs in the near future. Nvidia claims that game consoles will no longer be able to compete with PC graphics due to massive R&D funding by Nvidia and AMD, and stricter size and power requirements of consoles.
The multi-million dollar pre-sale success of Ouya, an Android-based microconsole initially founded through crowdfunding has raised open-source development and the free-to-play model as key issues to be addressed by eighth generation consoles. The microconsoles like Nvidia Shield Console, MOJO, Razer Switchblade, GamePop, GameStick, Ouya, and PC-based Steam Machine consoles are attempting to compete in this market; however these are seldom referred to as "eighth generation" consoles or even as "seventh generation" consoles.
Though prior console generations have normally occurred in five to six-year cycles, the transition from seventh to eighth generation has lasted more than six years. The transition is also unusual in that the prior generation's best-selling unit, the Wii, is the first to be replaced in the eighth generation. In 2011, Microsoft had stated they began looking at their next console, but they, along with Sony, considered themselves only halfway through a ten-year lifecycle for their seventh-generation offerings. Sony and Microsoft representatives have stated that the addition of motion controllers and camera-based controllers like Kinect and PlayStation Move have extended these systems' lifetimes. Nintendo president Satoru Iwata had stated that his company would be releasing the Wii U due to declining sales of seventh generation home consoles and that "the market is now waiting for a new proposal for home consoles". Sony considered making its next console a digital download only machine, but decided against it due to concerns about the inconsistency of internet speeds available globally, especially in developing countries.
The eighth generation of consoles also sees a re-entry of manufacturers into the Chinese market, following the lifting of a 14-year video game console ban there during 2014. The Chinese government banned video game consoles in 2000, citing concerns of their effect on youth, meaning that consoles were forbidden to be officially and legally sold in retail stores in China, forcing console gaming into a niche and creating a black market for imported game devices. Both Microsoft and Sony have announced that they intend on releasing their consoles in China via the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone, with the Xbox One released there in September 2014, whilst the PlayStation 4 has yet to have a fixed release schedule. CEO of Sony Computer Entertainment Andrew House has also explained in September 2013 that the company intends on using the PlayStation Vita TV as a low-cost alternative for consumers in an attempt to penetrate the Chinese gaming market.
In November 2010, Nintendo of America CEO Reggie Fils-Aime stated that the release of the next generation of Nintendo would be determined by the continued success of the Wii. Nintendo announced their successor to the Wii, the Wii U, at the Electronic Entertainment Expo 2011 on June 7, 2011. After the announcement, several journalists classified the system as the first eighth generation home console. However, prominent sources have disputed this because of its comparative lack of power and older disc media type with respect to the announced specifications for PlayStation 4 and the Xbox One.
The Wii U's main controller, the Wii U GamePad, features an embedded touchscreen that can work as an auxiliary interactive screen in a fashion similar to the Nintendo DS/3DS, or if compatible with "Off TV Play", can even act as the main screen itself, enabling games to be played without the need of a television. The Wii U is compatible with its predecessor's peripherals, such as the Wii Remote Plus, the Nunchuk, and the Wii Balance Board.
The Wii U was released in North America on November 18, 2012, in Europe on November 30, 2012 and in Japan on December 8, 2012. It came in two versions, the Basic Model and the Deluxe/Premium Model, at the price of $300 and $349 US Dollars, respectively. On August 28, 2013, Nintendo announced production of the Basic model has ended and expected supplies to be exhausted by September 20, 2013. On October 4, 2013, the Deluxe/Premium model was price cut from US$349 to US$300.
On February 20, 2013, Sony announced the PlayStation 4 during a press conference in New York City, and was released on November 15, 2013 in North America. The new console places a heavy emphasis on features surrounding social interaction; gameplay videos can be shared via the PlayStation Network and other services, and users can stream games being played by themselves or others (either through the console, or directly to services such as Twitch). The PS4's DualShock 4 controller is similar to the previous model, but adds a touchpad and a "Share" button, along with an LED light bar on the front to allow motion tracking. An updated camera accessory will also be offered for the system; it now uses 1280×800px stereo cameras with support for depth sensing similar to Kinect, and remains compatible with the PlayStation Move peripherals. The PS4 will also have second screen capabilities through both mobile apps and the PlayStation Vita, and game streaming through the recently acquired Gaikai service.
The PlayStation 4 was released on November 15, 2013 in North America and November 29, 2013 in Australia and Europe at US$399.99, A$549 and €399 respectively.
On May 21, 2013, Microsoft announced the Xbox One at an event in Redmond, Washington. The console has an increased focus on entertainment, including the ability to pass television programming from a set-top box over HDMI and use a built-in electronic program guide, and the ability to multitask by snapping applications (such as Skype and Internet Explorer) to the side of the screen, similarly to Windows 8. The Xbox One also includes an updated version of Kinect with a 1080p camera and expanded voice controls, a new controller with "Impulse Triggers" that provide force feedback, and the ability to automatically record and save highlights from gameplay.
