History of whaling

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Whale-Fishing. Facsimile of a Woodcut in the "Cosmographie Universelle" of Thevet, in folio: Paris, 1574.
A Whale Brought alongside a Ship, by the Scottish John Heaviside Clark, 1814. Flensing is in process.
Photo of a working whaling station in Spitzbergen, Norway, 1907

This article discusses the history of whaling from prehistoric times up to the commencement of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) moratorium on commercial whaling in 1986.

Prehistoric to medieval times[edit]

18th-century Nootka whaler hat, Canada

Humans have engaged in whaling since prehistoric times. The earliest depictions of whaling have been discovered in Korea at the Neolithic Bangudae site, which may date back to 6000 BCE.[1] Bangudae is the earliest evidence for whaling.[2] Archaeological evidence acquired by the University of Alaska Fairbanks demonstrates whaling began at least circa 1000 BCE.[3] The oldest known method of catching cetaceans is dolphin drive hunting, in which a number of small boats are positioned between the animal and the open sea, after which the animals are herded towards shore in an attempt to beach them. This was — and still is — used for smaller species such as pilot whales, beluga whales, porpoises and narwhals. This technique is described in A Pattern of Islands, a memoir published by British administrator Arthur Grimble in 1952.

The next step was to employ a drogue (a semi-floating object) such as a wooden drum or an inflated sealskin which was tied to an arrow or a harpoon. Once the missile had been shot into a whale's body, the buoyancy and drag from the drogue would eventually cause the whale to fatigue, allowing it to be approached and killed. Several cultures around the world practiced whaling with drogues, including the Ainu, Inuit, Native Americans, and the Basque people of the Bay of Biscay. The Bangudae petroglyphs, an archaeological site in South Korea, suggests that drogues, harpoons and lines were being used to kill small whales as early as 6000 BCE.[4] Petroglyphs unearthed by researchers from Kyungpook National University show sperm whales, humpback whales and North Pacific right whales surrounded by boats. Similarly-aged cetacean bones were also found in the area, reflecting the importance of whales in the prehistoric diet of coastal people.

Whale bones recovered near the Strait of Gibraltar raised the possibility that whales were hunted in the Mediterranean Sea by ancient Rome[5][6]

Whaling on the Pacific Northwest Coast[edit]

Whaling on the Pacific Northwest Coast encompasses both aboriginal and commercial whaling along the coast from Washington State through British Columbia to Alaska. The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast have whaling traditions dating back millennia, and the hunting of cetaceans continues by Alaska Natives (mainly beluga and narwhal, but also the subsistence hunting of the bowhead whale) and to a lesser extent by the Makah people (gray whale).

In the twentieth century there was a commercial whaling industry, small by global standards, in British Columbia and southeast Alaska, as evidenced by place names such as Blubber Bay. When Coal Harbour closed its whaling station in the late 1960s, the industrial killing of whales in Pacific Canada was over. By that point, marine entrepreneurs had moved on to hunting orcas (killer whales) for live capture, to be displayed in aquaria. That lasted about a decade, till public pressure put an end to it in the mid 1970s.

As the twentieth century whaling stations existed in British Columbia and Alaska, they are covered in more detail in the articles Whaling in Canada and Whaling in the United States respectively. Some of the pre-contact hunting - and, for that matter, some of the orca captures too - took place across the waters of the two countries, hence this grouping of the two countries.

A description of the assistance that European technology brought to skilled indigenous whale hunters is given in the memoir of John R. Jewitt, an English blacksmith who spent three years as a captive of the Nuu-chah-nulth people from 1802-1805. Jewitt also mentions the importance of whale meat and oil to the diet. Whaling was integral to the cultures and economies of other indigenous people as well, notably the Makah and Klallam. For other groups, especially the Haida, whales appear prominently as totems.

Basque whaling, 1059-1756[edit]

The first mention of Basque whaling was made in 1059,[7] when it was said to have been practiced at the Basque town of Bayonne. The fishery spread to what is now the Spanish Basque Country in 1150, when King Sancho the Wise of Navarre granted petitions for the warehousing of such commodities as whalebone (baleen).[7] At first, they only hunted the whale they called sarda, or the North Atlantic right whale, using watchtowers (known as vigias) to look for their distinctive twin vapour spouts.

By the 14th century they were making "seasonal trips" to the English Channel and southern Ireland. The fishery spread to Terranova (Labrador and Newfoundland) in the second quarter of the 16th century,[8] and to Iceland at least by the early 17th century.[9] They established whaling stations at the former, mainly in Red Bay,[10] and probably established some in the latter as well. In Terranova they hunted bowheads and right whales, while in Iceland they appear to have only hunted the latter.

The fishery in Terranova declined for a variety of reasons. Principal among them the conflicts between Spain and other European powers during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, attacks by hostile Inuit, declining whale populations, and perhaps the opening up of the Spitsbergen fishery in 1611.

The first voyages to Spitsbergen by the English, Dutch, and Danish relied on Basque specialists, with the Basque provinces sending out their own whaler in 1612. The following season San Sebastián and Saint-Jean-de-Luz sent out a combined eleven or twelve whalers to the Spitsbergen fishery, but most were driven off by the Dutch and English.[11] Two more ships were sent by a merchant in San Sebastián in 1615, but both were driven away by the Dutch.

They continued whale fishing in Iceland and Spitsbergen at least into the 18th century, but Basque whaling in those regions appears to have ended with the commencement of the Seven Years' War (1756–63).[12]

Greenland whaling 1611-1915[edit]

Whaling, by Abraham Storck
Dangers of the Whale Fishery, by W. Scoresby, 1820
Whaling off the Coast of Spitsbergen, by Abraham Storck

Encouraged by reports of whales off the coast of Spitsbergen, Norway, in 1610, the English Muscovy Company (also known as the Russian Company) sent a whaling expedition there the following year. The expedition was a disaster, with both ships sent being lost. The crews returned to England in a ship from Hull.[13] The following year two more ships were sent. Other countries followed suit, with Amsterdam and San Sebastian each sending a ship north. The latter ship returned to Spain with a full cargo of oil. Such a fabulous return resulted in a fleet of whaleships being sent to Spitsbergen in 1613. The Muscovy Company sent seven, backed by a monopoly charter granted by King James I. They met with twenty other whaleships (eleven or twelve Basque, five French, and three Dutch), as well as a London interloper, which were either ordered away or forced to pay a fine of some sort.[14] The United Provinces, France, and Spain all protested against this treatment, but James I held fast to his claim of sovereignty over Spitsbergen.

The following three and a half decades witnessed numerous clashes between the various nations (as well as infighting among the English), often merely posturing, but sometimes resulting in bloodshed. This jealousy stemmed as much from the mechanics of early whaling as from straightforward international animosities. In the first years of the fishery England, France, the United Provinces and later Denmark-Norway shipped expert Basque whalemen for their expeditions. At the time Basque whaling relied on the utilization of stations ashore where blubber could be processed into oil. In order to allow a rapid transference of this technique to Spitsbergen, suitable anchorages had to be selected, of which there were only a limited number, in particular on the west coast of the island.[15]

Early in 1614 the Dutch formed the Noordsche Compagnie (Northern Company), a cartel composed of several independent chambers (each representing a particular port). The company sent fourteen ships supported by three or four men-of-war this year, while the English sent a fleet of thirteen ships and pinnaces. Equally matched, they agreed to split the coast between themselves, to the exclusion of third parties. The English received the four principal harbors in the middle of the west coast, while the Dutch could settle anywhere to the south or north. The agreement explicitly stated that it was only meant to last for this season.[16]

In 1615 the Dutch arrived with a fleet of eleven ships and three men-of-war under Adriaen Block, occupied Fairhaven, Bell Sound, and Horn Sound by force, and built the first permanent structure on Spitsbergen: a wooden hut to store their equipment in. The ten ships sent by the Muscovy Company were relegated to the south side of Fairhaven, Sir Thomas Smith's Bay, and Ice Sound.[17] The Danes meanwhile sent a fleet of five sail under Gabriel Kruse to demand a toll from the foreign whalers and in doing so assert Christian IV's claim of sovereignty over the region, but both the English and Dutch rebuffed his efforts—two ships from Bordeaux chartered by a merchant in San Sebastian were also sent away by the Dutch.[18] The following year, 1616, the English, with a fleet of ten ships, occupied all the major harbors, appropriated the Dutch hut, and made a rich haul, while the Dutch, preoccupied with Jan Mayen, only sent four ships to Spitsbergen, which "kept together in odd places... and made a poor voyage."[19]

In 1617 a ship from Vlissingen whaling in Horn Sound had its cargo seized by the English vice-admiral.[20] Angry, the following season the Dutch sent nearly two dozen ships to Spitsbergen. Five of the fleet attacked two English ships, killing three men in the process, and also burned down the English station in Horn Sound.[21] Negotiations between the two nations followed in 1619, with James I, while still claiming sovereignty, would not enforce it for the following three seasons.[22] When this concession expired, the English twice (in 1623[23] and 1624[24]) tried to expel the Dutch from Spitsbergen, failing both times.

In 1619 the Dutch and Danes, who had sent their first whaling expedition to Spitsbergen in 1617, firmly settled themselves on Amsterdam Island, a small island on the northwestern tip of Spitsbergen; while the English did the same in the fjords to the south. The Danish-Dutch settlement came to be called Smeerenburg, which would become the centre of operations for the latter in the first decades of the fishery. Numerous place names attest to the various nations' presence, including Copenhagen Bay (Kobbefjorden) and Danes Island (Danskøya), where the Danes established a station from 1631–58; Port Louis or Refuge Français (Hamburgbukta), where the French had a station from 1633–38, until they were driven away by the Danes (see below); and finally English Bay (Engelskbukta), as well as the number of features named by English whalemen and explorers—for example, Isfjorden, Bellsund, and Hornsund, to name a few.

