This article is about the Austroasiatic language of India. For the Tibeto-Burman language also known as Ho of China, Vietnam and Laos, see
Ho (also known as Bihar Ho and Lanka Kol) is a Munda language of the Austroasiatic language family spoken primarily in India by about 1.04 million people (0.103% of India's population) per the 2001 census. It is spoken by the Ho people and is written with the " Varang Kshiti" (also "Warang Chiti" script). In some regions, in Oriya, Devanagari and Latin but are considered non-ideal by the native speakers who prefer exclusive use of Varang Kshiti. [3 ] The name "Ho" is derived from the native word "ho", which means "human". [4 ] [5 ]
Distribution [ edit ]
The largest concentrations of Ho speakers are in the
East Singhbhum district of southern Jharkhand and in the Mayurbhanj district and Keonjhar district of northern Odisha. Ho is closer to the Mayurbhanj dialect of Mundari than the language spoken in Jharkhand. Although Ho and Mundari are linguistically closer, the ethnic identity of the speakers is distinct. [5 ] [6 ]
References [ edit ]
^ Ho at (18th ed., 2015) Ethnologue
^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Ho". . Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Glottolog
^ "The Warang Chiti Alphabet". Swarthmore.edu . Retrieved . 19 March 2015
^ Harrison, Anderson, David, Gregory. "Review of Proposal for Encoding Warang Chiti (Hoorthography) in Unicode" (PDF) . Retrieved . 19 March 2015
^ a b "Ho Web Sketch: Ho writing" (PDF). Livingtongues.org . Retrieved . 19 March 2015
^ Anderson, edited by Gregory S. (2008). The Munda languages (1. publ. ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32890-X.
Further reading [ edit ]
Deeney, J. J. (1991).
Introduction to the Ho language: [learn Ho quickly and well]. Chaibasa: Xavier Ho Publications. Burrows, L. (1915).
. Ho grammar: with vocabulary Deeney, J. J. (1975).
Ho grammar and vocabulary. Chaibasa: Xavier Ho Publications. Hembram, D.r. "Shishu Halang" Part-2. jharkhand Publications.
Bandia, Kaira Singh. "OL INITU".
Bodra, Lako. "Saraswati Gwari".
Bodra, Lako. "Baha Buru-Bonga Buru" in Ho language.
Bodra, Lako. "Kol Rule" in Hindi.
Bodra, Lako. "Kol Rule" in Ho by Dr. lako bodra.
Bodra, Lako. "Halang Halpung" in Ho By Dr. lako bodra.
Bodra, Lako. "Sahar Hora" part-1 by Dr. lako bodra.
Bodra, Lako. (2000). "Sishu Alang" part I & part II by Dr. lako bodra.
lala rai niranjan Shrivastav, Bhubaneswar prasad Awasthi, S.A.B.D.Hans,Dulay ch. munda. "Munda lokgeet abang lokkathayain".
Bible Society of India, "Jiban Reya Hora" By Bible Society of India.
Paleya, Padiyar., "Landa Bagan" Padiyar Paleya.
Tiu, Prafulla., "Oriya-Ho" Language Translation. By Prafulla tiu.
Honhage, Vibhishan." Sing Bonga Ashra". (1968).
Deogam, Moraji., "Luku Hadam Deshum-Rumul".(1993).by Moraji Deogam.
Purty, Dhanursingh, "Ho-Dishum Ho Honko" seven volumes.(1982) Xavier Ho Publications.
Tiu, Soneya Kumar, "Re-ed-Ranu" PRACTICE OF MEDICINE. (Allopathic, Birth control & Horo vocabulary).physician Soneya Kumar Tiu.(1976).
Deogam, Chandrabhusan, "Larka Ho", by Chandrabhusan Deogam.
Purty, Laxman., "Elabu Padawa" Part-II. By Laxman Purty.
Gagarai, Ghanshyam., "Parichaya" (Adivasi Ho Samaj). by Ghanshyam Gagarai.(6.10.1993). published by Krishi ebang jilla samanbayak. south Bihar, Jamshedpur.
Tiu, Singhrai, "Warang Chiti Chinab" in Ho. by Singhrai Tiu.
Bodra, Bagun, "Sishu Seyan" in Ho by Bagun Bodra. approved by Ho Bhasa Sahitya Vikash Samity Chaibasa, Singhbhum(W.)Bihar.
Tiriya, Kali Charan, "SUSAR".publishes By Sida Hora Susar Aakala, Orissa, bhubaneswar.(1985).
Sikander Tamsoy, Raiman kudada,Dobro Buliuli. "Dupub-Dustoor meeyad-marshal".
Tiu, D.R. Soneya Kumar,."TURTUNG" by D.R. Soneya Kumar Tiu.
Kumar, Bajra Bihari,. "HINDI-HO DICTIONARY". by Bajra Bihari Kumar. Nagaland Bhasha Parishad, Kohima. 395 pages.
Uxbond,F.A., "Munda-Magyar-Maori". by F.A.Uxbond.london lUZAC & CO. 46, GREAT RUSSELL STREET.(1928).
Hasan, Amir, " Kols Of Patta" by Amir Hasan(I.A.S).
P.Ponette, S.J., "THE MUNDA WORLD". By FR J.B.HOFFMANN, S.J.(1978)Catholic Press Ranchi.
Deeney, J. J. (1978).
Ho-English Dictionary. Chaibassa: Xavier Ho Publications. Anderson, Gregory D. S., Toshiki Osada and K. David Harrison. "Ho and the other Kherwarian Languages" In Gregory Anderson (ed.) Munda Languages. (2008). Routledge.
External links [ edit ]