Ho language

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This article is about the Austroasiatic language of India. For the Tibeto-Burman language also known as Ho of China, Vietnam and Laos, see Hani language.
Ho
𑢹𑣉𑣉 𑣎𑣋𑣜 Ho jagar
Pronunciation /hoː ʤʌgʌr/
Native to India, Bangladesh
Ethnicity Ho people
Native speakers
1.04 million (2001 census)[1]
Varang Kshiti or Warang Chiti
Official status
Official language in
Secondary Official Language in Jharkhand
Language codes
ISO 639-3 hoc
Glottolog hooo1248[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Ho (𑢹𑣉𑣉 𑣎𑣋𑣜, IPA: /hoː ʤʌgʌr/) is a Munda language of the Austroasiatic language family spoken primarily in India by about 1.04 million people (0.103% of India's population) per the 2001 census. It is spoken by the Ho people of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhatisgarh, West Bengal,Assam,Bangladesh and is written with the Varang Kshiti script. In some regions, Oriya, Devanagari and Latin scripts are used,[3] but are considered non-ideal by the native speakers who prefer exclusive use of Varang Kshiti. [4] The name "Ho" is derived from the native word "𑣙𑣉𑣉" (IPA: /hoː/) which means "Human being".[5]

Distribution[edit]

The largest concentrations of Ho speakers are in the West Singhbhum, Jamshedpur and East Singhbhum district of southern Jharkhand and in the Mayurbhanj district and Keonjhar district, Jajpur district, Sundergarh district, Balasore District, Dhenkanal district, Sambalpur district, Cuttack district, Angul District, Bhadrak district of Odisha. Ho is closer to the Mayurbhanj dialect of Mundari than the language spoken in Jharkhand. Although Ho and Mundari are linguistically close, the ethnic identity of the speakers is distinct.[5][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ho at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Ho". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ "The Warang Chiti Alphabet". Swarthmore.edu. Retrieved 19 March 2015. 
  4. ^ Harrison, Anderson, David, Gregory. "Review of Proposal for Encoding Warang Chiti (Hoorthography) in Unicode" (PDF). Retrieved 19 March 2015. 
  5. ^ a b "Ho Web Sketch: Ho writing" (PDF). Livingtongues.org. Retrieved 19 March 2015. 
  6. ^ Anderson, edited by Gregory S. (2008). The Munda languages (1. publ. ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32890-X. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Deeney, J. J. (1991). Introduction to the Ho language: [learn Ho quickly and well]. Chaibasa: Xavier Ho Publications.
  • Burrows, L. (1915). Ho grammar: with vocabulary.
  • Deeney, J. J. (1975). Ho grammar and vocabulary. Chaibasa: Xavier Ho Publications.
  • Hembram, D.r. "Shishu Halang" Part-2. Jharkhand Publications.
  • Bandia, Kaira Singh. "OL INITU".
  • Bodra, Lako. "Saraswati Gowari".
  • Bodra, Lako. "Baha Buru-Bonga Buru" in Ho language.
  • Bodra, Lako. "Kol Rule" in Hindi.
  • Bodra, Lako. "Kol Rule" in Ho by Dr. Lako Bodra.
  • Bodra, Lako. "Halang Halpung" in Ho By Dr. Lako Bodra.
  • Bodra, Lako. "Sahar Hora" part-1 by Dr. Lako Bodra.
  • Bodra, Lako. (2000). "Sishu Halang" part I & part II by Dr. Lako Bodra.
  • Lala Rai Niranjan Shrivastav, Bhubaneswar Prasad Awasthi, S.A.B.D.Hans,Dulay ch. munda. "Munda lokgeet evang lokkathayain".
  • Bible Society of India, "Jiban Reya Hora" By Bible Society of India.
  • Paleya, Padiyar., "Landa Bagan" Padiyar Paleya.
  • Tiu, Prafulla., "Oriya-Ho" Language Translation. By Prafulla tiu.
  • Honhaga, Vibhishan." Sing Bonga Ashra". (1968).
  • Deogam, Moraji., "Luku Hadam Dishum-Rumul".(1993).by Moraji Deogam.
  • Purty, Dhanursingh, "Ho-Dishum Ho Honko" seven volumes.(1982) Xavier Ho Publications.
  • Tiu, Soneya Kumar, "Re-ed-Ranu" PRACTICE OF MEDICINE. (Allopathic, Birth control & Horo vocabulary).physician Soneya Kumar Tiu.(1976).
  • Deogam, Chandrabhusan, "Larka Ho", by Chandrabhusan Deogam.
  • Purty, Laxman., "Elabu Padawa" Part-II. By Laxman Purty.
  • Gagarai, Ghanshyam., "Parichaya" (Adivasi Ho Samaj). by Ghanshyam Gagarai.(6.10.1993). published by Krishi ebang jilla samanbayak. south Bihar, Jamshedpur.
  • Tiu, Singhrai, "Warang Chiti Chinab" in Ho. by Singhrai Tiu.
  • Bodra, Bagun, "Sishu Seyan" in Ho by Bagun Bodra. approved by Ho Bhasa Sahitya Vikash Samity Chaibasa, Singhbhum(W.)Bihar.
  • Tiriya, Kali Charan, "SUSAR".publishes By Sida Hora Susar Aakala, Orissa, bhubaneswar.(1985).
  • Sikander Tamsoy, Raiman kudada,Dobro Buliuli. "Dupub-Dustoor meeyad-marshal".
  • Tiu, D.R. Soneya Kumar,."TURTUNG" by D.R. Soneya Kumar Tiu.
  • Kumar, Bajra Bihari,. "HINDI-HO DICTIONARY". by Bajra Bihari Kumar. Nagaland Bhasha Parishad, Kohima. 395 pages.
  • Uxbond,F.A., "Munda-Magyar-Maori". by F.A.Uxbond.london lUZAC & CO. 46, GREAT RUSSELL STREET.(1928).
  • Hasan, Amir, " Kols Of Patta" by Amir Hasan(I.A.S).
  • P.Ponette, S.J., "THE MUNDA WORLD". By FR J.B.HOFFMANN, S.J.(1978)Catholic Press Ranchi.
  • Deeney, J. J. (1978). Ho-English Dictionary. Chaibassa: Xavier Ho Publications.
  • Anderson, Gregory D. S., Toshiki Osada and K. David Harrison. "Ho and the other Kherwarian Languages" In Gregory Anderson (ed.) Munda Languages. (2008). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-32890-6
  • Bodra, Ghanshyam 'Sakinj'., "UNKURU" a book for beginners" ( a selected book to promote Education in Adivasi HO Language and in WARANG KSHITI script.) 3rd eddition.

External links[edit]