Hostilities continued after 1619. In 1626 nine ships from Hull and York destroyed the Muscovy Company's fort and station in Bell Sound, and sailed to their own in Midterhukhamna.[25] Here they were found by the heavily armed flagship of the London whaling fleet; a two-hour battle ensued, resulting in defeat for the Hull and York fleet and their expulsion from Spitsbergen.[26] In 1630 both the ships of Hull and Great Yarmouth, who had recently joined the trade, were driven away clean (empty) by the ships from London. From 1631-33 the Danes, French, and Dutch quarreled with each other, resulting in the expulsion of the Danes from Smeerenburg and the French from Copenhagen Bay. In 1634 the Dutch burned down one of the Danes' huts.[27] There were also two battles this season, one between the English and French (the latter won)[28] and the other between London and Yarmouth (the latter won, as well).[29] In 1637[30] and again in 1638 the Danes drove the French out of Port Louis and seized their cargoes. In the former year they also seized a French ship in the open sea and detained it in Copenhagen Bay,[31] while in the latter year they also held two Dutch ships captive in the same bay for over a month, which led to protests from the Dutch.[32] Following the events of 1638 hostilities for the most part ceased, with the exception of a few minor incidents in the 1640s between the French and Danes, as well as between Copenhagen and Hamburg and London and Yarmouth, respectively.

The species hunted was the bowhead whale, a baleen whale that yielded large quantities of oil and baleen. The whales entered the fjords in the spring following the breakup of the ice. They were spotted by the whalemen from suitable vantage points, and pursued by shallops, chaloupes or chalupas, which were manned by six men. (These terms derive from the Basque word "txalupa", used to name the whaling boats that were widely utilized during the golden era of Basque whaling in Labrador in the 16th century.) The whale was harpooned and lanced to death and either towed to the stern of the ship or to the shore at low tide, where men with long knives would flense (cut up) the blubber. The blubber was boiled in large copper kettles and cooled in large wooden vessels, after which it was funneled into casks. The stations at first only consisted of tents of sail and crude furnaces, but were soon replaced by more permanent structures of wood and brick, such as Smeerenburg for the Dutch, Lægerneset for the English, and Copenhagen Bay for the Danes.

Beginning in the 1630s, for the Dutch at least, whaling expanded into the open sea. Gradually whaling in the open sea and along the ice floes to the west of Spitsbergen replaced bay whaling. At first the blubber was tried out at the end of the season at Smeerenburg or elsewhere along the coast, but after mid-century the stations were abandoned entirely in favor of processing the blubber upon the return of the ship to port. The English meanwhile stuck resolutely to bay whaling, and didn't make the transfer to pelagic (offshore) whaling until long after.

Early 18th century gravestone of whaling captain Matthias Petersen on the island of Föhr

In 1719, the Dutch began "regular and intensive whaling" in the Davis Strait.[33] Nevertheless, encouraged by import duty exemptions, the South Sea Company financed 172 unprofitable whaling voyages from London's Howland Dock between 1725-32. In 1733 the Government introduced a 'bounty' of £1.00 per ship ton, increasing to £2.00 per ton in 1749. These subsidies along with high oil and whalebone prices encouraged expansion. London sent out six whalers in 1749; 45 in 1777 and 91 in 1788. However, reductions in the bounty, and wars with America and France saw London's Greenland fleet fall to 19 in 1796.

During the 17th and 18th century the people from the North Frisian Islands enjoyed a reputation of being very skilled mariners, and most Dutch and English whaling ships bound for Greenland and Svalbard would have a crew of North Frisian islanders.[34] The German island Föhr was known as a stronghold of whaling personnel. Around the year 1700, Föhr had a total population of roughly 6,000, 1,600 of whom were whalers.[34] At the height of Dutch whaling in the year 1762, 1,186 seamen from Föhr were serving on Dutch whaling vessels alone and 25% of all shipmasters on Dutch whaling vessels were people from Föhr.[35] Another example is the London-based South Sea Company whose commanding officers and harpooners were exclusively from Föhr.[34] Also Sylt island just north of Föhr and Borkum in East Frisia were notable homes of whaling personnel.[36]

The British would continue to send out whalers to the Arctic fishery into the 20th century, sending their last on the eve of the First World War.

Japanese open-boat whaling 600-1853[edit]

Whaling Scene on the Coast of Gotō, an ukiyo-e print by Hokusai, c. 1830

The oldest written mention of whaling in Japanese records is from Kojiki, the oldest Japanese historical book written in the 7th century ce. In this book, whale meat was eaten by Emperor Jimmu. In Man'yōshū, the oldest anthology of poems in the 8th century, the word "Whaling" (いさなとり) was frequently used in depicting the ocean or beaches.

One of the first records of whaling by the use of harpoons are from the 1570s at Morosaki, a bay attached to Ise Bay. This method of whaling, known as the harpoon method (tsukitori-ho) spread to Kii (before 1606), Shikoku (1624), northern Kyushu (1630s), and Nagato (around 1672).

Kakuemon Wada, later known as Kakuemon Taiji, was said to have invented net whaling, or the net method (amitori-ho) sometime between 1675 and 1677. This method soon spread to Shikoku (1681) and northern Kyushu (1684)

Using the techniques developed by Taiji, the Japanese mainly hunted four species of whale, the North Pacific right (Semi-Kujira), the humpback (Zato-Kujira), the fin (Nagasu-Kujira), and the gray whale (Ko-Kujira or Koku-Kujira). They also caught the occasional blue (Shiro Nagasu-Kujira), sperm (Makko-Kujira), or sei/Bryde's whale (Iwashi-Kujira).

Whaling has been frequently mentioned in Japanese historical texts.[37]

  • Whaling history (鯨史稿), Seijun Ohtsuki, 1808.[38]
  • Whaling Picture Scroll (鯨絵巻), Jinemon Ikushima, 1665.[39]
  • Whale Hunt Picture Scroll (捕鯨絵巻), Eikin Hangaya, 1666.[40]
  • Ogawajima Whaling Wars (小川島鯨鯢合戦), Unknown, 1667.[41]

In 1853, the US naval officer Matthew Perry forced open Japan's doors to the world. One of the purposes of this was to gain access to ports for the American whaling fleet in the north-west Pacific Ocean. The traditional whaling was eventually replaced in the late 19th century and early 20th century with modern methods.

Yankee whaling 1690-1915[edit]

Whale Fishery -- Attacking a Right Whale, New England whaling ca. 1860
Assortment of whaling harpoons, 1887
Matthew Fontaine Maury (U.S.N.) Whale Chart-1851

Beginning in the late colonial period, the United States, with a strong seafaring tradition in New England, an advanced shipbuilding industry, and access to the oceans grew to become the pre-eminent whaling nation in the world by the 1830s.

American whaling's origins were in New York and New England, including Cape Cod, Massachusetts and nearby cities. The oil was in demand chiefly for lamps. Hunters in small watercraft pursued right whales from shore. By the 18th century, whaling in Nantucket had become a highly lucrative deep-sea industry, with voyages extending for years at a time and with vessels traveling as far as South Pacific waters. During the American Revolution, the British navy targeted American whaling ships as legitimate prizes, while in turn many whalers fitted out as privateers against the British. Whaling recovered after the war ended in 1783 and the industry began to prosper, using bases at Nantucket and then New Bedford. Whalers took greater economic risks to turn major profits: expanding their hunting grounds and securing foreign and domestic workforces for the Pacific. Investment decisions and financing arrangements were set up so that managers of whaling ventures shared their risks by selling some equity claims but retained a substantial portion due to moral hazard considerations. As a result, they had little incentive to consider the correlation between their own returns and those of others in planning their voyages. This stifled diversity in whaling voyages and increased industry-wide risk.[42]

Ten thousand seamen manned the ships. More than three thousand African American seamen shipped out on whaleships from New Bedford between 1800 and 1860, about 20% of the entire whaling force.[43] In port the most successful of the whaling merchants was Jonathan Bourne, who opened offices in New Bedford in 1848. Chandlery shops and storage rooms for whaling outfits occupied the first floor. Lofts and rigging lofts occupied the upper stories; the counting-rooms were on the second floor, with counters and iron railings fencing off the tall mahogany desks at which the bookkeepers stood up, or sat on high stools; about the walls were models of whaleships and whaling prints.

Early whaling efforts were concentrated on right whales and humpbacks, which were found near the American coast. As these populations declined and the market for whale products (especially whale oil) grew, American whalers began hunting the sperm whale. The sperm whale was particularly prized for the reservoir of spermaceti (a dense waxy substance that burns with an exceedingly bright flame) housed in the spermaceti organ, located forward and above the skull. Hunting for the sperm whale forced whalers to sail farther from home in search of their quarry, eventually covering the globe.

Whale oil was vital in illuminating homes and businesses throughout the world in the 19th century, and served as a dependable lubricant for the machines powering the Industrial Revolution. Baleen (the long keratin strips that hang from the top of whales' mouths) was used by manufacturers in the United States and Europe to make consumer goods such as buggy whips, fishing poles, corset stays and dress hoops.

