||This article possibly contains original research. (April 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
(0.08% of the U.S. population))
|Regions with significant populations|
|California (91,224), Minnesota (66,181), Wisconsin (49,240), North Carolina (10,864), and elsewhere|
|Hmong, American English, some Mandarin, some Lao, some Thai|
|Miao folk religion, Buddhism, Christianity|
Hmong Americans are Americans of Hmong descent from Southeast Asia, most notably from Thailand, Vietnam and Laos. Hmong Americans are one group of Asian Americans. Many Lao Hmong war refugees resettled in the US following the North Vietnamese invasion of Laos and Laotian Civil War during the Vietnam War. Following the Vietnam People's Army invasion and take over of the Royal Kingdom of Laos, beginning in December 1975, the first Lao Hmong refugees arrived in the US, mainly from refugee camps along the Mekong river in Thailand. Thousands of Lao Hmong fled persecution, human rights violations, military attacks, ethnic cleansing, and religious freedom violations, at the hands of Marxist and communist forces, including those of the Lao People's Army. However, despite the tens of thousands of Hmong people persecuted and killed, only approximately 3,466 were reportedly granted asylum as official refugees at this time under the Refugee Assistance Act of 1975.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Community Issues
- 4 Languages
- 5 Culture and US organizations
- 6 Kinship of the Hmong people
- 7 Hmong American rituals
- 8 2007 coup conspiracy accusations and arrests
- 9 Popular culture
- 10 Notable Hmong Americans
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
1976 and 1980
|This section does not cite any sources. (February 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Initially only 1,000 Hmong people were evacuated to the US. In May 1976, another 11,000 Hmong were allowed to enter the United States. By 1978 some 30,000 Hmong had immigrated to the US This first wave was made up primarily of men directly associated with General Vang Pao's Secret Army, which had been aligned with US war efforts during the Vietnam War. Vang Pao's Secret Army, which was subsidized by the US Central Intelligence Agency, fought mostly along the Ho Chi Minh Trail, where his forces sought to disrupt North Vietnamese weapons supply efforts to the communist VietCong rebel forces in South Vietnam. Ethnic Laotian and Hmong veterans, and their families, led by Colonel Wangyee Vang formed the Lao Veterans of America in the aftermath of the war to help refugees in the camps in Thailand and to help former veterans and their families in the United States, especially with family reunification and resettlement issues.
Four years later, with the passage of the Refugee Act of 1980, families of the Secret Army were also permitted to immigrate to the US, representing the second-wave of Hmong immigration. The clans, from which the Hmong take their surnames, are: Chang (Tsaab) or Cha (Tsab), Chao (Tsom), Cheng (Tsheej), Chue (Tswb), Fang (Faaj) or Fa (Fag), Hang (Haam) or Ha (Ham), Her (Hawj), Khang (Khaab) or Kha (Khab), Kong (Koo) or Soung (Xoom), Kue (Kwm), Lee (Lis), Lor (Lauj), Moua (Muas), Pha (Phab), Thao (Thoj), Vang (Vaaj) or Va (Vaj), Vue or Vu (Vwj), Xiong (Xyooj) and Yang (Yaaj) or Ya (Yaj).
1990s and 2000s
Following the 1980 immigration wave, a heated global political debate developed over how to deal with the remaining Hmong refugees in Thailand. Many had been held in squalid Thailand-based refugee camps, and the United Nations and the Clinton administration sought to repatriate them to Laos.
Reports of human rights violations against the Hmong in Laos, including killings and imprisonments, led most Thailand-based Hmong to oppose returning there, even as the conditions worsened of the camps in Thailand, because of their lack of sufficient funding.
One of the more prominent examples of apparent Laotian abuse of the Hmong was the fate of Vue Mai, a former soldier. The US Embassy in Bangkok recruited him to return to Laos under the repatriation program, in their effort to reassure the Thai-based Hmong that their safety in Laos would be assured. But, Vue disappeared in Vientiane. The US Commission for Refugees later reported that he was arrested by Lao security forces and never seen again.
Especially following the Vue Mai incident, the Clinton and UN policy of returning the Hmong to Laos began to meet with strong political opposition by US conservatives and some human rights advocates. Michael Johns, a former White House aide to President George H. W. Bush and a Heritage Foundation foreign policy analyst, along with other influential conservatives, led a campaign to grant the Thai-based Hmong immediate US immigration rights. In an October 1995 National Review article, citing the Hmong's contributions to US war efforts during the Vietnam War, Johns described President Clinton's support for returning the Thai-based Hmong refugees to Laos as a "betrayal" and urged Congressional Republicans to step up opposition to the repatriation. Opposition to the repatriation grew in Congress and among Hmong families in the US Congressional Republicans responded by introducing and passing legislation to appropriate sufficient funds to resettle all remaining Hmong in Thailand in the United States. Clinton vowed to veto the legislation.
In addition to internal US opposition to the repatriation, the government of Laos expressed reservations about the repatriation, stating that the Hmong remaining in Thailand were a threat to its one-party communist government and the Marxist government in Vientiane, Laos . In a significant and unforeseen political victory for the Hmong and their US Republican advocates, tens of thousands of Thai-based Hmong refugees were ultimately granted US immigration rights. The majority were1 resettled in California, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The defeat of the repatriation initiative resulted in the reunifications in the US of many long-separated Hmong families. In 2006, as a reflection of the growth of the minority in the state, the Wisconsin State Elections Board translated state voting documents into the Hmong language.
