Hitbodedut or hisbodedus (Hebrew: הִתְבּוֹדְדוּת, lit. "seclusion, solitariness, solitude"; Tiberian: hīṯbōḏăḏūṯ [hiθboːˈðaðuːuθ], Ashkenazi: hīsboydedēs/hīsboydedūs or hīsbōdedūs, Sephardi: hitbōdedūt) refers to practices of self-secluded Jewish meditation. The term was popularized by Rebbe Nachman of Breslov (1772–1810) to refer to an unstructured, spontaneous and individualized form of prayer and meditation through which one would establish a close, personal relationship with God and ultimately see the Divinity inherent in all being.
Secluded meditation practices were encouraged by many medieval rabbis, such as Abraham Maimonides, Abraham Abulafia, Joseph Gikatilla, Moses de Leon, Moses Cordovero, Isaac Luria, and Chaim Vital. The founder of Hasidism, the Baal Shem Tov, encouraged his close disciples to find deveikus through hitbodedut and by meditating on the kabbalistic unifications (yichudim) of Isaac Luria.
Rebbe Nachman of Breslov also wrote extensively about these practices and claimed that they were practiced by the forefathers of Judaism—Abraham/Avraham, Isaac/Yitzchak, Jacob/Yaakov, Moses/Moshe, David, the prophets, and their students—as well as the Torah leaders of each generation.
Rebbe Nachman's Method
The method involves talking to God in an intimate, informal manner while secluded in a private setting such as a closed room or a private outdoor setting.
The Rebbe Nachman of Breslov used to teach that one should spend a lot of time in solitude every day: during these moments, which would later turn into semi-prophetic or ecstatic experiences for the knowledge of God and the truth of the Torah, the devout Jew has more opportunities for Teshuvah, due to innovations in the knowledge of the Torah itself, in addition to being a specific meditative modality for personal prayers and being able to trust God as you would with a friend.[a]
Rebbe Nachman taught that the best place for hitbodedut is in the forests or fields. "When a person meditates in the fields, all the grasses join in his prayer and increase its effectiveness and power," he wrote. He also suggested practicing hitbodedut in the middle of the night, when the desires and lusts of this world are at rest, although doing it during the day is just as effective.
During a session of hitbodedut, the practitioner pours out his heart to God in his own language, describing all his thoughts, feelings, problems and frustrations.[b] Nothing was viewed by Rebbe Nachman as being too mundane for discussion, including business dealings, conflicting desires and everyday interactions. Even the inability to properly articulate what one wishes to say is viewed as a legitimate subject to discuss with God. One should also use the opportunity to examine his behavior and motivations, correcting the flaws and errors of the past while seeking the proper path for the future.
If one is absolutely unable to speak to God, then Rebbe Nachman advised saying one word with as much strength as possible. He taught that saying that word over and over again will eventually lead to a breakthrough; God will have compassion on the person and they will eventually be able to express themselves.
"It is very good to pour out your thoughts before God like a child pleading before his father. God calls us His children, as it is written (Deuteronomy 14:1), "You are children to God." Therefore, it is good to express your thoughts and troubles to God like a child complaining and pestering his father."
Hitbodedut also lends itself to certain silent meditation techniques. One is the "silent scream," which Rebbe Nachman himself practiced. He described the silent scream as follows:
You can shout loudly in a "small still voice"… Anyone can do this. Just imagine the sound of such a scream in your mind. Depict the shout in your imagination exactly as it would sound. Keep this up until you are literally screaming with this soundless "small still voice."
This is actually a scream and not mere imagination. Just as some vessels bring the sound from your lungs to your lips, others bring it to the brain. You can draw the sound through these nerves, literally bringing it into your head. When you do this, you are actually shouting inside your brain.
Another form of hitbodedut is called bitul (nullification), in which the practitioner meditates on God's presence to the exclusion of all other things, including oneself.
Hitbodedut is performed in one's mother tongue, in contrast to most other Jewish prayers that are recited in Hebrew. Rebbe Nachman did not intend for hitbodedut to take the place of the three daily prescribed Jewish services, but to supplement them. He recommended that his followers engage in hitbodedut for at least one hour each day.