New England ships began to explore and hunt in the southern oceans after being driven out of the North Atlantic by British competition and import duties. Ultimately, American entrepreneurs created a mid-19th-century version of a global economic enterprise. This was the golden age of American whaling.

An early winter in the North Pacific in September 1871 forced the captains of an American whaling fleet in the Arctic to abandon their ships, in what became known as the Whaling Disaster of 1871. With 32 vessels trapped in the ice and provisions insufficient to weather the nine-month winter, the captains ordered the abandonment of the ships and the three million dollars' worth of property carried on board but in the process saved the lives of over 1,200 men, women, and children.[44]

From the Civil War, when Confederate raiders targeted American whalers, through the early 20th century, the American whaling industry was overwhelmed by new, crippling economic competition, especially from kerosene, which was a superior fuel for lighting. New Bedford, once the fourth busiest port in the United States, gave up whaling.[45]

Localities[edit]

The Whale and Its Products, circa 1900

Whaling became important for a number of New England towns, particularly Nantucket and New Bedford. Vast fortunes were made, and culture of these communities was greatly affected; the results can be seen today in the buildings surviving from the era.

Nantucket joined in on the trade in 1690 when they sent for one Ichabod Paddock to instruct them in the methods of whaling.[46] The south side of the island was divided into three and a half mile sections, each one with a mast erected to look for the spouts of right whales. Each section had a temporary hut for the five men assigned to that area, with a sixth man standing watch at the mast. Once a whale was sighted, rowing boats were sent from the shore, and if the whale was successfully harpooned and lanced to death, it was towed ashore, flensed (that is, its blubber was cut off), and the blubber boiled in cauldrons known as "trypots." Even when Nantucket sent out vessels to fish for whales offshore, they would still come to the shore to boil the blubber, doing this well into the 18th century.

New Bedford whaling was established when prominent Nantucket whaling families relocated their operations near the Acushnet River and then New Bedford to avoid economic strangulation due to the Revolution and Boston/Newport entities that controlled the market for the whale oil once harvested. This relocation would begin New Bedford's ascension to American whaling dominance.

Larger cultural influence is evidenced by former whaler Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick,[47] which is often cited as the Great American Novel. Currently, the town of New Bedford is experiencing a revival since the 1996 establishment of the New Bedford Whaling National Historic Site.[48] This site, along with the Whaling Museum, capitalizes on the rich culture of whaling and the immigrant and free black populations that made up the "City that Lit the World." In 1877, John Nelson Fletcher, a pyrotechnist, and the former Confederate soldier from North Carolina, Robert L. Suits, modified Roys's rocket, marketing it as the "California Whaling Rocket". They used the small five in a half ton steam launch Rocket of San Francisco in 1878, killing 35 humpback, fin, and blue whales with their rocket outside the harbour and north to Point Reyes.[49]

In 1880, Thomas P. H. Whitelaw fitted out the 44-ton steamer Daisy Whitelaw of San Francisco. With the California Whaling Rocket she "very successfully" hunted fin whales though the Farallon Islands to Drakes Bay.[50] That same year, some of the rockets were purchased by the Northwest Whaling Company, or Northwest Trading Company, of Killisnoo Island, on the west coast of Admiralty Island, Southeast Alaska. They hunted fins and humpbacks, firing rockets from the deck of the company's small steamer Favorite, as well as from whaleboats. They established a whaling and trading station on Killisnoo Island, giving a few jobs at the whale processing plant to both Killisnoo and Angoon residents. After a few years of whaling, the station was turned into a herring processing plant, going out of business in 1885.

In the late 1870s schooners began hunting humpbacks in the Gulf of Maine. In 1880, with the decline of the menhaden fishery, steamers began to switch to hunting fin and humpback whales using bomb lances in what has been called a "shoot-and-salvage" fishery because of the high-rate of loss due to whales sinking, lines breaking, etc. The first was the steamer Mabel Bird, which towed whale carcasses to an oil processing plant at the head of Linekin Bay in Boothbay Harbor. Soon there were five such factories in Boothbay Harbour processing whales. At its height in 1885 four or five steamers were engaged in the Menhaden whale fishery, but it dwindled to one by the end of the decade. Fin whales accounted for about half the catch, with over 100 whales being killed in some years. The fishery ended in the late 1890s.

Explosive technology[edit]

By the 1850s, the Euro-American whalemen made a serious attempt at catching such rorquals as the blue whale and fin whale. Thomas Welcome Roys gradually developed explosive lances shot from a cannon.

Roys found imitators in Iceland, in the form of the Danish naval officer Cap. Otto C. Hammer and the Dutchman Cap. C. J. Bottemanne. The former formed the Danish Fishing Company in 1865, and wound up operations in 1871; while the latter formed the Netherlands Whaling Company in 1869, closing down operations a year after Hammer.[51]

In 1868 James Dawson, a Victorian emigrant from Clackmannanshire, Scotland, caught eight whales using bomb lances in British Columbia, despite thick fog.[52]

Britain 1611-1960[edit]

A View of Whale Fishery, 1790, from Captain Cook's voyages

Britain's involvement in whaling extended from 1611 to the 1960s and had three phases. The Northern (or Arctic) whale fishery lasted from 1611 to 1914 and involved whaling primarily off Greenland, and particularly Davis Strait. The Southern (or south Seas) whale fishery was active from 1775 to 1859 and involved whale hunting first to the South Atlantic, then the Indian and Pacific Oceans. British law defined and differentiated the two trades. Modern British involvement in whaling extended from 1904 to 1963. Each of these three trades involved different species of whales as the targets, and hence the methods used and even the design of the whalers.[53]

Northern whale fishery[edit]

Since 1753 whalers from Whitby had been whaling in Davis Strait, though by the 1830s the business had almost died out. In 1832 Phoenix was the sole vessel to go out, and she returned with 234 tons of oil (195 Imperial measure), the largest amount ever to have been brought back. The Chapmans therefore sent out Camden in 1833, as well as Phoenix.[54] Both vessels were successful in volume terms: Phoenix returned with 227 tons, and Camden returned with 230 tons.[55] However, whaling became unprofitable as the price of whale oil had fallen. Between 1833 and 1837 it varied between £23 and over £50 per ton. Whalebone prices varied between £30 and £150 per ton. Phoenix and Camden left in 1837, but Phoenix grounded on her way out and came back to port. Camden's voyage proved a failure. The Chapmans withdrew both ships from whaling, and with that whaling from Whitby ended.[55][56]

Southern whale fishery[edit]

Samuel Enderby, along with Alexander Champion and John St Barbe, using American vessels and crews, fitted out twelve whaleships for the southern fishery in 1776. More were sent in 1777 and 1778 before political and economic troubles hampered the trade for some time.[57] In 1786, Alexander Champion, with his brother Benjamin, sent the first British whaler east of the Cape of Good Hope. She was the Triumph, Daniel Coffin, master.

On 1 September 1788, the whaler Emilia, owned by Samuel Enderby & Sons and commanded by Captain James Shields, departed London. The ship went west around Cape Horn into the Pacific Ocean to become the first ship of any nation to conduct whaling operations in the Southern Ocean. A crewman, Archelus Hammond of Nantucket, killed the first sperm whale there off the coast of Chile on 3 March 1789. Emilia returned to London on 12 March 1790 with a cargo of 139 tons of whale oil.[58] The Enderby ship Friendship captained by Thomas Melvill was second collecting the 600 pounds.

In 1784 the British had fifteen whaleships in the southern fishery, all from London. By 1790 this port alone had sixty vessels employed in the trade. Between 1793 and 1799 there was an average of sixty vessels in the trade. The average increased to seventy-two in the years between 1800 and 1809.[59] The first sperm whale off the coast of New South Wales, Australia, was taken by the ship Britannia (Commander Thomas Melvill) in October 1791.[60]

In 1819 the British whaler Syren, under Frederick Coffin of Nantucket, sailed to the coastal waters of Japan, where she began whaling on 5 April 1820. She returned to London on 21 April 1822 with 346 tons of whale oil. The following year at least nine British whalers were cruising on this ground, and by 1825 the British had twenty-four vessels there.[61]

Despite this discovery, the number of vessels being fitted out annually for the southern fishery declined from sixty-eight in 1820 to thirty-one in 1824. In 1825 there were ninety ships in the southern fishery, but by 1835 it had dwindled to sixty-one.

Fewer and fewer vessels were being fitted out, so that by 1843 only nine vessels were clearing for the southern fishery. In 1859 the last cargoes of whale oil from British vessels were landed in London.

British whaling in the Antarctic[edit]

The shore stations on the island of South Georgia were at the center of the Antarctic whaling industry, from its beginnings in 1904 until the late 1920s when pelagic whaling increased. The activity on the island remained substantial until around 1960, when Norwegian-British Antarctic whaling came to an end.[62]

France 1786-1868[edit]

Having failed in an attempt to establish a colony of Nantucket whalemen in England, William Rotch, Sr. went to France in 1786 and was able to establish his colony in Dunkirk. The first two vessels to be fitted out were the Canton and the Mary. By 1789 Dunkirk had fourteen vessels in the trade sailing to Brazil, Walvis Bay, and other areas of the South Atlantic to hunt sperm and right whales. Just a year later Rotch sent the first French whalers into the Pacific.

There were twenty-four vessels sailing out of France for the southern fishery by 1791, but the majority of these ships were lost during the Anglo-French War that broke out two years later. Rotch fled France, keeping subordinates there should war tensions ease and allow them to fit out ships for the southern fishery again.