Throughout the Vietnam War, and for two decades following it, the US government stated that there was no "Secret War" in Laos, and that the US was not engaged in air or ground combat operations in Laos. In the late 1990s, however, several US conservatives, led by Johns and others, alleged that the Clinton administration was using the denial of this covert war to justify a repatriation of Thailand-based Hmong war veterans to Laos. It persuaded the US government to acknowledge the Secret War (conducted mostly under President Nixon) and to honor the Hmong and American veterans from the war.
On May 15, 1997, in a total reversal of US policy, the federal government acknowledged that it had supported a prolonged air and ground campaign in Laos against the North Vietnamese Army and VietCong. That day it dedicated the Laos Memorial on the grounds of Arlington National Cemetery in honor of the Hmong and other combat veterans from the Secret War. In 1999 there were about 250,000 Hmong people living in the United States, living in numerous medium and large cities.
Some Hmong remained in refugee camps Thailand at the time of the September 11, 2001 attacks. This resulted in the tightening of US immigration laws, especially under the Patriot Act and the Real ID Act, and the immigration of Hmong refugees to the US has significantly slowed. Most Hmong refugees in Thailand had been engaged in documented armed conflict (although under US sponsorship) during and after the Vietnam War. The anti-terrorism legislation created barriers to such people being accepted as immigrants.
Hmong Population in the US by Areas of Concentration
States with the largest Hmong population include: California (86,989; 0.2%), Minnesota (63,619; 1.2%), Wisconsin (47,127; 0.8%), and North Carolina (10,433; 0.1%), Michigan (5,924; 0.1%), Colorado (3,859; 0.1%), Georgia (3,623; 0.03%), Alaska (3,534; 0.5%), Oklahoma (3,369; 0.1%), and Oregon (2,920; 0.1%). The metropolitan areas of Fresno and Minneapolis-St. Paul have especially large Hmong communities. St. Paul, Minnesota has the largest Hmong population per capita in the United States (10.0%; 28,591 Hmong Americans), followed by Wausau in Wisconsin. 3,569 Hmong people live in Wausau (9.1% of its population).
Today, according to the 2010 US Census, 260,073 people of Hmong descent reside in the United States up from 186,310 in 2000. The vast majority of the growth since 2000 was from natural increase, except for the admission of a final group of over 15,000 refugees in 2004 and 2005 from Wat Tham Krabok in Thailand. Of the 260,073 Hmong-Americans, 247,595 or 95.2% are Hmong alone, and the remaining 12,478 are mixed Hmong with some other ethnicity or race. The Hmong-American population is among the youngest of all groups in the United States, with the majority being under 30 years old, born after 1980, with most part-Hmong are under 10 years old.
In terms of metropolitan area, the largest Hmong-American community is in Minneapolis-Saint Paul-Bloomington, MN Metro Area (64,422); followed by Fresno, CA Metro Area (31,771); Sacramento, CA Metro Area (26,996); Milwaukee, WI Metro Area (11,904); and Merced, CA Metro Area (7,254).
There are smaller Hmong communities scattered across the country, including cities in California; Michigan (Detroit, Michigan and Warren, Michigan – 4,190), Alaska (Anchorage, Alaska – 3,494); Colorado (Denver, Colorado – 3,426); North Carolina(Hickory, North Carolina); Georgia (Auburn, Duluth, Lawrenceville, Monroe, Atlanta, and Winder); Wisconsin (Eau Claire, Appleton, Green Bay, La Crosse, and Stevens Point, Plover, and Sheboygan); Kansas (Kansas City – 1,754); Oklahoma (Tulsa – 2,483); Missoula County, Montana (230); Southwest Missouri; Northwest Arkansas (Benton County); Washington; Oregon (Portland), and throughout the United States.
Hmong by location
As of the 2000 US Census, the largest Hmong population by metropolitan area resided in and around Minneapolis-St. Paul, with 40,707 people. The following areas were Greater Fresno with 22,456 people, Greater Sacramento (Sacramento-Yolo) with 16,261, Greater Milwaukee (Milwaukee-Racine) with 8,078, Greater Merced with 6,148, Greater Stockton (Stockton-Lodi) with 5,553, Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah with 4,741, Greater Wausau with 4,453, Hickory-Morganton-Lenoir (North Carolina) with 4,207, and Greater Detroit (Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint) with 3,926.
California has the largest Hmong population in the United States by state. As of 2010, there are 91,244 Hmong Americans in California, 0.3% of the state's population.
In 2002, the State of California counted about 35,000 students of Hmong descent in schools. According to Jay Schenirer, a member of the school board of the Sacramento City Unified School District, most of the students resided in the Central Valley, in an area ranging from Fresno to Marysville. Fresno County and Sacramento County combined have almost 12,000 Hmong students.
As of 2002, of the Hmong students who took the California English Language Development Test, which measures English fluency in students who are learning English, 15% of Hmong scores at the "advanced" or "early advanced" classifications, while 30% of Vietnamese English learning students and 21% of all of California's over 1.5 million English learning students scored at those levels. Suanna Gilman-Ponce, the multilingual education department head of Sacramento City Unified, said that the Hmong students have lower rates due to having parents who speak little English; therefore they enter American schools with few English skills. In addition their culture was not literate, so Hmong history was not written down and history books did not discuss Hmong history.
