Ho Chi Minh Thought

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Portrait of Ho Chi Minh, 1946

Ho Chi Minh Thought (Vietnamese: Tư tưởng Hồ Chí Minh; literally "Thoughts of Ho Chi Minh") is the political philosophy of the Communist Party of Vietnam. Since 1991, the contents of Ho Chi Minh's thought were formed and developed in association with the periods of Ho Chi Minh's activities in the revolutionary movement of Vietnam and internationally as integral to the curriculum of fundamental instruction for civil servants in Vietnam.[1]

At the beginning and the middle of the 20th century, Ho Chi Minh thought was the crystallization of Vietnamese culture, French revolutionary ideas, liberal ideas, Marxist–Leninist communist ideals and Ho Chi Minh's personal qualities. Ho Chi Minh Thought considered the peasantry to be the most popular force of the nationalist movement, which was the basis for the struggle for national liberation, with the blood of the working class, oppressed by the colonialists, France and the minions (feudal and landlords), ready to stand up with workers in the developing proletarian revolution.

In the Party's Revolutionary Strategy, Ho Chi Minh wrote: "The Party must recruit the majority of the peasants and rely on the poor peasants to make a revolutionary land, to build the landlords and feudal lords. The workers and the peasants (the public, the cooperative) from being under the power and influence of the national capitalists, the Party must communicate with the capitalist, intellectual, middle-class".[2]

Influences[edit]

Confucianism[edit]

Leninism[edit]

Vietnamese Nationalism[edit]

Components[edit]

Ho Chi Minh Thought is an ideology that adapts Marxism–Leninism to the specific social, political and economic conditions of the Vietnamese people by Ho Chi Minh, the leader of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

The tenets of Ho Chi Minh Thought are primarily constructed from the political statements and attitudes of Ho Chi Minh. Ho Chi Minh Thought has been identified as a legitimate ideology of the Communist Party of Vietnam alongside Marxism–Leninism, formally launched from the party's Seventh Party Congress.

The Communist Party, the Vietnam state and the legitimate views of Vietnam today agree that Ho Chi Minh Thought is a creative use of Marxism–Leninism in Vietnam's context, considering Ho Chi Minh's thought has become a valuable spiritual asset of the Communist Party and the people of Vietnam. The Communist Party of Vietnam identified Marxism–Leninism and Ho Chi Minh's thought as the guideline for all actions and victories of the Vietnamese revolution. Vietnamese schools always promote learning and follow Ho Chi Minh Thought in all walks of life.

Military Philosophy[edit]

From its establishment in 1944 his death in 1969 Ho Chi Minh operated the People's Army of Vietnam leading a decades long nonlinear war against the colonial Republic of France, The Empire of Japan in the Pacific theater of World War Two and United States up until the early 1970s. Ho as Chairman of the Vietnamese Communist Party organized a revolutionary war based on the principals of guerilla warfare, paramilitarism, and Ho's military thought is firmly expressed in several published works, such as, "Twelve Recommendations (April 5, 1948), Instructions Given at the "Conference Reviewing the Second Le Hong Phong Military Campaign" (Fall 1950), and "To Wage a Resistance War" (February 6, 1947). Ho Chi Minh's tactical strategies bear strong resemblance to several contemporaries such as Chinese leader Mao Zedong, Cuban revolutionaries Fidel Castro and Ernesto "Che" Guevara, and the who both waged protracted revolutionary wars against a more well equipped military structure, emphasizing popular support by the peasantry and working class to overthrow reactionary, fascist, and colonial states. Ho similarly evokes concepts similar to Mao's "People's war".

Ho shows a military as well as political influence from Bolshevik revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, in utilizing the Leninist political strategy of dual power, wherein peasant and worker based governments are established to contest the legitimacy of the formal state.

Land Reform[edit]

National Reconstruction[edit]

Vietnamese Nationalism[edit]

Position on Trotskyism[edit]

Ho maintained a strong opposition to Trotskyism, referring to as a reactionary ideology. Vietnam from the 1930s up to the late 1940s had a considerable Trotskyist influence within the Marxist and Anti-Imperialist community. Writer Pierre Rosette describes communist figure Ngyuen An Ninh as one of the most considerable figures within the Vietnamese Left Opposition.

Position on Joseph Stalin[edit]

Position on the Sino-Soviet Split[edit]

Following Nikita Khrushchev's Secret Speech to the Central Committee Secret Speech to the 20th Party Congress denouncing his predecessor Joseph Stalin, Ho Chi Minh supported Khrushchev's position in the August 3, 1956 article "Development of Ideological Unity Among Marxist–Leninist Parties".[3] In the article Ho support's the Soviet policy of Peaceful coexistence, denouncing Stalin's Cult of personality and reaffirming the Communist Party of Vietnam's adherence to the concept of Self-criticism. This is in contrast to the Anti-revisionist position of Mao Zedong and The People's Republic of China.

Criticism[edit]

Filipino Marxist activist Walden Bello is critical of the concept of "Ho Chi Minh Thought", stating that Ho Chi Minh at no point set out to develop a structural Marxist framework, writing "Ho left no significant theoretical innovations, much less an integrated body of theory. This has, of course, not prevented some in the Vietnamese Communist Party from claiming that Ho left behind 'Ho Chi Minh Thought', which was described as a new development in Marxist Leninist theory. " [3]

Major Writings[edit]

  • "Twelve Recommendations" (1948)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Organization of the Practice of the Ho Chi Minh Movement and the Learning of its Moral Codes". Vietnam Communist Party. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
    Tuongpublisher=Southeast Asia Research Centre, City University of Hong Kong, Vu (January 2012). "The persistence of Single-Party Dictatorships: The Case of Vietnam" (PDF). SEARC Working Paper Series. p. 14.
  2. ^ Hồ Chí Minh Toàn tập, tập 3, Nhà xuất bản Chính trị Quốc gia, trang 3.
  3. ^ a b Ho Chi Minh (2007). Bello, Walden F. (ed.). Down with colonialism!. London/New York: Verso. ISBN 9781844671779. OCLC 166315375.

Further reading[edit]

  • Ho Chi Minh: Down with Colonialism!. Verso, 2007. Introduction and editing by Walden Bello.
  • Ho Chi Minh: Selected Articles and Speeches, 1920-1967, International Publishers, 1970.
  • Minh, Ho Chi. Selected Writings 1920-1969, University Press of the Pacific, 2001.

External links[edit]