The Xbox One was released in North America, Europe and Australia on November 22, 2013 at a launch price of US$499.99, €499 and A$599 respectively with Japan, and was later released in 26 other markets in 2014.
|Name||Wii U||PlayStation 4||Xbox One|
|Manufacturer||Nintendo||Sony Computer Entertainment||Microsoft|
|Launch prices||Basic Model
|Current prices||Deluxe/Premium Model
||Launch Model||Launch Model
Same as launch prices
"Without Kinect" Model
|Units shipped||Worldwide: 9.2 million (As of 31 December 2014[update])||Worldwide: 22.3 million (As of 31 March 2015[update])||Worldwide: 10 million (As of December 2014[update])|
|Units sold||Worldwide: 9.54 million (As of 31 March 2015[update])||Worldwide: 22.3 million (As of 31 March 2015[update])||Worldwide: 3 million (As of 31 December 2013[update])|
|Best-selling game||Mario Kart 8, 5.11 million
(As of 31 March 2015[update])
|Media||Wii U Optical Disc
Similar to a 25 GB single layer BD at 5x CAV
Wii Optical Disc
Similar to a 4.7 GB DVD or 8.4 GB DVD-DL at 6x CAV
Blu-ray at 6x CAV, DVD at 8x CAV
|Blu-ray, DVD, CD
|CPU||Tri-Core IBM PowerPC "Espresso" @ 1.24 GHz
||Octa-Core (2 quad-core modules) AMD x86-64 "Jaguar"-based @ 1.6 GHz
Secondary low power processor (for background tasks)
|Octa-Core (2 quad-core modules) AMD x86-64 "Jaguar"-based @ 1.75 GHz
|GPU||AMD Radeon "Latte"||AMD Radeon "Liverpool"||AMD Radeon|
|Storage||500 GB HDD (user replaceable)||500 GB HDD, 1 TB HDD (non-replaceable)
8 GB flash memory (reserved for the OS)
|Supports up to 32 GB SDHC cards
Supports up to 2 TB USB HDD (Wii U Mode only)
|No external HDD support||Supports USB HDD larger than 256 GB|
|Game Installation||Only downloaded games can be installed to storage||All games must be installed to a connected HDD||All games must be installed to a connected HDD|
|Dimensions||When lying down on its side:
Width: 172 mm (6.7 in)
Height: 46 mm (1.8 in)
Length: 268.5 mm (10.5 in)
(can be oriented vertically using a stand)
|When lying down on its side:
Width: 275 mm (10.8 in)
Height: 53 mm (2.0 in)
Length: 305 mm (12.0 in)
(can be oriented vertically using a stand)
|When lying down on its side:
Width: 309 mm (12.1 in)
Height: 83 mm (3.2 in)
Length: 258 mm (10.1 in)
(must be oriented horizontally)
|Weight||1.5 kg (3.3 lb)||2.8 kg (6.1 lb)||3.2 kg (7.0 lb)|
|Power||75 W (external power supply)||89 W (internal power supply)||External power supply|
Deluxe/Premium Model only
1080p, 1080i, 720p, 480p
576i, 480i (standard 4:3 and 16:9 anamorphic widescreen)
|4K†, 1080p, 1080i and 720p
† 4K resolution supported for videos, movies and pictures only.
|4K, 1080p and 720p
|Integrated 3DTV support||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Second screen||Wii U GamePad (bundled with console)||PlayStation Vita
PlayStation App on iOS and Android devices
|SmartGlass on Windows 8, Windows Phone, iOS, and Android devices|
|Local game streaming via Off-TV Play to Wii U GamePad for some games||Local and remote game streaming via Remote Play to PS Vita for all games,
except those that require the PS Camera or PS Move
|Planned local game streaming via Xbox App from a Windows 10 PC.|
|Touch capability||Wii U GamePad includes an integrated resistive touchscreen||DualShock 4 controller includes an integrated 2 point capacitive touchpad||N/A|
|Camera||Wii U GamePad camera (bundled with all consoles)||PlayStation Camera||Kinect|
|Online services||Nintendo Network||PlayStation Network||Xbox Live|
|Downloads games and automatic updates in the background via SpotPass||Downloads games and automatic updates in the background||Downloads games and automatic updates in the background|
|Free||Paid PlayStation Plus subscription required for online multiplayer (free-to-play titles exempt)||Paid Xbox Live Gold subscription required for online multiplayer and party chat.|
|Game DVR||Screenshots with Miiverse integration (can be shared on Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus and Tumblr)||Screenshots with Facebook and Twitter integration||Screenshots with Twitter integration|
|Gameplay replays with YouTube integration (select games only)||Up to 15 minutes of gameplay with Facebook, YouTube and Dailymotion integration||Up to 5 minutes of gameplay|
|N/A||Live streaming with Twitch and Ustream integration||Live streaming with Twitch integration|
|Free||Free||Paid subscription to Xbox Live Gold required|
|Regional lockout||Region locked||Unrestricted||Unrestricted Worldwide excluding China|
|List of games||List of Wii U software||List of PlayStation 4 games||List of Xbox One games|
|Backward compatibility||Supports Wii software on disc and downloaded from Wii Shop Channel. Games from previous generations available for digital purchase and download via Virtual Console on Nintendo eShop.||Not natively compatible with PlayStation, PlayStation 2 or PlayStation 3 titles due to hardware incompatibility. PlayStation Now cloud support for selected PlayStation 3 games began in January 2015 for North America, requires subscription to access service.||Selected Xbox 360 games; feature in beta for preview program members, for general availability by end of 2015. Requires download of ported version of game at no additional charge to existing owners of the game.|
|System software||Wii U system software||PlayStation 4 system software||Xbox One system software|
|Updates are downloaded and installed automatically in Standby Mode||Updates are downloaded and installed automatically in Rest Mode||Updates are downloaded and installed automatically in Instant-on Mode|
The Nintendo 3DS is a portable game console produced by Nintendo. It is the successor to the Nintendo DS. The autostereoscopic device is able to project stereoscopic 3D effects without the use of 3D glasses or any additional accessories. The Nintendo 3DS features backward compatibility with Nintendo DS series software, including Nintendo DSi software. Announcing the device in March 2010, Nintendo officially unveiled it at E3 2010, with the company inviting attendees to use demonstration units. The console succeeds the Nintendo DS series of handheld systems, which primarily competes with PlayStation Portable. It competes with Sony's handheld, the PlayStation Vita.