In 2011, Susan B. Anthony Elementary School in Sacramento established a Hmong-language immersion program. It is the only Hmong immersion program in a California public school, and is one of two Hmong immersion school programs in the United States.
Kansas has a moderate Hmong population. Kansas City was one of the first cities to accept Hmong people after the war. Kansas City Hmong population declined in the early 80s due to migration from Kansas to California, and the Northern Midwest. The population has since stabilized and has more than double every decade since 1990. According to the 2010 Census, 1,732 Hmong people lived in Kansas of which 1,600 lived in the Kansas Side of Kansas City and an estimated more than 400 families and 2,000 Hmong living in the Greater Kansas City Area in 2013. Lao Family was established in Kansas City in the 1980s but the Hmong separated from the organization to create the Hmong American Community, Inc which today is still a functioning entity hosting Hmong New Year celebrations in Kansas City. Kansas City has a vast majority Green Hmong population and is greater than 80% converted to Christianity though more and more Hmong people move in every year that still practices the traditional religion. Kansas City is home to five Hmong churches, multiple Hmong run and owned manufacturing companies, nail salons, small business such as insurance and barber shops, vendors at the flea market, and organization such as Hmong Village Inc, Vang Organization, and Herr Organization just to name a few. Minnesota State Senator Foung Hawj lived in Kansas City during teen years. After graduated from The University of Kansas in 1990, he moved to Minnesota to start the first Hmong television show Kev Koom Siab. A majority of the Hmong in Kansas City are his kin. His father, retired Pastor Chay Heu, and mother still live there.
As of 2011, according to Judy Thao, the director of the United Hmong of Massachusetts, an organization based in Lowell, about 2,000 Hmong resided in the State of Massachusetts. Thao said that the largest community, with 60 to 70 families, is located in the Fitchburg/Leominster area. As of 2010, there are 412 people of Hmong descent living in Fitchburg (one percent of the city's population). Thao said that about 20 to 30 families each live in the second largest communities, in Springfield and Brockton.
As of 1999, fewer than 4,000 Hmong people lived in Detroit. As of 2005, Michigan had 5,400 Hmong people; reflecting an increase from 2,300 in the 1990s. As of 2005, most Hmong in Michigan lived in Metro Detroit in the cities of Detroit, Pontiac, and Warren. As of 2002 the concentrations of Hmong and Laotian people in the Wayne–Macomb–Oakland tri-county area were in northeast Detroit, southern Warren, and central Pontiac. That year, Kurt Metzger and Jason Booza, authors of "Asians in the United States, Michigan and Metropolitan Detroit," wrote that "The 3,943 Hmong living in tri-county area are one of the most concentrated of the Asian groups." As of 2007, almost 8,000 Hmong lived in Michigan, most in northeastern Detroit. As of 2007, Hmong were increasingly moving to Pontiac and Warren. Lansing hosts a statewide Hmong New Year Festival.
Pom Siab Hmoob (Gazing into the Heart of the Hmong) Theatre, which is reportedly the world's first Hmong theater group, was formed in 1990. It is based in the Twin Cities. It is now known as the Center for Hmong Arts and Talent (CHAT).
Mee Moua was elected as the nation's first Hmong American State Senator. She was elected in 2002 and served until 2010. She represented District 67 in the Minnesota Senate, which includes portions of the city of Saint Paul in Ramsey County.
The film Gran Torino by Clint Eastwood, though filmed in Michigan, stars five Minnesotan Hmong Americans, and the original story was based on a neighborhood in St. Paul. It was the first mainstream US film to feature Hmong Americans.
A group of Hmong refugees settled in Philadelphia after the end of the 1970s Laotian Civil War. They were attacked in discriminatory acts, and the city's Commission on Human Relations held hearings on the incidents. Anne Fadiman, author of The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, said that lower-class residents resented the Hmong receiving a $100,000 federal grant for employment assistance when they were also out of work; they believed that American citizens should be getting assistance. Between 1982 and 1984, three quarters of the Hmong people who had settled in Philadelphia left for other cities in the United States to join relatives who were already there.
As of 1999, Wisconsin has over 39,000 Hmong people, giving it the third largest Hmong population by state. In December 1999 the Institute for Wisconsin's Future stated in a report that "Given the major cultural differences, language barriers and skill gaps facing the Hmong, a number of Wisconsin's Hmong population have relied on welfare to meet their families' basic needs during this transition." Vicky Selkowe, who served as the organization's project coordinator and the cowriter of the report, said that the language barrier was the main difficulty affecting the state's Hmong population, and their inexperience with the written language worsened matters.
In December 1999, according to the Hmong National Development Inc., Chicago had about 500 Hmong people. There is a sizable Hmong population in Westminster, Colorado (0.8% of the city's population as of 2010).
Lack of education and High dropout rates
The 2000 US Census reveals that 60% of all Hmong above 24 years of age have a highest educational attainment of high school or equivalent, as many of these immigrants came to America as adults or young adults. About 7% of Hmong have a bachelor's degree or higher. According to a government data collected in 2013, 40% of Hmong Americans dropout of school.
The lack of formal education among Hmong immigrants is due to the fact that many were once farmers in the hills of Laos or were refugees from war who fled into remote jungles, and had little or no access to schools.