The trade began to revive after hostilities, but when Napoleon came to power Rotch's holdings in Dunkirk were seized. After the Napoleonic Wars the government issued subsidies in an attempt to revive the trade once more, but it wasn't until 1832, with a further increase in bounties, that several whalers were sent by C. A. Gaudin on sperm whaling voyages.

In 1835 the first French whaleship, the Gange (573 tons), Narcisse Chaudiere, master, reached the Gulf of Alaska and discovered an abundance of right whales. Within a decade a large number of American and French vessels would be cruising on this ground. The following year, 1836, the first French whaler had reached New Zealand, but by the 1840s, with the decline of bay whaling, very few French vessels would make their way here.

In 1851 a law was passed to encourage the trade, at which point the French had seventeen vessels employed in it. It wasn't successful. The last whalers returned in 1868.

Scandinavian whaling[edit]

At first slow whales were caught by men hurling harpoons from small open boats. Early harpoon guns were unsuccessful until Norwegian Svend Foyn invented a new, improved version in 1863 that used a harpoon with a flexible joint between the head and shaft. Norway invented many new techniques and disseminated them worldwide. Cannon-fired harpoons, strong cables, and steam winches were mounted on maneuverable, steam-powered catcher boats. They made possible the targeting of large and fast-swimming whale species that were taken to shore-based stations for processing. Breech-loading cannons were introduced in 1925; pistons were introduced in 1947 to reduce recoil. These highly efficient devices were too successful, for they reduced whale populations to the point where large-scale commercial whaling became unsustainable.

Before Svend Foyn launched the industry into the modern era, there were the Norwegians Jacob Nicolai Walsøe and Arent Christian Dahl. The former was probably the first person to suggest mounting a harpoon gun in the bows of a steamship, while the latter experimented with an explosive harpoon in Varanger Fjord (1857–1860). While they were the first in their class, it was Foyn who successfully adopted these ideas and put them into practice. In 1864, his methods, through trial and error, would lead to the development of the modern whaling trade.

During the 1930s, as German whaling in the Antarctic was coming about, the Nazis maintained that a gunsmith from Bremerhaven, H. G. Cordes, was responsible for Foyn's invention, and should thus receive credit for having brought whaling into the modern era. Foyn had indeed ordered material from Cordes, but he had found it unserviceable, and only experimented with his gun for a season. Cordes, working with John P. Rechten of Bremen, had developed an improved version of the Greener gun in 1856. They made a second version of this swivel gun with two barrels, side by side, with the left barrel shooting a harpoon and the right a bomb lance. Their invention was successfully experimented with in the North Sea in 1867. With this success, Rechten attempted to introduce this idea on the American market two years later, but it isn't known as to whether he succeeded or not.

Finnmark 1864-1904[edit]

In February 1864, the Norwegian Svend Foyn set sail from Tønsberg, south of Oslo, in the schooner-rigged, steam-driven whale catcher Spes et Fides (Hope & Faith) on a voyage north to Finnmark to hunt rorquals such as the blue and fin whale. He had her fitted out like a minor man-of-war, with seven guns on her forecastle, each firing a harpoon and grenade separately. Several whales were seen, but only four were captured.[63]

He tried again in 1866 and 1867, but he could not catch a single whale in the former season and only caught one whale the latter, while two others were killed but lost. Experimenting with a harpoon gun that fired a grenade and harpoon at the same time, Foyn was able to catch thirty whales in 1868.[64] He patented his grenade-tipped harpoon gun two years later.

Foyn was given a virtual monopoly on the trade in Finnmark in 1873, which lasted until 1882.[65] Despite this, local citizens established a whaling company in 1876, and soon others defied his monopoly and formed companies.

With the commencement of unrestricted catching in 1883, the number of whaling stations increased from eight to sixteen, and the number of whale catchers from twelve to twenty-three.[66] Catching material peaked in 1886–88 with an average of about thirty-one catchers operating each season, while peak catching was not reached until 1892–93 and 1896–98, when between 1,000 and 1,200 whales were caught each year.

Only half the number of whales were taken in 1899, and catching continued to decline until 1902, when it improved somewhat. By this time most of the catching was done far from the coast. The last station closed down in 1904.

Iceland 1883-1975[edit]

In 1883 the first whaling station was established in Alptafjordur, Iceland. In the first season, using an 84 gross ton whale catcher, only eight whales were caught, but in the following season (1884) twenty-five were caught, all of which were blue whales, with the exception of two.[67]

In 1889 another station was established. Between 1890 and 1894 three more companies, all Norwegian, established themselves in Iceland. Seeing the success of these companies, another five established whaling stations on the island between 1896 and 1903. Catching peaked in 1902, when 1,305 whales were caught to produce 40,000 barrels of oil. By 1907, only 268 whales were caught, and by 1910 the score stood at a mere 170.

A ban on whaling was imposed by the Althing in 1915. It was not until 1935 that an Icelandic company established another whaling station. It shut down after only five seasons. In 1948, another Icelandic company, Hvalur H/F, purchased a naval base at the head of Hvalfjordur and converted it into a whaling station. Between 1948 and 1975, an average of 250 Fin, 65 Sei, and 78 sperm whales were taken annually, as well as a few blue and humpback whales. Unlike the majority of commercial whaling at the time, this operation was based on the sale of frozen meat and meat meal, rather than on oil. Most of the meat was exported to England, while the meal was sold locally as cattle feed.[68]

Faroe Islands 1894-1984[edit]

The Whaling Station Við Áir on Streymoy, Faroe Islands, is the only Norwegian built whaling station in the northern hemisphere still standing. It is being renovated into a museum.

During the early 1900s there were 7 whaling stations in the Faroe Islands, they are listed below.

The Norwegian Hans Albert Grøn from Sandefjord, established the first whaling station in the Faroe Islands in 1894 at Gjánoyri on Streymoy,[69] situated in the sound between the islands of Streymoy and Eysturoy.

In 1898 Andorsen & Neumann established a whaling station in the village of Norðdepil on Borðoy in the Northern Islands (Norðoyar). In the following year P. Michelsen from Sandefjord took over. The whaling station in Norðdepil closed down in 1920.

In 1901 Peter O. Bogen set up a whaling station in Lopra on the island of Suðuroy together with H.G. Thomsen and P. Mortensen. Later there were Faroese owners. The whaling station in Lopra closed down in 1953.

A joint Danish-Norwegian concern. C. Evesen opened a whaling station in Funningsfjørður on Eysturoy in 1901.[70]

In 1902 O. Finsen, A. Benzon and F. Børgesen opened a whaling station in Signabøur on Streymoy. It was operated until 1912.

In 1902 Michelsen from Norway built a whaling station in the unpopulated bay of Selvík. The whaling station was in operation until 1912.

Við Áir whaling station was built in 1905 and was the last whaling station in operation. It closed down in 1984. The buildings and the equipment are still there. In the autumn of 2006 the Minister of Culture, Jógvan á Lakjuni, appointed a committee to consider the conservation of the whaling station við Áir. It was charged with submitting a report to the Minister in spring 2007. In May 2007 The Faroese Ministry of Culture (Mentamálaráðið) published a Provisional report on the conservation of the whaling station as a maritime museum - The Whaling Station við Áir. In the report the committee recommends, that "Considering its importance as an element of Faroese and even international 20th century industrial and maritime history, the Whaling Station við Áir should be conserved." Furthermore, they recommend that the whaling station will be made into a maritime museum with activities for the visitors.[71]

Peak catching was reached in 1909, when 773 whales were caught to produce 13,850 barrels of oil. By 1913 the production of oil had dropped to 3,515 barrels. In 1917, with the war and poor catches, whaling was suspended from the islands. Throughout the whole period of commercial whaling, the islanders' main interest was in getting cheap meat, while 90% of the proceeds from the oil went abroad, mostly to Norway.[72] Four companies resumed catching in 1920. The results were disappointing; with only one Norwegian company staying at the islands as late as 1930. From 1933 the two remaining whaling stations in Lopra and Við Áir were taken over by Faroese owners. The whaling station Við Áir stayed open until 1984 with some activity.[73] From 1977 to 1984 the whaling station Við Áir was owned by the Faroese government.

Spitsbergen 1903-1927[edit]

In 1903, the Norwegian Christen Christensen sent the first factory ship, the wooden steamship Telegraf (737 gross tons), to Spitsbergen. She returned to Sandefjord in September with 1,960 barrels of oil produced from a catch of fifty-seven whales—of which forty-two were blue whales.[74]

He sent a larger ship, the 1,517 gross ton Admiralen, to Spitsbergen the following season (1904). She returned with a cargo of 5,100 barrels from 154 whales. By 1905 there were eight companies operating around Spitsbergen and Bear Island, while seven (using fifteen whale catchers) were there in 1906–07. The peak had been reached in 1905, when 559 whales (337 blue) were caught to produce 18,660 barrels. Only a quarter of this was produced in 1908. Two companies left in 1907, and another two the following year.

As the three companies remaining produced a dismal amount of oil in 1912, they decided to suspend operations. Two unsuccessful attempts were made in 1920 and 1926–27 to revive catching in Spitsbergen waters—since that time only northern bottlenose and minke whales have been hunted there by converted Norwegian fishing boats.