The Nintendo 3DS was released in Japan on February 26, 2011; in Europe on March 25, 2011; in North America on March 27, 2011; and in Australia on March 31, 2011. On July 28, 2011, Nintendo announced a major price drop starting August 12. In addition, as of September 2011 consumers who bought the system at its original price have access to ten Nintendo Entertainment System games before they are available to the general public, after which the games may be updated to the versions publicly released on the Nintendo eShop. In December 2011, ten Game Boy Advance games were made available to consumers who bought the system at its original price at no charge, with Nintendo stating it has no plans to release to the general public.
On June 21, 2012, Nintendo announced a new, bigger model of the 3DS called the Nintendo 3DS XL. It has 90% larger screens than the 3DS and slightly longer battery life. It was released on July 28, 2012 in Europe and August 19, 2012 in North America.
On August 28, 2013, Nintendo announced a low cost, 2D version of the 3DS called the Nintendo 2DS. This redesign plays all Nintendo DS and Nintendo 3DS games, albeit without a 3D option. Unlike previous machines of the DS family, the Nintendo 2DS uses a slate-like design instead of a clamshell one. The console launched on October 12 in both Europe and North America.
On August 29, 2014, Nintendo announced a newer model of the 3DS called the New Nintendo 3DS and New Nintendo 3DS XL. It was released in Japan on October 11, 2014; in Australasia on November 21, 2014; in Europe on February 13, 2015; in North America (XL only) on February 13, 2015.
PlayStation Vita is a handheld game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to the PlayStation Portable as part of the PlayStation brand of gaming devices. It was released in Japan on December 17, 2011 and was released in Europe and North America on February 22, 2012.
The handheld includes two analog sticks, a 5-inch (130 mm) OLED/LCD multi-touch capacitive touchscreen, and supports Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and optional 3G. Internally, the PS Vita features a 4 core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore processor and a 4 core SGX543MP4+ graphics processing unit, as well as LiveArea software as its main user interface, which succeeds the XrossMediaBar.
The device is backward-compatible with a subset of the PlayStation Portable and PS One games digitally released on the PlayStation Network via the PlayStation Store. However, PS One Classics and TurboGrafx-16 titles were not compatible at launch. The Vita's dual analog sticks are supported on selected PSP games via button mapping. The graphics for PSP releases are up-scaled, with a smoothing filter to reduce pixelation.
|Product Line||Nintendo 3DS||PlayStation Vita|
|Name||Nintendo 3DS||Nintendo 3DS XL||Nintendo 2DS||New Nintendo 3DS||New Nintendo 3DS XL||PS Vita (PCH-1000)||PS Vita (PCH-2000)|
|Manufacturer||Nintendo||Sony Computer Entertainment|
|Current prices||Wi-Fi / Wi-Fi+3G|
|Units shipped||Worldwide: 50.41 million (As of 31 December 2014[update])||Worldwide: 4 million (As of 4 January 2013[update])|
|Best-selling game||Pokémon X and Y, 12.26 million units (as of March 31, 2014)||TBA|
|5 in (130 mm) OLED 960 × 544 px||5 in (130 mm) IPS LCD 960 × 544 px|
|Approximately 16.77 million colors||Approximately 16.77 million colors|
|5 brightness levels||0-100% brightness levels|
|CPU||Dual-core ARM11 MPCore & Dual-core VFP Co-Processor||Quad-core ARM11 MPCore & Quad-core VFP Co-Processor||Quad-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore|
|GPU||Digital Media Professionals PICA200||PowerVR SGX543MP4+|
|RAM||128 MB FCRAM, 6 MB VRAM||256 MB FCRAM, 10 MB VRAM||512 MB RAM, 128 MB VRAM|
|Camera||One front-facing and a set of two rear-facing 3D 0.3 MP (VGA) camera sensors||Front and rear 0.3 MP (VGA) camera sensors|
|Storage||1 GB internal flash memory||No internal storage||1 GB internal flash memory|
|Supports up to 128 GB SDXC, up to 32 GB SDHC and up to 2 GB SD memory cards||Supports 4 GB, 8 GB, 16 GB, 32 GB and 64 GB proprietary removable memory cards|
|2 GB SD card included||4 GB SDHC card included||4 GB microSDHC card included||No external storage included|