In St. Paul about 2,000 Hmong people have their bachelor's degree, 150 have their master's degree, and 68 have received their doctoral degree. Which is a very low percentage despite the city having a community of less than 36,000 Hmong Americans.
Almost 30% of Hmong families in the United States live under the poverty level. Although at the last count by the American government the poverty rate of the Hmong American community has risen to 37.8% of people living below the poverty line. Which at last count is over twice the average of all Americans living below the poverty line which is at 16%.
In 2014, identified by factfinder census, when Americans per capita income was divided by ethnic groups Hmong Americans were revealed to be the second lowest earning ethnic group per capita in the USA with a per capita income of only $12,923 below the American average of $25,825.
Culture and politics
There are many cultural, political, and social issues that are being debated among Hmong American communities. Topics include political participation, poverty, gang violence, race relations, and education. The Hmong community also retains many ties with the Hmong still in Indochina and remains active in regional politics.
Among the diverse identities of Hmong Americans, gender and sexuality identities have emerged and gained cultural, political, and social presence. In 2003, Shades of Yellow (SOY) was established in St. Paul, Minnesota, to support Hmong people who identified as LGBTQ+. 
Compared to other Southeast Asian refugees in America, Hmong refugees have the highest rates of mental health disorders, with an overall mental illness incidence rate at around 33.5%. This mental health problem has been attributed to traumatic past experiences and problems adjusting to life in the United States.
The Hmong language is spoken by approximately 4 million with about 5% residing in the United States. The primary dialect for the Hmong language is Chuanqiandian. There are two different dialects, Hmong Ntsuab and Hmong Dawb. In America these are known as Green Mong and Mong Njua, with the later referred to as White Hmong. Many of the vowel sounds are quite a bit different in these dialects compared to some of the Asian ones.
In the United States, about 60% speak White Hmong and 40% speak Green Hmong. The Centers for Disease Control states "Though some Hmong report difﬁculty understanding speakers of a dialect not their own, for the most part, White and Green Hmong speakers seem to understand one another."
White Hmong and Green Hmong
White Hmong (Hmoob Dawb) and Green Hmong (Hmoob Ntsuab) are the two primary dialects spoken by Hmong Americans. The difference between the two dialects is analogous to the difference between American and British English; thus, both can understand each other easily. Green Hmong is named so because of the color used in Green Hmong women's traditional costume.
It is seen that the majority of the Hmong American population is either White or Green Hmong, but with language there can be some language barriers. For example, providing quality interpreter services can be difficult. Complicating communication issues is the fact that until the late 1960s no written form of the Hmong language existed, and many of the Hmong people were unable to read or write their own language. This makes the use of written materials for Hmong patients fairly useless. This kind of complication in communicating was able to be seen in Anne Fadiman's book, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures, where the Lees cannot read or write their own language and have trouble when then their daughter Lia has to go to the hospital. The Lees need to get interpreters to help them try to understand what is wrong with their child and what they need to do. When Lia was given medications, the Lees had a great struggle since they could not read or follow the doctors instructions. Such a language barrier can make it very difficult to follow simple instructions. Being unable to communicate leads to great struggles.[page needed]
Culture and US organizations
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Even though most Hmong families speak a language other than English at home, many Hmong Americans are rapidly blending into mainstream American society. This is causing some of the younger generation to lose aspects of their cultural identity at a faster pace. To help combat this, the Lao Hmong community has set up associations and media that encourage Hmong people to maintain their language, historical identity and culture. These include the Lao Veterans of America, Lao Veterans of America Institute, Lao Human Rights Council, Hmong Advancement, Inc., Hmong Advance, Inc., United League for Democracy in Laos, Inc., Lao Family, Hmong National Development (HND) association and the Hmong Today and Hmong Times newspapers. The Lao Veterans of America Institute is also a national 501(c) 3 organization. There are a number of other Hmong non-profit organizations, including those previously mentioned, and HND which is also one of a number of national, 501(c)(3), not-for-profit organizations serving the community.
Hmong Today, a publishes communications products for the Hmong community. These products are designed to provide important information to the Hmong community and to promote unity in the Hmong community. Hmong Today also informs the community at large about the Hmong community. Having a newspaper like Hmong Today creates a way for businesses, organizations, and schools to connect with the Hmong community. Likewise, the Hmong Times is a national newspaper serving the Lao and Hmong-American community in Minnesota and the United States.
Kinship of the Hmong people
In regards to kinship, the Hmong maintain theirs uniquely when observed by one from outside of their culture. Of course, the tradition of kinship is kept in a unique way in various cultures. As shown through the context of Anne Fadiman's The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, the kinship between mothers and their newborn babies is almost inseparable. The mother would always carry the newborn baby with her all day long even when she is working so that the baby would not be left around on the dirty ground floor and as the protection to the baby from bad spirits. In the case of kinship among other relatives in the United States, the Hmong people tend to stay in groups where there are many other Hmong residing. This allows them to share their cultural values and practices together. The cohesiveness of their residence close to one another makes them feel more comfortable in the foreign land of the United States.