Twentieth century[edit]

Whales caught, by year and country

By 1900, bowhead, gray, northern humpback and right whales were nearly extinct, and whaling had declined. It revived with the invention of harpoons shot from cannons, explosive tips and factory ships, which allowed distant whaling. Whaling expanded in the northern hemisphere, then in the southern hemisphere. Whaling targeted a series of species, moving on to the next when each species was reduced to the point it was hard to find: blue whales, fin whales, sperm whales, sei whales, minke whales.[75]

The League of Nations proposed a conference on whaling in 1927, and in 1931 27 countries signed a Convention for the regulation of whaling, without teeth. 43,000 whales were caught in 1931, considered a record. In 1932 whaling companies formed a cartel, which cut harvests for two years, but then failed. A 1937 convention agreed to shorter seasons and to stop killing bowhead, gray and right whales, and whales under a minimum size. Ships killed faster to harvest as many as possible in the shorter season.[76]

In 1946 15 whaling nations formed the International Whaling Commission, though its membership was also open to non-whaling nations. It has no enforcement ability. It prohibited killing gray, humpback and right whales, limited hunting seasons, and set an Antarctic limit of 16,000 "Blue Whale Units" per year. From 1949-1952 over 2,000 humpbacks per year were harvested in the Antarctic, despite an annual quota of 1,250. From 1959-1964 there were disagreements over a moratorium on blues and humpbacks, with scientific advice eventually recommending a limit of 2,800 blue whale units, but the IWC adopted quotas of 8,000. In 1970 the United States prohibited import of whale products by adding all commercial whales to its Endangered Species List.[76]

Proposals for 10-year moratoria were rejected in 1971, 1972 and 1974, but species quotas were adopted and reduced. Consumer boycotts of Japanese and Russian products began in 1974, because they were the most active hunters of large whales. In 1978 the IWC called for an end to international trade in whale products. In 1982 the IWC adopted a ban on commercial whaling, to start in 1986. Japan, Norway and the USSR filed objections so the moratorium would not apply to them. Chile and Peru did too, but Peru later agreed to be covered, and Chile stopped whaling.[76]

No international quotas were ever put on beluga whales and narwhals; 1,000 to 2,000 of each have been killed each year to the present, mostly in Alaska, Canada and Greenland.[77][78]

Catches by country and year[edit]

Sources: IWC Summary Catch Database version 6.1, July 2016,[79] which includes great whales, orcas (mostly caught by Norway and USSR), bottlenose whales (mostly Norway), pilot whales (mostly Norway in that database), and Baird's Beaked Whales (mostly Japan). This database also has some pre-1900 counts, not shown here, especially for the US back to 1848, and for Norway back to 1864, and partial pre-1900 data for other countries.

The IWC database is supplemented by Faroese catches of pilot whales,[80] Greenland's and Canada's catches of Narwhals (data 1954-2014),[77] Belugas from multiple sources shown in the Beluga whale article, Indonesia's catches of sperm whales,[81][82] bycatch in Japan 1980-2008,[83] [84] [85] and bycatch in Korea 1996-2017.[83] [86] The IWC database includes illegal whaling from USSR and Korea.[79] This is supplemented by academic findings on Korea for 1999-2003.[87] [88]

Note that most species of dolphins are omitted. Otherwise the main areas of missing data are: bycatch in other countries (generally much smaller), narwhals before 1954; belugas in Canada and USA before 1970, and in Nunavut (Canada) for all years; belugas in USSR in Bering, East Siberian and Laptev Seas and Sea of Okhotsk outside Amur River area.