|Media||Nintendo 3DS Game Card (1–8 GB) / Nintendo DS Game Card (8–512 MB)
|PlayStation Vita Game Card (2–4 GB)
|Battery||1300 mAh lithium-ion battery
||1750 mAh lithium-ion battery
||1300 mAh lithium-ion battery
||1400 mAh lithium-ion battery
||1700 mAh lithium-ion battery
||2200 mAh lithium-ion battery
||2210 mAh lithium-ion battery
|Determined by screen brightness, Wi-Fi, sound volume, and whether 3D is active (3DS models only)||Determined by screen brightness, Wi-Fi, sound volume, and whether 3G is active (3G model only)|
|Console Connection||Wii / Wii U||PlayStation 3 / PlayStation 4|
|Stylus||Extendable up to 100 mm (3.9 in) long||96 mm (3.8 in) long||76.5 mm (3.01 in) long||86 mm (3.4 in) long||N/A|
|Weight||235 grams (8.3 oz)||336 grams (11.9 oz)||260 grams (9.2 oz)||253 grams (8.9 oz)||329 grams (11.6 oz)||Wi-Fi
260 grams (9.2 oz)
279 grams (9.8 oz)
|219 grams (7.7 oz)|
|Online services||Nintendo Network||Sony Entertainment Network|
|Full game download/installation and automatic updates in the background via SpotPass||Full game download/installation in the background|
|List of games||List of Nintendo 3DS games||List of PlayStation Vita games|
|Backward compatibility||Downloadable only|
|System software||Nintendo 3DS system software||PlayStation Vita system software|
- The Virtual Console classic video game re-release distribution service on Nintendo 3DS, Nintendo 3DS XL, Nintendo 2DS, New Nintendo 3DS and New Nintendo 3DS XL currently have available for purchase digital versions of select games for the Game Boy, Game Boy Color, Sega Game Gear and Nintendo Entertainment System platforms, via Nintendo eShop. Nintendo 3DS Ambassadors also have 10 Game Boy Advance games available for download.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2014)|
|Name||Manufacturer||Release date||OS||System-on-chip used||CPU||GPU||Physical Media support||Notes|
|Amazon Fire TV||Amazon.com||April 2, 2014||Fire OS||Qualcomm Snapdragon 600 APQ8064T||Quad-Core Qualcomm Krait 300||Qualcomm Adreno 320||No|
|GamePop||BlueStacks||TBA 2015||Android 4.2||Unreleased specs||No||Subscription-based|
|GameStick||PlayJam||October 29, 2013||Android 4.2||Amlogic 8726-MX||ARM Cortex A9||Mali-400 MP GPU||No|
|MOJO||Mad Catz||December 10, 2013||Android 4.2.2||Tegra 4||1.8 GHz Quad-Core ARM Cortex-A15||Nvidia 72-Core||No|
|Nexus Player||Google & Asus||November 3, 2014||Android 5.0||1.8 GHz Quad-Core Intel Atom||Imagination PowerVR Series 6 Graphics 2D/3D Engine||No|
|FunBox||ZTE & The9||March 19, 2014||Android 4.3||Tegra 4||1.8 GHz Quad-Core ARM Cortex-A15||Nvidia 72-Core||No|
|Ouya||Ouya Inc. (formerly Boxer8)||June 25, 2013||Android 4.1||Tegra 3||1.7 GHz Quad-Core ARM Cortex-A9||Nvidia 12-Core 520 MHz||No|
|PlayStation TV||Sony Computer Entertainment||November 14, 2013||PSVita OS||Quad-Core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore||PowerVR SGX543MP4+||Yes, many physical Vita games are compatible||A home console version of PlayStation Vita|
|Pandora TV-Box||2013||Android 4.1.1||RK3066||1.6 GHz Dual-Core ARM Cortex-A9||Mali-400 MP4||No|
|Xtreamer Multi-Console||Unicorn Information Systems||January 2014||Android 4.2.2||RK3188||1.6 GHz Quad-Core ARM Cortex-A9||Mali-400 MP4||No|
|T2||TCL||April 9, 2014||Android 4.2.2||A31||Quad-Core ARM Cortex-A7||PowerVR SGX544 MP2||No|
|TIMEBOX||TIMEBOX||October 28, 2014||Android 4.4||Amlogic M802||1.6 GHz Quad-Core ARM Cortex-A9||Mali-450 MP GPU 600 MHz 8-Core||No|
|G-BOX||Geeya||November 15, 2014||Android 4.4||RK3288||1.6 GHz Quad-Core ARM Cortex-A17||Mali-T764||No|
|Forge TV||Razer||May 5, 2015||Android TV (Android 5.0-based)||Qualcomm Snapdragon 805||Quad-Core Krait 450 CPU - 2.5GHz per core||Qualcomm Adreno 420 GPU||No|
|Shield Console||Nvidia||May 28, 2015||Android TV (Android 5.0-based)||Tegra X1||ARMv8 ARM Cortex-A57 quad-core + ARM Cortex-A53 quad-core (64-bit)||256-core Nvidia Maxwell-based GPU||No|
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2014)|
|Name||Manufacturer||Release date||OS||CPU||GPU||Physical Media support|
|Archos GamePad||Archos||December 6, 2012||Android 4.1||Rockchip Dual-core @ 1.6 GHz||Mali 400 quad-core||No|
|Archos GamePad 2||Archos||TBA||Android 4.2||Rockchip Quad-core @ 1.6 GHz||Mali 400 quad-core||No|