As happened with other immigrant groups, some cultural conflicts arose when the Hmong arrived in the US after the Vietnam War. One of the better-documented conflicts occurred in medicine. Anne Fadiman's 1997 nonfiction book The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down documents one such conflict regarding a young Hmong girl's health care. The girl's parents saw her epileptic seizures as a divine gift, whereas Western medicine viewed them as a serious medical condition. The conflict was exacerbated by communication issues and cultural over-reliance on alternative medicine. A language barrier and what the parents interpreted as condescension and racism on the part of the doctors led the parents to believe the Californian doctors did not have their daughter's best interests at heart, and on several occasions believed the medicines being administered were making their daughter's epilepsy worse. Meanwhile, the American doctors remarked that the Hmong were being obstinate and were unable or unwilling to follow instructions in medicating their daughter. There is controversy over whether there was true informed consent from the illiterate parents, who often signed consent forms without an interpreter. Although there are issues about its contents, Fadiman's book is often used when studying cross-cultural medicine.
Hmong American rituals
Hmong rituals and ceremonies have been an important part of the Hmong cultural and spiritual experience. From funerals to soul calling, these rituals have been passed down from generations to generations. As Hmong spread around the United States these rituals adapt to the location changes.
Hmong American funerals
Since arriving in the United States in the late 1970s, many Hmong families still practice their rituals, but the number of traditional funerals preferred had dwindled due to a large number of Hmong, mostly the younger generations, converting to Christianity, financial, and more. Living in the United States also with jobs and school, there is not that much time to take a week off, which is how long most of these funeral rituals take (Lee, Kirk 2009).
There are several differences between traditional funeral rituals in Laos and Thailand than in the United States. Usually in Laos and Thailand funerals occur immediately in the home after a person dies. The person is dressed and then held within the hours at the home (Lee, 1009). Usually they take place at the house because the guardians and spirits are present for protection. Now they start in a funeral home and then go onto the deceased home. In the United States a body must be transported for autopsy, paper work is done, and before the body is released for the ritual the proper documentation had to be signed. In Laos there are no funeral homes, but in the United States this is where they are usually serviced. When someone dies the family now has to call a funeral director and carefully plan the funeral ritual. Another main difference is because they have more access to material products (Yang 2011).
At these ceremonies there is usually an offering of an oxen, but there is no oxen in the United States, there is just cows and buffalos (Yang, 2011). Nowadays it is still common from Hmong Americans to sacrifice animals as offerings to a deceased, especially if it is a parent. Also now that the animal has to be transported to the funeral home, only the head of the animal and other significant parts could be used during the sacrifice, and not the whole body. Because of the new lives of the Hmong in the United States, people are usually working so the funeral is held only on weekends, usually 2–3 days oppose to the 3–12 days.
2007 coup conspiracy accusations and arrests
On June 4, 2007, following a lengthy federal investigation labeled "Operation Flawed Eagle," warrants were issued by a California-based US federal court for the arrest of General Vang Pao, eight other Hmong people, and one non-Hmong person for allegedly plotting to overthrow the government of Laos in violation of the federal Neutrality Acts and various US weapons laws.
The federal charges allege that members of the group inspected weapons, including AK-47s, smoke grenades, and Stinger missiles, with the intent of purchasing them and smuggling them into Thailand in June 2007 for use in Hmong guerrilla war efforts against the Laotian government. The one non-Hmong person of the nine arrested, Harrison Jack, a 1968 West Point graduate and retired Army infantry officer, allegedly attempted to recruit Special Operations veterans to act as mercenaries.
On June 15, the defendants were indicted by a grand jury and a warrant was also issued for the arrest of an 11th man, allegedly involved in the plot. The defendants faced possible life prison terms for violation.
Vang Pao and other defendants were ultimately granted bail, following the posting of $1.5 million in property. Following the arrests, many Vang Pao supporters had called on President George W. Bush and California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger to pardon the defendants.
On September 18, 2009, the federal government dropped all charges against Vang Pao, announcing in a release that the federal government was permitted to consider "the probable sentence or other consequences if the person is convicted.” On January 10, 2011, charges against all of the remaining defendants were dropped as well.
Notable Hmong Americans
At least two Hmong have been elected to high public office. In 2002, Mee Moua became the first Hmong American legislator when she was elected to fill the Minnesota State Senate seat vacated by Randy Kelly when he was elected mayor of St. Paul. She is currently the Senate majority whip. Cy Thao is a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives.
At age 14, Joe Bee Xiong fought alongside American soldiers like his father had done. When their village fell to the Communists, Xiong and his family fled to a refugee camp in Thailand and eventually ended up in Wisconsin in 1980. In 1996, Xiong was elected to the Eau Claire, Wisconsin city council. Xiong was the first Hmong to be elected to a city council in Wisconsin. He ran for the state Assembly in 2004. Xiong was travelling with family in his native country, Laos, when he died, possibly of heart-related complications. Wisconsin Congressman Ron Kind worked with Xiong to investigate reports of human rights abuses against Hmong still in Laos and southeast Asia and says Xiong was a great community leader and an inspiration to many. Another Hmong, Thomas T. Vue, presently serves on the Eau Clair city council. Furthermore, Chue Neng Xiong was elected to the Eau Claire, WI school board and sworn into service on April 22, 2013.
In some of the large cities where Lao and Hmong-Americans live and work, tensions have, on rare occasion, running high between them and neighboring ethnic groups. Hmong people have sometimes been targets of discrimination, mainly because of job competition and stereotyping of them as foreigners and too dependent on welfare. Some of their persecutors justified their actions by claiming that the Hmong unnecessarily took jobs, welfare money, and other services away from long-time residents.