Year Total Norway Russia /USSR Japan United Kingdom South Africa Faroe Islands Greenland Canada Peru Argentina USA Chile Australia Panama Netherlands Germany France Portugal Iceland Brazil South Korea Spain New Zealand Bahamas China Denmark St.Vincent+ Grenadines Indonesia Ecuador Unknown Philippines Tonga Bermuda
Total 3,324,190 796,889 633,322 615,890 322,758 169,388 141,647 107,126 83,406 56,349 51,438 50,031 47,069 39,361 30,982 27,800 12,451 8,960 29,925 23,479 22,609 21,803 12,705 5,924 4,270 3,269 1,924 507 416 371 1,910 96 114 1
2017 1,203 1,203 71
2016 698 295 246 157 96
2015 3,094 660 125 520 508 314 388 375 184 103 1 3
2014 3,686 736 177 196 48 885 1,062 399 161 67 2 20
2013 4,807 594 181 475 1,104 887 937 424 169 70 4 20
2012 3,927 464 217 424 713 772 830 429 52 79 2 20
2011 3,952 533 193 540 726 683 837 339 58 75 2 20
2010 4,402 468 180 445 1,107 726 844 389 208 85 3 20
2009 4,096 484 170 825 310 981 792 291 206 97 1 20
2008 3,813 536 187 1,138 939 777 304 38 86 2 20
2007 4,594 597 161 1068 633 763 781 640 45 102 1 39
2006 4,442 545 187 991 856 703 946 265 68 82 1 3
2005 4,476 639 187 1,365 302 911 797 350 39 110 2 3
2004 4,573 544 167 868 1,010 886 897 278 25 77 3
2003 4,866 647 187 841 503 1,390 1,098 292 37 165 1 2
2002 4,813 634 174 804 626 1,360 914 412 165 2 2
2001 5,141 552 165 711 918 1,365 1,036 491 165 2
2000 4,856 487 156 5632 588 1,575 1,186 327 165 3
1999 4,926 591 191 639 608 1,710 1,020 265 165 2
1998 5,435 625 188 590 815 2,026 893 396 45 2
1997 5,557 503 132 638 1,162 1,798 1,042 342 78 40
1996 5,681 388 96 617 1,524 1,759 924 432 129 1 40
1995 3,582 218 143 640 228 1,728 455 230 40
1994 4,635 280 97 451 1,201 1,747 588 331 40
1993 4,221 226 53 430 808 1,815 526 421 2 40
1992 4,686 95 53 430 1,572 1,886 517 231 2
1991 3,782 1 222 381 722 1,591 596 362
1990 5,132 5 215 420 917 2,852 437 379
1989 4,388 17 259 423 1,260 1,669 743 42 68
1988 4,205 29 210 334 1,738 1,305 554 49 78 1
1987 5,797 373 226 1,215 1,450 1,994 466 54 3 100 2 7
1986 10,973 379 3,442 2,933 1,676 1,724 686 30 116 69 2 9
1985 13,430 771 3,625 3,180 2,595 1,439 742 18 344 598 123 48 40
1984 14,769 804 4,226 3,480 1,923 1,941 648 195 63 440 600 393 102 47
1983 16,532 1,860 3,827 4,502 1,694 1,714 725 330 255 4 21 448 625 488 120 3 9
1982 19,061 1,956 3,684 4,707 2,655 2,039 864 320 360 95 564 854 901 150 5
1981 20,897 1,890 4,187 5,437 2,912 2,522 844 387 238 64 251 598 749 765 146
1980 21,114 2,054 3,847 5,125 2,775 2,194 709 661 297 94 211 640 932 932 234 498 4
1979 24,093 2,202 7,404 5,264 1,685 1,844 589 1,042 172 99 197 638 766 924 547 110 605 5
1978 26,832 1,656 9,371 6,027 1,199 2,083 692 1,070 197 198 679 173 589 714 1,056 596 321 198 2 11
1977 30,172 1,780 12,216 6,942 899 1,971 663 1,193 359 55 625 152 580 1,030 1,059 248 147 248 1 4
1976 35,864 2,159 13,486 10,288 536 1,744 798 1,918 277 87 997 126 600 788 1,016 516 215 307 2 4
1975 39,500 1,770 14,934 10,945 1,821 1,090 1,520 788 1,343 228 106 1,174 237 604 1,096 947 539 278 72 8
1974 47,430 1,830 19,622 14,146 1,938 684 1,716 673 1,812 242 161 1,081 234 459 797 973 497 453 106 2 4
1973 49,485 2,053 20,079 14,363 1,857 1,050 2,161 1,075 1,838 209 246 972 388 580 732 907 422 493 50 2 5 3
1972 45,300 2,695 15,737 14,818 1,855 512 1,636 1,218 1,900 225 352 955 390 580 774 1,075 346 149 78 5
1971 57,651 2,752 22,548 18,776 2,360 1,018 1,531 1,489 1,773 332 253 864 353 700 975 755 460 611 99 2
1970 57,923 3,280 24,263 17,984 2,058 390 1,539 1,543 1,930 344 301 805 249 511 803 740 520 598 63 2
1969 62,805 3,288 29,567 17,393 2,208 1,395 1,637 747 2,310 386 254 679 228 583 754 421 394 480 79 2
1968 61,594 3,280 28,364 17,926 1,413 1,694 1,813 818 2,446 379 428 658 149 369 559 344 483 415 54 2
1967 67,628 3,639 32,700 19,333 2,730 1,998 1,074 1,391 645 484 744 587 425 482 563 356 416 59 2
1966 76,066 6,489 36,977 18,874 4,179 1,509 1,057 1,281 1,378 475 1,099 606 410 501 448 328 398 55 2
1965 79,805 8,167 35,592 20,988 5,460 1,637 794 1,126 1,305 483 1,348 752 530 492 229 389 461 51 1
1964 91,783 11,097 38,482 27,554 4,246 1,383 566 1,057 2,017 525 1,508 802 611 490 304 513 378 139 109 2
1963 83,052 9,707 31,947 23,966 4,505 2,215 444 691 3,270 500 1,543 744 1,182 658 486 406 348 210 123 104 3
1962 73,053 8,748 22,808 21,406 1,591 3,947 1,826 483 859 3,301 497 2,337 1,321 1,330 583 544 756 252 323 35 106
1961 82,306 13,370 24,907 21,081 4,324 3,365 1,892 474 168 3,476 662 2,336 1,937 1,628 507 408 1,083 192 330 81 69 16
1960 89,861 16,601 27,757 20,523 5,813 3,531 1,817 456 158 3,423 679 2,084 1,809 2,212 606 452 813 314 324 361 110 2 16
1959 81,997 15,008 21,936 19,795 5,171 3,441 1,426 528 907 3,407 932 770 2,233 1,811 2,082 179 572 405 315 388 294 320 58 3 16
1958 78,951 19,057 14,100 20,259 5,425 3,027 2,676 480 882 2,554 923 718 2,316 2,095 2,226 701 544 128 358 239 183 40 4 16
1957 74,023 17,416 10,533 18,733 7,083 2,536 2,284 845 733 2,381 1,861 693 2,512 2,100 1,867 842 553 125 350 347 186 27 16
1956 65,923 19,215 8,355 15,089 6,266 2,824 1,962 739 486 2,027 1,108 607 1,633 2,051 33 1,434 740 461 217 232 273 159 12
1955 65,782 19,304 7,142 11,928 7,445 3,502 1,046 564 646 1,887 812 486 1,298 1,854 4,077 1,665 839 444 213 215 292 112 11
1954 67,882 18,466 7,559 10,890 7,912 2,723 2,041 820 682 1,509 947 462 1,328 2,039 7,600 848 807 388 202 197 282 180
1953 55,178 17,804 6,568 7,373 7,620 3,904 2,269 54 561 1,340 1,083 42 1,198 2,001 1,711 637 411 184 181 128 109
1952 51,402 15,051 6,424 5,876 6,966 4,912 1,265 54 484 95 678 13 1,374 1,787 2,492 1,575 436 789 327 168 240 274 122
1951 66,402 19,718 5,717 6,467 6,959 5,267 3,197 59 1,141 61 812 64 1,094 1,224 6,160 1,650 4,793 945 402 179 146 236 111
1950 51,038 19,339 4,605 4,988 6,315 4,352 994 79 974 796 24 1,093 388 1,927 1,660 2,196 481 345 128 129 146 79
1949 50,799 21,345 3,909 3,987 9,124 4,022 1,262 33 835 946 60 991 193 1,295 1,356 656 359 38 112 134 141 1
1948 48,570 20,292 2,545 3,746 10,138 4,765 858 157 989 920 75 1,116 4 1,364 1,001 275 36 150 47 92
1947 46,668 18,704 1,595 3,513 11,348 4,365 2,155 364 471 832 59 851 2 1,294 835 22 25 122 111
1946 35,555 14,955 1,024 3,169 7,349 3,550 1,155 473 529 857 18 598 777 831 34 126 110
1945 20,826 9,264 536 610 5,064 729 1,594 337 393 1,082 18 495 581 16 107
1944 11,665 3,164 350 2,416 819 1,386 700 264 1,296 13 430 724 15 88
1943 12,586 5,963 611 1,776 724 1,037 267 243 962 40 61 796 16 90
1942 12,894 5,660 689 1,456 498 1,931 690 234 998 47 54 548 18 71
1941 16,391 4,129 666 3,168 359 759 4,475 659 400 1,066 59 59 501 5 86
1940 26,213 2,968 590 12,909 3,135 1,035 2,847 780 292 868 49 78 552 1 109
1939 45,736 12,407 606 9,441 9,928 4,577 3,535 657 144 705 1,229 469 1,421 5 400 131 81
1938 51,446 13,385 428 9,660 10,030 4,214 2,293 170 310 1,024 2,231 338 907 5,813 417 148 77 1
1937 66,569 17,091 1,282 7,752 17,791 6,503 1,061 133 800 1,062 5,277 375 1,527 5,361 417 80 56 1
1936 52,363 17,344 1,370 3,848 15,184 3,977 1,727 159 568 1,014 1,997 266 2,389 1,080 387 86 69 897 1
1935 41,619 16,844 2,013 2,483 10,940 3,351 740 85 401 944 595 306 2,449 379 30 57 2
1934 42,358 17,549 2,372 1,766 13,632 3,340 274 318 753 809 685 568 234 4 52 2
1933 36,644 12,109 4,183 1,396 13,044 2,377 1,065 217 209 1,139 390 193 266 10 44 2
1932 33,785 11,365 2,870 1,371 11,960 2,191 1,282 1,036 996 333 175 179 5 18 3 1
1931 18,211 859 2,309 1,239 8,722 826 2,386 636 850 29 156 80 7 109 3
1930 50,989 27,399 1,937 1,730 11,235 3,638 526 378 572 1,174 907 275 99 9 79 1,027 4
1929 42,303 21,368 1,959 1,463 9,097 3,040 195 1,550 791 1,386 732 386 219 9 102 6
1928 33,485 16,169 1,774 1,505 5,509 2,308 779 571 815 1,592 741 334 1,036 191 9 40 105 7
1927 28,268 12,286 1,155 1,568 4,403 2,424 195 1,376 618 1,441 1,046 398 999 166 9 47 128 9
1926 29,554 13,261 325 1,754 4,742 2,632 477 2,008 628 812 748 484 740 202 9 32 241 78 10 371
1925 29,330 13,887 216 1,588 5,563 2,467 610 1,091 680 1,079 706 238 669 151 20 42 219 96 8
1924 21,728 9,416 91 1,523 4,427 2,047 134 1,079 594 781 721 257 114 20 62 345 109 8
1923 18,472 7,453 89 1,435 3,116 1,710 1,149 874 525 540 912 217 166 177 20 81 8
1922 19,607 7,974 127 1,280 4,207 1,285 650 1,455 188 819 1,059 202 155 121 20 59 6
1921 12,098 4,969 88 1,483 2,103 1,071 1,264 438 304 181 78 20 92 7
1920 15,758 6,658 103 1,281 2,683 1,169 992 201 493 662 915 120 124 6 43 108 6 194
1919 14,240 4,382 104 3,340 1,896 1,039 153 1,141 473 402 857 161 132 6 29 119 6
1918 11,421 4,093 51 2,177 1,600 565 848 2 602 414 528 195 183 6 62 90 5
1917 10,193 2,914 739 1,689 2,086 480 263 212 379 406 529 193 128 6 62 98 9
1916 14,151 5,520 562 1,798 2,094 1,129 499 452 464 511 528 131 295 6 68 82 12
1915 22,523 10,886 83 2,096 3,883 980 1,305 602 370 1,169 662 80 142 64 82 111 8
1914 25,614 15,820 2,024 2,548 1,289 291 673 731 1,106 560 115 135 36 190 93 3
1913 25,700 16,024 1,605 2,895 1,659 217 599 927 577 234 245 342 56 220 92 8
1912 25,912 15,211 1,586 2,698 993 725 3 1,398 878 322 330 497 138 125 63 6 939
1911 25,064 12,493 120 1,979 2,889 547 1,741 303 1,959 1,576 230 563 337 142 102 77 6
1910 18,164 8,933 968 2,483 233 1,448 101 1,342 1,639 38 539 183 161 90 6
1909 12,876 6,099 9 835 1,645 100 942 165 1,190 997 52 493 88 229 32
1908 11,113 3,839 16 1,312 798 2,005 113 1,052 956 107 588 136 182 8 1
1907 7,804 2,524 3 1,086 648 477 244 1,058 846 93 480 124 207 8 6
1906 6,424 1,807 4 1,472 429 534 405 741 321 29 374 117 172 8 11
1905 5,356 2,323 150 446 264 330 6 894 399 105 130 60 33 153 8 11 44
1904 5,694 2,242 428 179 699 8 1,077 195 86 85 91 212 359 8 25
1903 4,233 1,879 1 132 391 10 642 253 1 47 99 98 338 8 37 297
1902 3,893 1,974 226 89 526 10 342 159 102 172 8 51 234
1901 2,416 1,515 60 70 10 258 55 49 340 8 51
1900 2,721 1,048 5 42 875 9 190 143 83 66 8 51 201
Whales caught 2010-2014, by country

Catches by country and species[edit]

Sources: same as counts by year, above.

Whales caught since 1900, by species
Whales Caught 1900-2015
Countries Total Fin Sperm Blue Minke Sei Humpback Belugas Pilot Whales Narwhals Baird's Beaked Bottlenose Whales Bowhead Bryde's Gray Orca Right Whales Whalers Did Not Record Species
Total 3,324,190 875,631 759,375 379,521 315,922 287,147 250,964 184,404 136,272 50,087 670 6,548 4,999 29,663 12,122 4,296 5,608 20,961
Argentina 51,438 26,432 1,497 8,936 6,122 8,233 218
Australia 39,361 3 14,844 32 1 6 24,468 7
Bahamas 4,270 418 571 3 14 3,022 242
Bermuda 1 1
Brazil 22,609 89 929 2 14,330 5,077 1,430 31 6 715
Canada 83,406 21,820 6,649 3,034 959 4,833 7,152 12,958 324 23,259 41 26 38 13 7 8 2,285
Chile 47,069 6,741 30,982 4,299 1,711 2,046 3 3 274 1,010
China 3,269 15 1,821 1,430 3
Denmark 1,924 668 4 1,223 29
Ecuador 371 272 68 15 16
Faroe Islands 141,647 5,215 682 168 124 925 104 134,089 16 4 320
France 8,960 15 3,287 1 649 5,007 1
Germany 12,451 7,062 1,059 3,885 15 237 1 192
Greenland 107,126 1,101 146 44 10,228 19 471 68,268 1 26,828 5 10 5
Iceland 23,479 11,295 2,948 622 5,005 2,674 83 1 851
Indonesia 416 416
Japan 615,890 165,214 176,320 26,518 79,990 131,913 10,992 482 439 16,360 1,478 5 189 5,990
South Korea 21,803 1,176 20,349 3 13 1 2 47 3 2 207
Netherlands 27,800 18,833 3,748 3,457 1 457 1,303 1
New Zealand 5,924 1 266 5 5 5,580 19 48
Norway 796,889 313,920 53,460 177,255 131,940 31,001 72,633 1,373 6,340 1 462 232 2,500 462 5,310
Panama 30,982 10,229 9,650 5,913 39 5,151
Peru 56,349 1,107 48,182 218 2,929 324 3,589
Philipns 96 96
Portugal 29,925 509 28,132 171 1 7 1,077 27 1
Russia /USSR 633,322 61,623 274,673 14,630 50,005 67,112 56,605 86,965 2 173 115 513 5,529 9,495 1,727 4,140 15
South Africa 169,388 50,712 64,617 20,378 1,139 14,445 14,282 2 1,776 36 57 1,944
Spain 12,705 5,128 6,777 21 478 2 299
St. Vincent+ Grenadines 507 3 502 2
Tonga 114 114
United Kingdom 322,758 157,070 27,594 105,404 6 13,176 18,466 33 86 4 171 748
USA 50,031 8,425 1,937 3,119 9 483 14,197 16,213 17 10 4,437 2 854 6 22 300
Unknown 1,910 538 1 115 31 447 1 2 775