|JXD S7800||JXD||October 2013||Android 4.2||Amlogic MX Dual-core @ 1.5 GHz||Mali 400 quad-core||No|
|Neo Geo X||SNK Playmore||December 18, 2012||Linux||Ingenic JZ4770 @ 1 GHz||Vivante GC860||Yes, additional games were released in compilation packs|
|Nvidia Shield||Nvidia||July 31, 2013||Android 4.4||Tegra 4 Quad-core @ 1.9 GHz||Custom 72-core GeForce||No|
|Wikipad||Wikipad, Inc.||June 11, 2013||Android 4.1||Nvidia Tegra 3 Quad-core @ 1.4 GHz||Custom 12-core GeForce||No|
|Steam Machine||Valve Corporation||November 2015||SteamOS||Line of consoles to be developed by various vendors that meet minimum specifications for SteamOS.|
- List of video game consoles
- List of microconsoles
- "PS4 release date specs confirmed". Pcadvisor.co.uk. 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "Microsoft Confirms Next-Gen Xbox Announcement". IGN. 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
- Bass, Dina; King, Ian (30 November 2012). "Microsoft Said to Plan Next Xbox for 2013 Holiday Season". Bloomberg. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
- . Nintendo of America http://www.nintendo.com/3ds/new-nintendo-3ds/. Retrieved 2015-02-13. Missing or empty
- Cull, James (20 June 2011). "Nvidia Tegra: The Future of Android Gaming". appstorm.net.
- "Mobile Gaming is Dominating the Gaming Industry". Geekaphone. 27 July 2011.
- Alpeyev, Pavel (19 June 2011). "Nintendo May Fail to Replicate Wii Success as IPhone Games Bloom". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- Gallagher, Dan (21 June 2011). "Sony, Nintendo Place Big Bets on Handhelds". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- Agnello, Anthony John (9 February 2012). "Will Smart TVs End the Game Console Business?". InvestorPlace. Retrieved 2012-02-24.
- "PlayStation 2 manufacture ends after 12 years". The Guardian. 4 January 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- "PlayStation 2 manufacture ends after 12 years". The Guardian. January 4, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- App Annie, IDC. "App Annie & IDC Portable Gaming Report Q2 2013: iOS & Google Play Game Revenue 4x Higher Than Gaming-Optimized Handhelds".
- "Consolidated Sales Transition by Region" (PDF). Nintendo. 2013-07-30. Archived from the original on 2013-07-31. Retrieved 2013-07-31.
- "Apple Hardware Sales In FY 2012: 125.04M iPhones, 58.23M iPads, 18.1M Macs And 35.2M iPods". TechCrunch.
- Gorman, Michael (June 12, 2013). "AMD's Saeid Moshkelani on building custom silicon for PlayStation 4, Xbox One and Wii U". Engadget.
- "AMD won the next-gen console war, and PC gamers could reap the reward". The Verge.
- "Nvidia Interview: The Sky Isn’t Falling". PC PowerPlay.
- "Nevermind PS4 or Xbox, Ouya is the real next-gen console, argues Astrogun - interview - Astrogun news". PocketGamer.biz. 2012-07-19. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- Kubba, Sinan (2013-05-09). "Sony, Microsoft going 'heavily' on free-to-play next-gen, says Epic VP Rein". Joystiq. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- Langshaw, Mark; Reynolds, Matthew (January 13, 2013). "Can Android consoles Ouya, Project Shield challenge PlayStation, Xbox?". DigitalSpy.com. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Kelly, Tadhg (January 10, 2013). "With Ouya, GameStick, Steam Box and more, will 2013 be the year of the 'microconsole'?". Edge Online. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Pereira, Chris (January 15, 2013). "Digital and Nontraditional: Breaking Down Ouya, Steam Box, And Other New Wave Systems". 1up.com. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Radd, David. "Nintendo's Project Cafe: Will Gamers Feel The Buzz?". Business Insider. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- Brightman, James (26 May 2011). "PlayStation 4 in the Works, Sony Confirms". IndustryGamers Inc. Eurogamer Network Ltd. Archived from the original on 2012-10-30.
- Ewalt, David M. "PlayStation Chief Jack Tretton: How To Sell Vita, Navigate Clouds, and Debut The PS4". Forbes. Interview with Jack Tretton, president and CEO of Sony Computer Entertainment America.
- Brightman, James (7 March 2011). "Microsoft Hiring Engineers for Next Xbox". IndustryGamers Inc. Eurogamer Network Ltd. Archived from the original on 2012-10-30.