Community leaders and organizations, including Dr. Wangyee Vang, Dr. Cherzong Vang, the Lao Veterans of America, the Lao Veterans of America Institute, the Center for Public Policy Analysis, the Lao Human Rights Council, and others, have sought to educate the public and policymakers about the important contribution of the Hmong people, and Lao Hmong veterans, during the Vietnam War in support of US national security interests. In 1997, the Lao Veterans of America dedicated a monument in Arlington National Cemetery, the Laos Memorial, to help honor the Hmong veterans and community for their service to the United States during the Vietnam War and its aftermath. Each year, in May, they continue to host annual ceremonies with members of the US Congress and other officials, to honor the service of the Hmong. Many Hmong elders and young people attend the ceremonies and events in Washington, D.C.
Hmong girls and boys had also encountered difficulties in achieving success in the field of education as they adapted the Hmong culture, which is considered as rural, to the contemporary American society (Ngo & Lor, 2013). Cha suggested that the dropout rate of Hmong teenagers was the highest among those of Asian American groups (2013). In the first few years after immigration, Hmong girls almost had no chance to be educated in school. Later, as they got the opportunities to go to school, around 90% of Hmong girls chose to quit school because parents preferred obedient and compliant daughters-in-law when looking for partners for the sons (Ngo & Lor, 2013).
On the other hand, Hmong young men actually burdened more pressure due to the high expectations on sons in Hmong culture, which led to their challenges in school, such as bad relationships with teachers and lack of participation in class. The word used to describe the work those Hmong boys involved in for family was “helping out” (Ngo & Lor, 2013, p. 155), referring to an accepted and natural habit including working outside, taking care of the siblings, completing daily household, being cultural brokers for parents and attending numerous traditional ceremonies. For example, Hmong boys were asked to write checks to pay for utility bills and to prepare food for their younger brothers. Also, they went to ceremonies not only to maintain the family relationship but also to keep the traditions from disappearing.
According to Yang (2013), after three decades of struggle, Hmong Americans had achieved in economic, political and educational aspects. Starting from small business, the businesses of Hmong had become international, diverse and high-tech since 2000. For example, about 50 home health care agencies which were supported by federal or state medical assistance were run by Hmong in Minnesota. The Hmong were also more involved in political activities that 57 percent of the Hmong in Minnesota regarded themselves as Democrats, shown by a survey in 2008, and several Hmong people, including Madison P. Nguyen, a former Hmong refugee women in Minnesota, had been elected political staffs in city offices.
The young generation accessed education successfully and had even established a good number of Hmong American organizations to discuss the issues such as human rights and helped themselves by submitting reports to the US government. Both male and female Hmong Americans started to enter professional careers and high-tech industries. For example, according to a survey in 2010, 21 Hmong Americans were working as university professors. In addition, a number of literary institutions had been established to inspire the growth of the young people. All of these were evidences of achievements in adaptation to American society.
- Asian Americans
- Hmong people
- Kingdom of Laos
- North Vietnamese invasion of Laos
- Laos Memorial
- Hmong Veterans' Naturalization Act of 2000
- Lao Veterans of America
- Vang Pobzeb
- Lao Human Rights Council
- United League for Democracy in Laos
- Vang Pao
- The Center for Public Policy Analysis
- Laotian Americans
- List of Hmong/Miao People
- Vietnam War
- Cherzong Vang
- Elizabeth M. Hoeffel; Sonya Rastogi; Myoung Ouk Kim; Hasan Shahid (March 2012). "The Asian Population: 2010" (PDF). 2010 Census Briefs. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- Moua, Dr. Mai (2010). "2010 Census Hmong Populations by State". 2010 United States Census. Hmong American Partnership. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- "Hmong Americans". Cultural Aspects of Healthcare. The College of St. Scholastica. 1996. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
Primary religious/spiritual affiliation. A recent study found that 75% of Hmong people practiced traditional religion which is animistic. Many Hmong also practice Buddhism or Christianity with membership to various churches such as Catholic, Missionary Alliance, Baptist, Mormon, and others.
- Smith, Philip, Centre for Public Policy Analysis, Washington, D.C. (05 January 1993) http://www.centerforpublicpolicyanalysis.org
- Wangyee, Vang, Lao Veterans of America Institute, Fresno, California & Lao Veterans of America, Inc. http://www.laoveteransofamerica.org
- Hamilton-Merritt, Jane (1 January 1993). Tragic Mountains: The Hmong, the Americans, and the Secret Wars for Laos, 1942–1992. Indiana University Press. p. 525. ISBN 9780253207562. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- "Acts of Betrayal: Persecution of Hmong", by Michael Johns, National Review, October 23, 1995.
- Youyee Vang, Chia (2010). Hmong America: Reconstructing Community in Diaspora. Asian American experience. University of Illinois Press. p. 130. ISBN 9780252077593. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- Kaiser, Robert L. "After 25 Years In U.S., Hmong Still Feel Isolated." Chicago Tribune. December 27, 1999. 1. Retrieved on April 14, 2012.
- [dead link]
- Data Center States Results
- "Top 50 Metropolitan Areas by Hmong Population." The Hmong Culture Center. Data compiled by Mark Pfeifer. accessed 29 January 2006
- "Southeast Asian Americans at a Glance" (PDF). Southeast Asia Resource Action Center. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- "2010 Census Hmong Populations of U.S. Metro and Micro Areas". Hmong American Partnership. Hmong American Partnership. 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- Briggeman, Kim. Hmong man, Missoula resident who served in resistance hopes for U.S. intervention, The Missoulian, December 28, 2009.
