Hizbul Mujahideen

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Hizb-ul-Mujahideen
حزب المجاھدین
HM
Hizbul Mujahideen logo.png
Active since 1989
Leaders Muhammad Ahsan Dar (founder)
Sheikh Abdul Waheed
Ashraf Dar
Abdul Majid Dar
Ghulam Rasool Dar
Ali Muhammad Dar
Muhammad Yousaf Shah
Headquarters Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir

Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (Arabic: حزب المجاھدین‎‎, Ḥizb al-Mujāhidīn, meaning "Party of Holy Warriors" or "Party of Mujahideen"), founded by Muhammad Ahsan Dar in September 1989, is a Kashmiri separatist group. It is designated a terrorist organisation by India,[1] the European Union[2] and the United States,[3] active in the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir since 1989. The current supreme commander of the group is a Sayeed Salahudeen.

Holding up pro-Pakistan Ideology, the group is considered to be the largest indigenous militant wing in Kashmir. In 1990 Master Ahsan Dar had more than 10,000 armed men under his command.

Foreign involvement[edit]

Allegations have been made that Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence(ISI) have provided training and funding to HiB.[4] It has been reported that Jamaat-i-Islami founded Hizbul Mujahideen at the request of the ISI to counter the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front(JKLF) who are advocates for the independence of Kashmir.[5]

Divisions in the 1990s, Ceasefire of 2000[edit]

In 1991, after the merger with the Tahreek-e-Jihad-e-Islami (TJI), the strength of the Hizbul had reached 10,000.[6] In the following years, rivalries developed within the Hizb, culminating in a killing of 21 people in a Pakistan administered Kashmir(AZ), village near the border in 1998.[7]

By the late 1990s, several voices within the Hizb including its operational commander Abdul Majeed Dar sought a return to more peaceful approaches. In July 2000, Dar, along with four other Hizb commanders, made a surprise unilateral ceasefire declaration from the outskirts of Srinagar.[8] The ceasefire was immediately ratified by the PAK based commander Sayeed Salahudeen,[9] but was criticized strongly in the Pakistan media.[7] It was withdrawn by Salahudeen by September. In 2002, Dar was denounced as an agent of the Indian intelligence agency Research and Analysis Wing (RAW).[10] He was expelled from the Hizb along with four divisional commanders.

The ceasefire move, its immediate endorsement and subsequent withdrawal highlighted deep divisions between the more hawkish operatives in AZ and those based in India.[11]

Dar and several other ex-Hizb leaders were assassinated between 2001 and 2003.[8][12] The organization today, under Salahudeen, is viewed as much more hardcore.[citation needed]

Death of Burhan Wani and protests in Kashmir[edit]

Main article: 2016 Kashmir unrest

On 8 July 2016, in a big blow to the Separatist Group and a victory to the Indian Armed Forces, its 22-year old young Commander and poster-boy Burhan Muzaffar Wani, who had a very strong social media presence, was shot dead by the forces of the Indian Army. More than 50,000 people mourned his death at his funeral.[13] His death triggered wide protests in the Kashmir valley. Over 50 people have died in the clashes, including 2 security personnel, and thousands injured. Many victims suffered sever eye injuries from the pellet guns used by the security forces and face permanent loss of eye sight.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] Archived January 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ [2][dead link]
  3. ^ "US adds 4 Indian outfits to terror list". Rediff. 30 April 2004. Retrieved 13 May 2015. 
  4. ^ Murphy, Eamon (2012). The Making of Terrorism in Pakistan: Historical and Social Roots of Extremism. Routledge. p. 123. ISBN 978-0415565264. 
  5. ^ "Hizb-ul-Mujahideen". Institute For Conflict Management. 
  6. ^ "Mohammad Ahsan Dar's Arrest: End of the Road for Hizbul? by Amin Masoodi". Institute of Peace & Conflict Studies -. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  7. ^ a b [3] Archived January 9, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ a b "Abdul Majid Dar shot dead". Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  9. ^ "Hizb expels three top commanders". Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  10. ^ "Dar & Co are RAW agents: Hizbul hawks". Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  11. ^ "The Hizbul meltdown". Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  12. ^ Praveen Swami; Indian Pakistan and the Secret Jihad: The Covert War in Kashmir, 1947–2004, Taylor & Francis, 2006, ISBN 0415404592, p. 202.
  13. ^ "Who was Burhan Wani and why is Kashmir mourning him?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 15 July 2016. 

External links[edit]