- Yoon, Andrew. "Microsoft: Xbox 360 'about halfway' through generation". Shacknews.com. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Robinson, Martin (4 June 2009). "E3 2009: 360 to Stick Around Until 2015 – Xbox360 News at IGN". Uk.xbox360.ign.com. Retrieved 2010-11-11. "The Xbox 360's recently unveiled motion control technology will help extend the console's life span into 2015, according to Microsoft executive Shane Kim."
- Yin-Poole, Wesley. "Nintendo: market is now waiting for new home consoles". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
- "Sony Rejects Web-Based PlayStation Console". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- 2014-04-30, It’s finally official: Xbox One to hit China in September, Tech in Asia
- "Ban on Video Game Consoles Tentatively Lifted in the Shanghai FTZ", China Briefing, Shanghai, 22 April 2014.
- 2010-07-15, Why Are Consoles Banned In China?, Kotaku
- 2014-05-26, ソニーが中国でプレステ販売へ、上海貿易試験区に合弁2社設立 (Sony to sell the PlayStation in China, establishes joint ventures with two companies in the Shanghai Free-trade Zone), Reuters Japan
- 2014-05-01, 上海自由貿易試験区、ゲーム機の製造・販売を正式に解禁 (中国) (The ban on production and sales of videogame consoles formally lifted in the Shanghai Free-trade Zone), Jetro
- "BesTV and Microsoft to bring Xbox One to China in September". Xbox Marketing, Microsoft. 2014-04-29. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
- 2014-05-26, Sony to sell PlayStation 4 console in China, CNET
- 2014-05-27, Sony Confirms PS4 is Heading to China, IGN
- 2013-09-12, Sony not planning to release PlayStation Vita TV in US or Europe 'at this point', Videogamer
- Ryan Fleming (16 November 2010). "Nintendo to talk next-gen consoles after selling 15 million more Wii systems". digitaltrends.com. Retrieved 2011-06-08.
- "Official Press Release From Nintendo Details The Wii U And Gives Information on New Titles". Gameon.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2012-10-30. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Saenz, Aaron (7 June 2011). "Nintendo’s New Wii U Wows at E3, and Changes Gaming Forever…Again". singularityhub.com. Retrieved 2011-06-08.
- Dickinson, Derek. "Nindendo Wii 2, Project Cafe: the Milestone of Next Generation". brothersoft.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-30. Retrieved 2011-06-08.
- Tassi, Paul (February 4, 2013). "EA CEO Doesn't Think Wii U is a 'Next Gen' Console". Forbes.com. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Leadbetter, Richard (February 5, 2013). "Wii U graphics power finally revealed". EuroGamer.net. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Hussain, Tamoor (August 28, 2013). "Wii U price cut in North America, Wind Waker HD hardware bundle announced". Retrieved October 15, 2013.
- Bishop, Bryan (February 20, 2013). "Sony announces the PlayStation 4". The Verge. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- Conditt, Jessica. "PS4 Eye has two cameras: One to watch you, one to make you pretty". Joystiq. Retrieved 2013-02-21.
- "Xbox One: a next-gen console with a focus on interactive TV and apps". The Verge. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- "Xbox One guide brings HDMI in/out, overlays for live TV". Engadget. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- "21 launch countries listed for Xbox One". Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- Makuch, Eddie (April 23, 2014). "box One hits Japan Sept. 4 -- Will it find success where Xbox 360 did not?". Gamespot. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
- "E3 2013: PlayStation 4 Launching for $399". IGN. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- Crossley, Rob (April 23, 2014). "PS4 Price Slashed to £290 Following Xbox One Discount". Gamespot. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
- Kumparak, Greg (2015-01-15). "Xbox one Goes Back Down To $349". Computer and Video Games. Retrieved 2015-01-27.
- Poeter, Damon (April 13, 2015). "Microsoft Slashes Xbox One Price in U.K.". PC Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
- "Consolidated Sales Transition by Region" (PDF). Nintendo. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- Sony (30 April 2015). "Consolidated Financial Results for the Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2015" (PDF). sony. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- Mehdi, Yusuf. "November: Xbox One Sales on the Rise". Microsoft. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "NINTENDO RECORDS FIRST ANNUAL PROFIT IN YEARS, NARROWLY MISSES SALES TARGET FOR WII U". IGN. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- Mehdi, Yusuf. "Thank You for an Epic 2013". http://news.xbox.com/. Xbox Wire. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "Nintendo Sold 24.4 Million Wii U Games in 2014, Mario Kart 8 Breaks 5 Million". Eurogamer. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- Spencer. 13 September 2012. 12:04am (13 September 2012). "Wii U Has 2GB of Man Memory, Discs Are 25GB". Siliconera. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "Spec Analysis: PlayStation 4". Eurogamer.net. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- Mudgal, Kartik (29 November 2012). "Wii U CPU and GPU Clock Speeds revealed, slower than PS3/360". GamingBolt.com. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
- Martin, Hector. "Console Hacking 2013: Omake". https://fail0verflow.com/. fail0verflow. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "AMD’s Jaguar Architecture: The CPU Powering Xbox One, PlayStation 4, Kabini & Temash". Anandtech.com. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "PlayStation 4 iFixit Teardown". Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- Soper, Taylor. "Xbox One now in full production with improved CPU performance". GeekWire. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "The Xbox One: Hardware Analysis & Comparison to PlayStation 4". Eurogamer.net. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- "AMD and Nintendo Join Forces in Creating A New Way to Enjoy Console Gaming Entertainment". Marketwire.com. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "AMD Wii U GPU". TechPowerUp. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "AMD Liverpool GPU". TechPowerUp. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