- O'Malley, Julia. "Hmong and Mormon." Anchorage Daily News. Sunday October 8, 2006. A1. Retrieved on March 13, 2012.
- Chavez, Erika. "Hmong cry for help has been heard A state forum will seek ways to improve student achievement." The Sacramento Bee. Tuesday May 28, 2002. B1. Retrieved on March 12, 2012.
- Chavez, Erika. "Hmong immersion program in Sacramento aims to educate, preserve." PRI. December 25, 2012. Retrieved on October 13, 2013.
- "Cool Things - Hmong Story Cloth." Kansas Historical Society. Retrieved on March 2, 2014.
- http://www.hmong.org/page33422626.aspx Retrieved on July 19, 2013
- West, Nancy Shohet. "Hmong stories woven into art in Groton show." Boston Globe. March 31, 2011. 1. Retrieved on March 12, 2012.
- Kaiser, Robert L. "After 25 Years In U.s., Hmong Still Feel Isolated." Chicago Tribune. December 27, 1999. 2. Retrieved on April 14, 2012.
- "Michigan Hmong." Michigan Daily. January 10, 2007. p. 2 (Archive) Retrieved on November 8, 2012.
- Metzger, Kurt and Jason Booza. "Asians in the United States, Michigan and Metropolitan Detroit." Center for Urban Studies, Wayne State University. January 2002 Working Paper Series, No. 7. p. 7. Retrieved on November 6, 2013.
- "Michigan Hmong." The Michigan Daily. January 10, 2007. 1. Retrieved on April 12, 2012.
- Her, Lucy Y. "Ceremony is Hmong welcome to educators - Culture-sharing event aims to aid students, educate parents and elders.." Minneapolis Star Tribune. Saturday March 31, 2001. News 9B. Retrieved on March 12, 2012.
- Lee, Gary Yia and Nicholas Tapp. Culture and Customs of the Hmong. Greenwood Publishing Group. ABC-CLIO, 2010. 76–77. Retrieved from Google Books on April 14, 2012. ISBN 0-313-34526-0, ISBN 978-0-313-34526-5.
- Lee, Gary Yia and Nicholas Tapp. Culture and Customs of the Hmong. Greenwood Publishing Group. ABC-CLIO, 2010. 77. Retrieved from Google Books on April 14, 2012. ISBN 0-313-34526-0, ISBN 978-0-313-34526-5.
- Yuen, Laura. "Hmong get a mixed debut in new Eastwood film." Minnesota Public Radio. December 18, 2008. Retrieved on March 18, 2012.
- "The Melting Pot." Fadiman, Anne. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down. The Noonday Press, 1997. ISBN 0-374-52564-1, ISBN 978-0-374-52564-4. p. 192. "In Philadelphia, anti-Hmong muggings, robberies, beatings, stonings, and vandalism were so commonplace during the early eighties that the city's Commission on Human Relations held public hearings to investigate the violence. One source[...]"
- "The Melting Pot." Fadiman, Anne. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down. The Noonday Press, 1997. ISBN 0-374-52564-1, ISBN 978-0-374-52564-4. p. 195.
- Chan, Sucheng (1994). Hmong Means Free: Life in Laos and America. Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1-56639-163-4.
- Bankston, Carl L., III. "Hmong Americans." Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America. Ed. Jeffrey Lehman. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2000. 832–843. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 25 Nov. 2010.
- Lindsey, Jeff. The Hmong in America. N.p.: Jeff Lindsey, 2009. Web. 25 Nov. 2010.
- Yang, Dao. Hmong Turning Point. Minneapolis: worldbridge Associates, Ltd., 1993. 1–5. Print.
- Yang, Dao. Hmong American Residence and Business Directory. Minnesota: L&W communications, 1999. 11. Print.
- "Median houseland income in the past 12 months (in 2014 inflation-adjusted dollars)". American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "Median houseland income in the past 12 months (in 2014 inflation-adjusted dollars)". American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- Glover, Katherine. "Twin Cities-based Shades of Yellow promoting visibility for Hmong gay and lesbian community". MINNPOST. MINNPOST. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
- Lee, S., & Chang, J. (2012a). "Mental health status of the Hmong Americans in 2011: Three decades revisited." Journal of Social Work in Disability and Rehabilitation, 11(1), 55–70.
- Lee, S., & Chang, J. (2012b). "Revisiting 37 years later: A brief summary of existing sources related to Hmong and their mental health status." Hmong Studies Journal, 13.2, 1–13.
- Culhane-Pera, K. A., Vawter, D. E., Xiong, P., Babbitt, B., & Solberg, M. M. (Eds.). (2003). Healing by Heart: Clinical and Ethical Case Stories of Hmong Families and Western Providers. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
- "Hmong Language".
- "Chapter 2. Overview of Lao Hmong Culture." (Archive) Promoting Cultural Sensitivity: Hmong Guide. Centers for Disease Control. p. 14. Retrieved on May 5, 2013.
- Cobb, T. (2010). "STRATEGIES FOR PROVIDING CULTURAL COMPETENT HEALTH CARE FOR HMONG AMERICANS." Journal Of Cultural Diversity, 17(3), 79–83
- Fadiman, A. 1997. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
- Welcome to Hmong Today - The Nation's Hmong newspaper, community news & opinions, xov-xwm hmoob
- Hmong Times, Minneapolis & St. Paul, Minnesota, (12 December 2013) http://www.hmongtimes.com
- "Microsoft Helps Hmong Folks Rescue Dying Language Via Online Translator". Retrieved 2012-10-21.