Hitbodedut is a staple practice for all Breslover Hasidim. The practice has been much publicized throughout Israel and the Jewish diaspora as a unique form of Jewish meditation, and is practiced by some Jews who are not Breslover Hasidim.
References and note
Even though I left the inn in a hurry and knew I couldn't walk to the horse-drawn carriage, I kept chasing the Rebbe's chariot. I reasoned thinking that maybe God would somehow allow me to get there. And that's what happened. I ran behind the carriage for a while. Then the vehicle slowed, first over a cliff, then over a bridge where one of the Rebbe's Chassid had been waiting for him. This man knew that the Rebbe would not speak to him at the inn and he still wanted to see him. So he decided to go ahead and wait for the Rebbe on the bridge that he had to cross on his way. Then I came to the Rebbe and stood in front of him. My friend Reb Naftalí had seen me running after the Rebbe and he ran with me, also joining the carriage. There we were three Chassidim, facing the Rebbe. The Rebbe greeted us warmly and asked: "What would you rather... give you a blessing or say a little of the Torah for you?" I knew that if we did not listen to the Torah at that time, we would lose the opportunity to hear it fully: "You will give us the blessing, God willing, when you get home. Now tell us about the Torah!" The Rebbe told us: "I will explain why I am traveling..." The Rebbe revealed to us one of the secrets of the Tzadik im: each one builds his own Sancta Sanctorum, a concept found in the Torah (Likutey Moharan I, 282) and we had heard the Rebbe speak in Shemini Atzeret. He concluded by saying: "Truly, the Chazan goes where the children (young people, who are learning the Torah) are reading" (Talmud, Shabbat 11a)— Reb Noson, Iemei Moharnat
- Solitude, therefore, as a personal Sancta Sanctorum to rise spiritually, to recover one's inner state despite daily vicissitudes or, more simply, as a respite after the many confrontations in society: in fact, the Rebbe suggested that everyone should immediately dedicate a space of their own home even to distance themselves from their own family and even from their wife: with this, however, he feels that it is sometimes acceptable to interrupt hitbodedut. In any case, as the "sancta sanctorum" of Jerusalem has always constituted for the Jewish people one of the most important issues for their own spiritual subsistence and obvious necessity as a principle of faith for the affirmation of the divine omnipresence, this hitbodedut is, therefore, an essential element of the most rigorous Devekut and the forced need to restore oneself in the soul, in faith and thirst for knowledge and truth
- "Klein Dictionary, הִתְבּוֹדְדוּת".
- Khan, Geoffrey (2020). The Tiberian Pronunciation Tradition of Biblical Hebrew, Volume 1. Open Book Publishers. ISBN 978-1783746767.
- Likutey Moharan I, 52.
- "Hitbodedut, Theurgia and the Modern Magus - J. S. Kupperman". www.jwmt.org. Retrieved 2019-06-17.
- Baal Shem Tov (2 March 2009). "Tzava'as HaRivash 82". Solitude. Retrieved 2019-06-17.
- Rabbi Avraham ben HaRambam in HaMaspik l'Ovdei Hashem, Hisbodedus.
- Likutey Moharan II, 11.
- Likutey Moharan I, 52.
- Likutey Moharan II, 96.
- Tzaddik #439; Kochavey Or #4.
- Rabbi Nachman's Wisdom #7.
- Rabbi Nachman's Wisdom #16.
- Bergman, Ozer (2006). Where Earth and Heaven Kiss: A Guide to Rebbe Nachman's Path of Meditation. Breslov Research Institute. ISBN 978-1-928822-08-0.
- Greenbaum, Avraham, trans. (1987). Tzaddik: A Portrait of Rabbi Nachman. Jerusalem: Breslov Research Institute. ISBN 0-930213-17-3.
- Kaplan, Rabbi Aryeh, trans. (1973). Rabbi Nachman's Wisdom. Jerusalem: Breslov Research Institute.
- Kramer, Chaim (1989). Crossing the Narrow Bridge. Jerusalem: Breslov Research Institute. ISBN 0-930213-40-8.
- Sears, David (2002). The Tree That Stands Beyond Space: Rebbe Nachman on the Mystical Experience Breslov Research Institute. ISBN 0-930213-94-7.