- "MNR 486: Marc Whitten updates us on the progress of Xbox One". Xbox Live's Major Nelson. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Demerjian, Charlie. "XBox One details in pictures". SemiAccurate. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- "Nintendo Wii U Teardown". AnandTech. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- Wii U Tech Specs. IGN. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
- WiiU "Latte" GPU Die Photo - GPU Feature Set And Power Analysis. NeoGAF (2013-06-17). Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- "Naughty Dog Explains PS4's CPU, Memory and More in Detail and How They Can Make it "Run Really Fast"". Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- "Xbox Hardware Evolution Chart". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- "Interview With Xbox One's Chief Product Officer Marc Whitten". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- Plunkett, Luke. "Specs Sheet Says The PS4 Has A 500GB Hard Drive, Camera Not Included". Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- Yoshida, Shuhei. "And yes, PS4's HDD is upgradable like PS3 <3". twitter.com. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- Stevens, Tim (2013-05-21). "Xbox One has non-replaceable hard drive, external storage is supported". Engadget.com. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "| Wii U Internal Storage Space Information". Nintendo.com. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Shuman, Sid (30 October 2013). "PS4: The Ultimate FAQ – North America". PlayStation Blog. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
- Karmali, Luke. "Xbox One June Update Bringing External Storage and Real Names". http://uk.ign.com/. IGN. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "PS4: The Ultimate FAQ – North America – PlayStation.Blog". Blog.us.playstation.com. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- Gurry, Lisa (2013-08-08). "Unboxing Xbox One". News.xbox.com. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- Brown, Peter (2013-09-19). "Microsoft on Xbox One vertical orientation: "Do it at your own risk"". GameSpot. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- Hachman, Mark (May 6, 2014). "Study: Xbox One, PS4 consume ridiculous amounts of unnecessary power". PC World. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- Olivarez-Giles, Nathan. "Future proofing: Xbox One to support 3D and 4K content". The Verge. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Navarro, Alex (7 July 2011). "Nintendo Begrudgingly Acknowledges Wii U 3D Support". Giantbomb.com. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "Updated Sony Confirms Vita Remote Play For PS4 Games Is (Mostly) Mandatory - News". www.GameInformer.com. 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- Gilbert, Ben (2013-06-13). "Sony's Shuhei Yoshida talks Remote Play ubiquity on PlayStation 4, not bundling the Eye with the console". Engadget.com. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- Orland, Kyle (January 21, 2015). "Windows 10 includes in-home game streaming from Xbox One". Ars Technica. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- "Xbox One iFixit Teardown". Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- Sakr, Sharif (2013-05-21). "Xbox One hardware and specs: 8-core CPU, 8GB RAM, 500GB hard drive and more". Engadget.com. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "Wii U GameCube controller adapter compatible with more than just Smash Bros.". Eurogamer. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- Vita as a PS4 Controller Clarified - IGN. Uk.ign.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- Jackson, Mike (2013-05-21). "Next-gen Xbox Live details: Background downloads, skill tracking, 1000 friends". Computerandvideogames.com. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- "PS4 online multiplayer gaming requires PlayStation Plus subscription". polygon.com. Polygon. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- PS4 online multiplayer requirements, support.us.playstation.com, November 3, 2014.
- Xbox One Can Capture Up to 5 Minutes of Gameplay, PS4 Can Store Up to 15. Gengame (2013-07-22). Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- "Wii U Will Be Region-Locked – IGN". Uk.ign.com. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Smith, Mat (2013-06-11). "The PS4 won't be region-locked". Engadget.com. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "Your Feedback Matters – Update on Xbox One". Xbox.com. June 19, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- Crecente, Brian (January 5, 2015). "PlayStation Now all-you-can-play subscriptions hit next week for $20 a month, $45 for three months". Polygon. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
- "Microsoft is bringing Xbox 360 games to the Xbox One". The Verge. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- "Xbox One will play Xbox 360 games, preview members can try it today". Engadget. AOL Inc. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- "Xbox 360 backward compatibility coming to Xbox One". Ars Technica. Conde Nast Digital. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- "Launch of New Portable Game Machine" (PDF) (Press release). Minami-ku, Kyoto: Nintendo. 23 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
- Tabuchi, Hiroko (23 March 2010). "Nintendo to Make 3-D Version of Its DSi Handheld Game". Retrieved 2010-04-24.
It takes place June 15~17, 2010, at the Los Angeles Convention Center.[dead link]
- Tabuchi, Hiroko (23 March 2010). "Nintendo to Make 3-D Version of Its DS Handheld Game". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2010-04-04.
'We wanted to give the gaming industry a head’s up about what to expect from Nintendo at E3,' said Ken Toyoda, chief spokesman at Nintendo. 'We'll invite people to play with the new device then.'