- Fadiman, Anne (1997). The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
- The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down
- Walsh, Denny, "Ten Accused of Conspiring to Oust Government of Laos," The Sacramento Bee, June 5, 2007 http://www.sacbee.com/292/story/206120.html (accessed June 5, 2007).
- U.S. Drops Case Against Exiled Hmong Leader," The New York Times, September 18, 2009.
- Saad, Nardine (January 10, 2011). "Charges dropped against 12 Hmong men accused in plot to overthrow Laotian government". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- Hmong Leader from Eau Claire dies in Laos
- The Hmong in America: A Story of Tragedy and Hope
- Defense & Aerospace Week, (4 June 2014) "Arlington National Cemetery, U.S. Congress, Officials Honor Lao, Hmong-American Veterans" http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-371064468.html
- Ngo, B. & Lor, P. N. (2013). "Great Expectations: The Struggles of Hmong American High School Boys." In M. E. Pfeifer, M. Chiu, & K. Yang (Eds.), Diversity in Diaspora: Hmong Americans in the Twenty-First Century (pp. 151–164). Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.
- Cha. D. (2013). "Women in the Hmong Diaspora." In M. E. Pfeifer, M. Chiu, & K. Yang (Eds.), Diversity in Diaspora: Hmong Americans in the Twenty-First Century (pp. 165–187). Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.
- Yang, K. (2013). "The American Experience of the Hmong: A Historical Review." In M. E. Pfeifer, M. Chiu, & K. Yang (Eds.), Diversity in Diaspora: Hmong Americans in the Twenty-First Century (pp. 3–53). Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.
- Gonzalo, Pa Xiong. Growing Up Hmong in Laos and America: Two Generations of Women Amerasia should Journal (2010) 36#1 pp 56–103
- Lee, Marjorie. "Through Hmong America: A Bibliographic Journey." Amerasia Journal 36.1 (2010): 105–114.
- The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures by Anne Fadiman
- The Latehomecomer: A Hmong Family Memoir by Kao Kalia Yang
- Tangled Threads: A Hmong Girl's Story by Pegi Deitz Shea
- Hmong and American: Stories of Transition to a Strange Land by Sue Murphy Mote
- Hmong America: Reconstructing Community in Diaspora (Asian American Experience) by Chia Youyee Vang
- Cooking from the Heart: The Hmong Kitchen in America by Sami Scripter and Sheng Yang
- Tangled Threads: A Hmong Girl's Story by Shea, Pegi Deitz
- Harvesting Pa Chay's Wheat: The Hmong & America's Secret War in Laos by Keith Quincy
- The Promised Land: The Socioeconomic Reality of the Hmong People in Urban America (1976–2000) by Fungchatau T. Lo
- Hmong and American: From Refugees to Citizens by Vincent K. Her, Mary Louise Buley-Meissner, Amy DeBroux and Jeremy Hein
- Hmong Means Free (Asian American History & Cultu) by Sucheng Chan
- Hmong in America: Journey from a Secret War by Tim Pfaff
- Moua, Mai Neng (editor). Bamboo Among the Oaks: Contemporary Writing by Hmong Americans. Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2002. ISBN 0873514378, 9780873514378.
- The Whispering Cloth: A Refugee's Story by Pegi Deitz Shea
- Hmong in Minnesota by Chia Vang
- "The violence of Hmong gangs and the crime of rape." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. February 1, 2003.
- "THE EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF HMONG STUDENTS IN WISCONSIN."(Archive) Wisconsin Policy Research Institute. December 1997. Volume 10, Issue 8.
- "Wisconsin Hmong Population and Hmong Mutual Assistance Associations." (Archive) US Department of Agriculture
- "2010 U.S. Census Hmong Populations." (Archive) Hmong National Development, Inc.
- Lomation's Hmong Text Reader – free online program that can read Hmong words/text.
- Hmong Cultural Center, Saint Paul, Minnesota.
- Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center.
- Hmong Studies Journal.
- WWW Hmongnet.org.
- Hmong-American Partnership.
- Lao Family Community.
- Hmong Times, Minnesota-based Hmong newspaper.
- Hmong Today, United States nationally-based Hmong newspaper.
- "Hmong in the Modern World." D.C. Everest School District.
- The Critical Hmong Studies Collective. ""Persistent Invisibility: Hmong Americans are silenced." AsianWeek. September 13, 2008.
- "Acts of Betrayal: Persecution of Hmong"[dead link], by Michael Johns, National Review, October 23, 1995.
- "An Overview of Recent Developments in Hmong-American and Lao-American Studies Research", by Dr. Mark Pfeiffer. (Archive)
- Hmong Americans, by Carl L. Bankston III.
- Being Hmong Means Being Free Documentary produced by Wisconsin Public Television
- Katherine Glover |. “Twin Cities-Based Shades of Yellow Promoting Visibility for Hmong Gay and Lesbian Community.” MinnPost. |access-date=February 14, 2017 https://www.minnpost.com/arts-culture/2010/04/twin-cities-based-shades-yellow-promoting-visibility-hmong-gay-and-lesbian-comm.