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Roman, Joe (2006-05-01). Whale. Reaktion Books. p. 24. ISBN 9781861895059. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
  2. ^ Mannino, Marcello A.; Talamo, Sahra; Tagliacozzo, Antonio; Fiore, Ivana; Nehlich, Olaf; Piperno, Marcello; Tusa, Sebastiano; Collina, Carmine; Salvo, Rosaria Di; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Richards, Michael P. (17 November 2015). "Climate-driven environmental changes around 8,200 years ago favoured increases in cetacean strandings and Mediterranean hunter-gatherers exploited them". Scientific Reports. 5. doi:10.1038/srep16288. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
  3. ^ "Prehistoric Cultures Were Hunting Whales At Least 3,000 Years Ago". Science Daily. University of Alaska Fairbanks. 8 April 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  4. ^ "Rock art hints at whaling origins". BBC News. 20 April 2004. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  5. ^ Rodrigues, Ana S. L.; Charpentier, Anne; Bernal-Casasola, Darío; Gardeisen, Armelle; Nores, Carlos; Pis Millán, José Antonio; McGrath, Krista; Speller, Camilla F. (2018). "Forgotten Mediterranean calving grounds of grey and North Atlantic right whales: evidence from Roman archaeological records" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 285 (1882): 20180961. doi:10.1098/rspb.2018.0961. ISSN 0962-8452.
  6. ^ Davis, Nicola (July 11, 2018). "Romans had whaling industry, archaeological excavation suggests". The Guardian.
  7. ^ a b Ellis (1991), p.45.
  8. ^ Barkham (1984), p.515.
  9. ^ Rafnsson (2006), p.4.
  10. ^ Between 1550 and the early 17th century, Red Bay, known as Balea Baya (Whale Bay), was a centre for Basque whaling operations.
  11. ^ Conway (1904), p.7-8.
  12. ^ Du Pasquier (1984), p.538.
  13. ^ See the accounts by Edge (pp. 12-15) and Poole (pp. 34-40) in Purchas (1625).
  14. ^ See the accounts of the 1613 season by Baffin (pp. 38-53) and Fotherby (pp. 54-68) in Markham (1881) and Gerrits (pp. 11-38) in Conway (1904).
  15. ^ Jackson (1978), p. 12.
  16. ^ Purchas (1625), pp. 16-17; Conway (1906), p. 65-67.
  17. ^ Purchas (1625), p. 17; Conway (1906), p. 84.
  18. ^ Dalgård (1962), p. 46-48.
  19. ^ Purchas (1625), p. 18; Conway (1906), p. 92.
  20. ^ Conway (1906), pp. 95-101.
  21. ^ Conway (1904), pp. 42-66.
  22. ^ Conway (1906), p. 124.
  23. ^ Conway (1906), pp. 133-34.
  24. ^ Conway (1906), pp. 138-39.
  25. ^ Conway (1904), pp. 174-75.
  26. ^ Appleby (2008), pp. 39-41.
  27. ^ Dalgård (1962), p. 190.
  28. ^ Henrat (1984), p. 545.
  29. ^ Conway (1904), pp. 176-79.
  30. ^ Dalgård (1962), pp. 211-12.
  31. ^ Du Pasquier (2000), p. 83, 323.
  32. ^ Dalgård (1962), pp. 214-15.
  33. ^ Ross (1979), p. 94. For a century or so prior to this date the Dutch and Dano-Norwegians had irregularly sent out whaling and trading voyages to the region.
  34. ^ a b c Zacchi (1986). p. 13.
  35. ^ Faltings (2011), p. 17.
  36. ^ Hasse, Edgar S. (19 January 2016). "Die blutige Jagd nach Moby Dick in Norddeutschland". Hamburger Abendblatt (in German). (subscription required)
  37. ^ 鯨絵・捕鯨史料 [History of whaling, whales in art] (in Japanese). The Kyushu University Museum. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013.
  38. ^ 鯨史稿 巻之六 [Noriyuki's six-volume manuscript of whaling] (in Japanese). The Kyushu University Museum. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012.
  39. ^ 鯨絵巻 上 [Picture scrolls of whales] (in Japanese). The Kyushu University Museum. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012.
  40. ^ 捕鯨絵巻 [Emaki whaling] (in Japanese). The Kyushu University Museum. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013.
  41. ^ 小川島鯨鯢合戦 [Ogawajima whaling wars] (in Japanese). The Kyushu University Museum. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013.
  42. ^ Eric Hilt, "Investment and Diversification in the American Whaling Industry." Journal of Economic History 2007 67(2): 292-314. ISSN 0022-0507
  43. ^ David Moment, "The Business of Whaling in America in the 1850s," Business History Review, Fall 1957, 31#3 pp 261-291
  44. ^ Julie Baker, "The Great Whaleship Disaster of 1871." American History 2005 40(4): 52-58. ISSN 1076-8866 Fulltext: Ebsco
  45. ^ Dolin (2007)
  46. ^ Starbuck (1878), p.17.
  47. ^ Melville's Moby-Dick
  48. ^ New Bedford Whaling National Historic Site
  49. ^ Schmitt et al (1980), pp. 182-85.
  50. ^ Schmitt et al (1980), p. 186.
  51. ^ Schmitt et al. (1980), p.154-164.
  52. ^ Webb (1988), p.126.
  53. ^ British Southern Whale Fishery website.
  54. ^ Weatherill (1908), p.129.
  55. ^ a b Young (1840), p.199.
  56. ^ Weatherill (1908), p.378.
  57. ^ Jackson (1978), p.92.
  58. ^ The Quarterly Review, Volume 63, London:John Murray, 1839, page 321.
  59. ^ Stackpole (1972), p.282.
  60. ^ Letter from Commander Thomas Melvill to Chas. Enderby & sons in London detailing this catch. Mitchell Library Sydney.
  61. ^ Mawar (1999), p.126.
  62. ^ Proulx, Jean-Pierre. Whaling in the North Atlantic: From Earliest Times to the Mid-19th Century. (1986).
  63. ^ Tønnessen & Johnsen (1982), p.28–29.
  64. ^ Tønnessen & Johnsen (1982), p.30.
  65. ^ Tønnessen & Johnsen (1982), p.32.
  66. ^ Tønnessen & Johnsen (1982), p.34–35.
  67. ^ Tønnessen & Johnsen (1982), p.76.
  68. ^ Tønnessen & Johnsen (1982), p.646.
  69. ^ Savn.fo, Hvalastøðir í Føroyum 1894-1984 (in Faroese) Archived 2013-01-07 at Archive.today
  70. ^ MMR.fo, Hvalastøðin við Áir, page 19
  71. ^ MMR.Sansir.net, The Whaling Station við Áir, Provisional report on the conservation of the whaling station as a maritime museum[permanent dead link]
  72. ^ Jacobsen, Helgi (2007). Hvalurin er Mín. Forlagið Ritstarv. ISBN 978-99918-816-0-7.
  73. ^ Joensen, Jóan Pauli (2009). Pilot Whaling in the Faroe Islands. Annales Societatis Scientiarum Faeroensis. 51. p. 225. ISBN 9789991865256.
  74. ^ Tønnessen & Johnsen (1982), p.98.
  75. ^ ROCHA, ROBERT C., Jr., PHILLIP J. CLAPHAM, and YULIA V. IVASHCHENKO (March 2015). "Emptying the Oceans: A Summary of Industrial Whaling Catches in the 20th Century". Marine Fisheries Review. Paper Has Annual Total for Each Species. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  76. ^ a b c SMITH, GARE (1984). "The International Whaling Commission: An Analysis of the Past and Reflections on the Future". Natural Resources Lawyer. 16 (4): 543–567. JSTOR 40922570.
  77. ^ a b Wittig, Lars (2016-06-18). "Meta population modelling of narwhals in East Canada and West Greenland - 2017" (PDF). BioRxiv, Report Submitted as Supporting Document to the Canada National Marine Mammal Peer Review Committee. Canada National Marine Mammal Peer Review Committee, Winnipeg, Canada.
  78. ^ Fisheries, NOAA (17 September 2018). "Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports (SARs) by Region :: NOAA Fisheries". fisheries.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 7 April 2018. includes struck and lost.
  79. ^ a b "IWCDBv6.1". IWC. July 2016. Retrieved 2018-12-22.
  80. ^ Zoological Department, Museum of Natural History (2008-06-12). "Whaling Information". Faroe islands Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2018-12-22.
  81. ^ Broadhead, Ivan (2008-03-08). "In for the kill, last of the ancient whalers". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2018-12-22.
  82. ^ Burnet, Ian (2015-10-23). "The Whale Hunters of Lamalera". spiceislandsblog. Retrieved 2018-12-22.
  83. ^ a b Lukoschek, V.; Funahashi, N.; Lavery, S.; Dalebout, M. L.; Cipriano, F.; Baker, C. S. (2009). "The rise of commercial 'by-catch whaling' in Japan and Korea". Animal Conservation. 12 (5): 398–399. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00313.x. ISSN 1469-1795.
  84. ^ Tobayama; et al. (May 1991). "Incidental take of minke whales in Japanese trap nets. in 42nd Report of the IWC". 42: 433–436 – via IWC.
  85. ^ Baker, C S (April 2002). "Appendix 13 UNCERTAINTY AND (IM)PLAUSIBILITY OF INCIDENTAL TAKES FOR RMP IMPLEMENTATION SIMULATION TRIALS FOR NORTH PACIFIC MINKE WHALES". Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 4 Supplement: 138–139 – via IWC.
  86. ^ Korea's Annual Progress Reports to the IWC Scientific Committee 2009-2017 https://iwc.int/scprogress and https://portal.iwc.int/progressreportspublic/report
  87. ^ Baker, C.; Cooke, Justin G.; Lavery, Shane; Dalebout, Merel L.; Brownell, Robert; Ma, Yong-Un; Funahashi, Naoko; Carraher, Colm (2007-01-01). "Estimating the number of whales entering trade using DNA profiling and capture-recapture analysis of market products". Molecular Ecology. 16: 2622 – via DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln.
  88. ^ Song, Kyung-Jun (2011). "Status of J stock minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)". Animal Cells and Systems. 15: 79–84. doi:10.1080/19768354.2011.555148.

