Precursor mRNA

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from HnRNA)
Jump to: navigation, search
Pre-mRNA is the first form of RNA created through transcription in protein synthesis. The pre-mRNA lacks structures that the messenger RNA (mRNA) requires. First all introns have to be removed from the transcribed RNA through a process known as splicing. Before the RNA is ready for export, a Poly(A)tail is added to the 3’ end of the RNA and a 5’ cap is added to the 5’ end.

See main article Primary transcript for more details

Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) is an immature single strand of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Pre-mRNA is synthesized from a DNA template in the cell nucleus by transcription. Pre-mRNA comprises the bulk of heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). The term hnRNA is often used as a synonym for pre-mRNA, although, in the strict sense, hnRNA may include nuclear RNA transcripts that do not end up as cytoplasmic mRNA.

Once pre-mRNA has been completely processed, it is termed "mature messenger RNA", or simply "messenger RNA".


Eukaryotic pre-mRNA exists only briefly before it is fully processed into mRNA. Pre-mRNAs include two different types of segments, exons and introns. Exons are segments that are retained in the final mRNA, whereas introns are removed in a process called splicing, which is performed by the spliceosome (except for self-splicing introns).

Additional processing steps attach modifications to the 5' and 3' ends of Eukaryotic pre-mRNA. These include a 5' cap of 7-methylguanosine and a poly-A tail. In addition, eukaryotic pre-mRNAs have their introns spliced out by spliceosomes made up of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins.[1][2]

When a pre-mRNA strand has been properly processed to an mRNA sequence, it is exported out of the nucleus and eventually translated into a protein – a process accomplished in conjunction with ribosomes.


  1. ^ Weaver, Robert F. (2005). Molecular Biology, p.432-448. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. ISBN 0-07-284611-9.
  2. ^ Wahl, M. C.; Will, C. L.; Lührmann, R. (2009). "The Spliceosome: Design Principles of a Dynamic RNP Machine". Cell. 136 (4): 701–718. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.02.009. PMID 19239890. 

External links[edit]