- Alexander, Leigh (15 January 2010). "Analyst: DS Successor To Hit In Next 15 Months?". Gamasutra. Think Services. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
In the year 2010, Nintendo's continuing face-off against the PSP seems less relevant than the overall sea change in the portable market brought about by the explosive iPhone.
- "Nintendo 3DS vs. PS Vita: Handheld Wars, The Next Generation". IndustryGamers Inc. Eurogamer Network Ltd. 16 September 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-04-29. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- "Nintendo's 3DS Hits the U.S. On March 27 for $249.99". Kotaku.
- "Nintendo's 3DS Hits Europe on March 25". Kotaku.
- "What Do You Think About Nintendo's Big 3DS Announcement?". IGN DS. IGN. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28.
In an astounding and unexpected set of announcements, Nintendo took a huge leap in righting the wrongs of the 3DS' shaky launch. The system, which released in the US on March 27 with a hefty $250-dollar price tag, will see a massive price cut to $170 come August 12.
- "NGP becomes PlayStation Vita". Eurogamer. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "TGS: Sony Reveals Vita's Release Date – PSP News at IGN". Psp.ign.com. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
- "PlayStation Vita Launches From 22 February 2012 – PlayStation.Blog.Europe". PlayStation Blog. Sony. 19 October 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "Get Ready: PS Vita is Coming February 22nd – PlayStation Blog". PlayStation Blog. Sony. 18 October 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- Cullen, Johnny (24 January 2011). "Sony outs tech specs for NGP". VG247. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
- Vlad Savov (27 January 2011). "Sony's next PSP, codenamed NGP". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- Sony (14 October 2011). "Sony US FAQ". Sony. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- Kat Bailey (14 October 2011). "No PS One Classics". Gamepro. Archived from the original on 1 December 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- Martin Robinson (2 June 2011). "NGP's backwards compatibility unveiled". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- Kaluszka, Aaron (19 January 2011). "3DS North American Price, Date, Colors Set". Nintendo World Report.
- $250 3DS launching March 27 GameSpot
- Nick Vuckovic (8 February 2011). "Nintendo 3DS launches in Australia on March 31st for $349". Vooks.net. Archived from the original on 2012-10-30. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
- "11 October 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2013". Au.playstation.com. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- Bob Munir (6 June 2011). "E3: Sony's PlayStation Vita due end of 2011 for $249". destructoid.com. Retrieved 2011-06-08.
- "3DS price cut 40% in Japan, now $169.99 in the U.S. – Video Games Reviews, Cheats". Geek.com. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-04.
- "An exciting message for people who own a Nintendo 3DS and those who want to". Nintendo.com. Retrieved 2011-08-04.
- Reilly, Luke (2013-08-20). "IGN. 2013-08-20. Retrieved 2013-08-22". Ign.com. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- Lester, Jonathan. "Dealspwn. 21 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013". Dealspwn.com. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- Stuart, Keith (January 4, 2013). "PlayStation 2 manufacture ends after 12 years". The Guardian. Retrieved January 11, 2014.
- "Nintendo Top Selling Software Sales - Units". Nintendo. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "Official PlayStation website: PlayStation Vita, PS Vita - Specifications for PlayStation®Vita". Retrieved 2011-03-07.
- Nintendo 3DS Official Site - System Specs
- "Sony outs tech specs for NGP". VG247. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-04.
- ""PlayStation®Vita" Expands Its Entertainment Experience by Introducing Various Applications for Social Networking Services and Communications". SYS-CON Media. 17 August 2011.
- "Nintendo 3DS can accept 128GB SDXC cards". Nintendo Everything. 28 August 2012.
- Nintendo 3DS – Hardware Specifications at Nintendo Nintendo
- Cullen, Johnny (24 January 2011). "Sony outs tech specs for NGP". VG247. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
- McFerran, Damien (12 October 2013). "Nintendo 2DS review". Eurogamer. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- Lowe, Scott (22 December 2011). "How Good is the PS Vita's Battery Life?". IGN. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- "Sony PS Vita Slim review - Pocket-lint". Retrieved 2014-08-19.
- Nintendo 3DS features Game Coins system aussie-nintendo
- DS games on 3DS – a few more details GoNintendo
- "Nintendo 3DS Region Locked – IGN". Uk.ign.com. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Pereira, Chris. "Vita is Not Region Locked, Says Sony Exec". 1up.com. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "ZTE FunBox SPECS & MANUALS". Video Game Console Library. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "中兴九城主机FunBox将发布". NetEase Inc. March 19, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "TCL游戏机今日开卖 售价699率先抢占国内市场". GamerSky.com. April 9, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "史上游戏最多的盒子「TIMEBOX」28日开售". Timebox.cn. 24 October 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-27.
- "TIMEBOX". Timebox.cn. Retrieved 2014-11-27.
- "金亚双系统电视游戏微主机G-BOX 耀世发布(图)". sohu.com. 14 November 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-28.
- "GEEYA / Jinya GBOX dual system console 3D game console wireless controller Micro Smart TV host". Geeya.cn. Retrieved 2014-11-27.
- "RAZER FORGE TV SPECIFICATIONS". Razer Inc. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
- "Shield The World's First Android TV Console". Nvidia Corp. Retrieved April 7, 2015.