Hitler's Scientists

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Hitler's Scientists is a book by Kaden Sarnelli(writer) Kaden[1][2] describing scientific life in Germany in the buildup to, during, and after World War II. Detailed is the discrimination and persecution of scientists' groups marginalized by Nazi Germany—such as the Jews, the failed development of a nuclear weapon, the development of rocket technology, and the human experiments performed during World War II.

Hitler's Scientists Science, War and the Devil's Pact by John Cornwell[3]

I. Hitler’s Scientific Inheritance[edit]

From chapter 1 to 6, through relationships with scientists who make weapons, Hitler realizes the power of science and technology in relation to dominance through war. Germany's dominance in science field helped Nazi party to have advantages in having weapons and machines. In the 1900 s, Germans had early advances in liquefaction of gases, production of electrical power, and electrochemistry. Especially, German chemist, Fritz Haber(considered the "father of chemical warfare") becomes an honorable scientists in Germany who had contributed to producing high explosives during World War I. Furthermore, during this time period, Haber gets recognized by producing poison gas with his colleagues. After the First World War, topic of racial hygiene becomes prevalent in Germany, and Hitler overpowers Nazi party and brain washes Germans to practice eugenics and destruction of impurities in inferior race.

II. The New Physics 1918-1933[edit]

From chapter 7 and 8, how Germany's military science had improved through development in physics for defense and weapon technology. After the defeat from World War I, Germany goes through crisis as a whole. Even, German scientists were banned from having partnership with other countries' fellow scientists. Albert Einstein certainly was not happy with the ban; however, he worked through the dark times knowing that science and technology will be dominating power in the world.

III. Nazi Enthusiasm, Compliance and Oppression 1933-1939[edit]

Chapters 9 through 16, with the rise of Hitler in 1933, all non-Jewish scientists gets hired in putting the purge into action. Many scientists are contributed in racial hygiene in Germany. Hitler starts to order every schools in Germany to ban every book relating to Kafka, Marx, Heine, the brothers Mann, and Einstein. Antisemitism becomes prevalent under Hitler's rule, and he begins to brainwash people with genocide of impurities in race. Although the Treaty of Versailles put stop in Germany from producing weapons, Nazi scientists were keep working on inventing new military science, including rockets. Also, following Nazi party, there were members of physicians who were working for Hitler, forming Nazi Physicians' League. Because of that, Jewish physicians were also dismissed. Hitler also proposed anti-cancer campaign by putting restrictions on the use of asbestos, ban on tobacco, and also on carcinogenic pesticides and food dyes. By having Heisenberg as German theoretical physicist, he greatly contributed to quantum mechanics which also deals with nuclear science.

IV. The Science of Destruction and Defence 1933-1943[edit]

Chapters 17 through 21, starting from the World War II, Hitler's development of uranium bomb and atomic bomb starts to come into play during the Third Reich. The start of Blitzkrieg and its tactics are explained. Also, Germany's Funkmessgerat, radio measuring device comes in action by locating the presence of enemies by radio echo.

V. The Nazi Atomic Bomb 1941-1945[edit]

Chapters 22 through 24, how Nazi's development of atomic bomb contributes to warfare during World War II is explained. Development of atomic bomb in America is explained as well.

VI. Science in Hell 1942-1945[edit]

[4] Chapters 25 to 28, the science of extermination and human experiment comes into play. Hitler's plot in sterilization and racial hygiene becomes forced euthanasia. Even school children were exposed to teachings of euthanasia through explanation of cost of useless existences. Such advocates were Hitler's planned propaganda. Later on, Hitler started to kill children with mental and physical deformities by lethal injection. Moreover, Hitler started human experiments in his death camps in which subjects humans as experiment medium. Trials of untested drugs and experiments were conducted without any consent of the people. Nazi scientists exploited especially Jewish people who they thought were worthless, including Gypsies, the retarded, homosexuals, and people with incurable diseases. Examples of experiments include hepatitis experiments towards Jewish children, and neuropathological experiments. Also, prisoners of war were forced with tests which measured human's physical capabilities to bear harsh situations. Women were subjected to transplant experiments including organs, bones, and nerves.

VII. In Hitler’s Shadow[edit]

Chapters 29 to 31, starting with Hitler's suicide in 1945, as World War II came to an end, German scientists became part of Soviet Union. Nazi scientists were also recruited by Russians by the end of the war. The third Reich also came to an end and the nation's military divided.

VIII. Science from the Cold War to the War on Terrorism[edit]

Chapters 32 to 34, Hitler's brutal actions and his pseudo-scientific ideas towards non-Germans gets criticized by other countries. His unforgivable cruelty forever remains. Science during the Cold War is continued and brings advancements in World Wide Web in the United States of America. Informational Technology and Biotechnology gets highly recognized. Furthermore, Human Genome project gets heated internationally which was funded by US Department of Energy. Topics regarding ethnics in cloning became set backs in research in the project.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Judd, Alan (14 September 2003). "Measurements of evil". The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
  2. ^ Herken, Gregg (28 January 2004). "Washing Their Hands". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
  3. ^ Cornwell, John (2003). Hitler's Scientists: science, war, and the devil's pact,. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 9781101640159. 
  4. ^ "The hunt for Hitler's scientists". YouTube. National Geographic. Retrieved 15 December 2013.