References[edit]

General references[edit]

  • Appleby, John C. (April 2008), "Conflict, cooperation and competition: The rise and fall of the Hull whaling trade during the seventeenth century" (PDF), The Northern Mariner, XVIII (2): 23–59
  • Bockstoce, John (1986). Whales, Ice, & Men: The History of Whaling in the Western Arctic. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-97447-7.
  • Conway, William Martin (1904). Early Dutch and English Voyages to Spitsbergen in the Seventeenth Century. London.
  • Conway, William Martin (1906). No Man's Land: A History of Spitsbergen from Its Discovery in 1596 to the Beginning of the Scientific Exploration of the Country. Cambridge, At the University Press.
  • Dalgård, Sune (1962). Dansk-Norsk Hvalfangst 1615–1660: En Studie over Danmark-Norges Stilling i Europæisk Merkantil Expansion. G.E.C Gads Forlag.
  • Dow, George Francis. Whale Ships and Whaling: A Pictorial History. (1925, reprinted 1985). 253 pp
  • Edvardsson, R., and M. Rafnsson. 2006. Basque Whaling Around Iceland: Archeological Investigation in Strakatangi, Steingrimsfjordur.
  • Ellis, Richard (1991). Men & Whales. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-1-55821-696-9.
  • Faltings, Jan I. (2011). Föhrer Grönlandfahrt im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert (in German). Amrum: Verlag Jens Quedens. ISBN 978-3-924422-95-0.
  • Henrat, P. 1984. French Naval Operations in Spitsbergen During Louis XIV's Reign. Arctic 37: 544–551.
  • Jackson, Gordon (1978). The British Whaling Trade. Archon. ISBN 978-0-208-01757-4.
  • Jenkins, J.T. (1921). A History of the Whale Fisheries. Kennikat Press.
  • Lytle, T.G. (1984). Harpoons and Other Whalecraft. New Bedford: Old Dartmouth Historical Society.
  • Mageli, Eldrid. "Norwegian-Japanese Whaling Relations in the Early 20th Century: a Case of Successful Technology Transfer". Scandinavian Journal of History 2006 31(1): 1–16. ISSN 0346-8755 Full text: Ebsco
  • Markham, C.R. (1881). The Voyages of William Baffin, 1612–1622. London: the Hakluyt Society.
  • Mawar, Granville (1999). Ahab's Trade: The Saga of South Seas Whaling. St. Martin's Press New York. ISBN 978-0-312-22809-5.
  • Morikawa, Jun. Whaling in Japan: Power, Politics, and Diplomacy (2009) 160 pages
  • Du Pasquier, Jean-Thierry (2000). Les baleiniers basques. Paris, SPM.
  • Proulx, Jean-Pierre. Whaling in the North Atlantic: From Earliest Times to the Mid-19th Century. (1986). 117 pp.
  • Purchas, S. 1625. Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes: Contayning a History of the World in Sea Voyages and Lande Travells by Englishmen and others. Volumes XIII and XIV (Reprint 1906, J. Maclehose and sons).
  • Schokkenbroek, Joost C. A. (2008). Trying-out: An Anatomy of Dutch Whaling and Sealing in the Nineteenth Century, 1815–1885. Amsterdam: Aksant Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-5260-283-7 (cloth)
  • Scoresby, William (1820). An Account of the Arctic Regions with a History and a Description of the Northern Whale-Fishery. Edinburgh.
  • Stackpole, Edouard (1972). Whales & Destiny: The Rivalry between America, France, and Britain for Control of the Southern Whale Fishery, 1785–1825. University of Massachutsetts Press.
  • Starbuck, Alexander (1878). History of the American Whale Fishery from Its Earliest Inception to the year 1876. Castle. ISBN 978-1-55521-537-8.
  • Sangmog Lee "Chasseurs de Baleines dans la fries de Bangudae" Errance, (2011) ISBN 978-2-87772-458-6
  • Stoett, Peter J. The International Politics of Whaling (1997) online edition
  • Tonnesen, J. N. and Johnsen, A. O. The History of Modern Whaling. (1982). 789 pp.
  • Tower, W.S. (1907). A History of the American Whale Fishery. University of Philadelphia.
  • Tønnessen, Johan; Arne Odd Johnsen (1982). The History of Modern Whaling. University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 978-0-520-03973-5.
  • Weatherill, Richard (1908) The ancient port of Whitby and its shipping. (Whitby: Hokne and Son)
  • Wolfe, Adam. "Australian Whaling Ambitions and Antarctica". International Journal of Maritime History 2006 18(2): 305–322. ISSN 0843-8714
  • Young, George (D.D.), (1840) A Picture of Whitby and its Environs.
  • Zacchi, Uwe (1986). Menschen von Föhr – Lebenswege aus drei Jahrhunderten (in German). Heide: Boyens & Co. ISBN 978-3-8042-0359-4.
  • BBC News report on the engravings

North America[edit]

  • Allen, Everett S. Children of the Light: The Rise and Fall of New Bedford Whaling and the Death of the Arctic Fleet. (1973). 302 pp.
  • Barkham, S. H. 1984. The Basque Whaling Establishments in Labrador 1536–1632: A Summary. Arctic 37: 515–519.
  • Busch, Briton Cooper. "Whaling Will Never Do for Me": The American Whaleman in the Nineteenth Century. (1994). 265 pp
  • Creighton, Margaret S. Rites and Passages: The Experience of American Whaling, 1830–1870. (1995). 233 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Davis, Lance E.; Gallman, Robert E.; and Gleiter, Karin. In Pursuit of Leviathan: Technology, Institutions, Productivity, and Profits in American Whaling, 1816–1906. (NBER Series on Long-Term Factors in Economic Development.) 1997. 550 pp. advanced quantitative economic history
  • Dickinson, Anthony B. and Sanger, Chesley W. Twentieth-Century Shore-Station Whaling in Newfoundland and Labrador. 2005. 254 pp.
  • Dolin, Eric Jay. Leviathan: The History of Whaling in America (2007) 480 pp. excerpt and text search
  • George, G. D. and R. G. Bosworth. 1988. Use of Fish and Wildlife by Residents of Angoon, Admiralty Island, Alaska. Division of Subsistence. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Juneau, Alaska.
  • Gidmark, Jill B. Melville Sea Dictionary: A Glossed Concordance and Analysis of the Sea Language in Melville's Nautical Novels (1982) online edition
  • Lytle, Thomas G. Harpoons and Other Whalecraft. New Bedford: Old Dartmouth Historical Society, 1984. 256 pp.
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783–1860 (1921) 400pp full text online
  • Reeves, R. R., T. D. Smith, R. L. Webb, J. Robbins, and P. J. Clapham. 2002. Humpback and fin whaling in the Gulf of Maine from 1800 to 1918. Mar. Fish. Rev. 64(1):1–12.
  • Scammon, Charles (1874). The Marine Mammals of the North-western Coast of North America: Together with an Account of the American Whale-fishery. Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-21976-9.
  • Schmitt, Frederick; Cornelis de Jong; Frank H. Winter (1980). Thomas Welcome Roys: America's Pioneer of Modern Whaling. University Press of Virginia. ISBN 978-0-917376-33-7.
  • Webb, Robert (1988). On the Northwest: Commercial Whaling in the Pacific Northwest 1790–1967. University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-0292-5.

External links[edit]