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For other uses, see Hobart (disambiguation).
Hobart from the air.jpg
Wrest Point Casino.jpg Salamanca Market May.JPG
Cascade Brewery 1.jpg Tasman Bridge from Western shore.JPG
Cenotaph and War Memorial, Hobart, Tasmania.jpg
Hobart is located in Australia
Coordinates 42°52′50″S 147°19′30″E / 42.88056°S 147.32500°E / -42.88056; 147.32500Coordinates: 42°52′50″S 147°19′30″E / 42.88056°S 147.32500°E / -42.88056; 147.32500
Population 217,973 (2013)[1] (11th)
 • Density 124.8/km2 (323/sq mi) (2011)[2]
Established 20 February 1804[3]
Area 1,695.5 km2 (654.6 sq mi)
Time zone AEST (UTC+10)
 • Summer (DST) AEDT State: Tasmania. (UTC+11)
State electorate(s) Denison, Franklin
Federal Division(s) Denison, Franklin
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
16.9 °C
62 °F
8.4 °C
47 °F
614.8 mm
24.2 in

Hobart (UK: Listeni/ˈhbɑrt/) [4] is the capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. Founded in 1804 as a penal colony,[5] Hobart is Australia's second oldest capital city after Sydney, New South Wales. The city is located in the state's south-east on the estuary of the Derwent River, making it the most southern of Australia's capital cities and its harbour forms the second-deepest natural port in the world.[6]

In June 2013, the city had a greater area population of approximately 217,973.[1] Its skyline is dominated by the 1,271-metre (4,170 ft) Mount Wellington, and much of the city's waterfront consists of reclaimed land.[7] It is the financial and administrative heart of Tasmania, serving as the home port for both Australian and French Antarctic operations and acting as a major tourist hub, with over 1.192 million visitors in 2011/2012.[8] The metropolitan area is often referred to as Greater Hobart, to differentiate it from the City of Hobart, one of the five local government areas that cover the city.[9]


Main article: History of Hobart

The first settlement began in 1803 as a penal colony at Risdon Cove on the eastern shores of the Derwent River, amid British concerns over the presence of French explorers. In 1804 it was moved to a better location at the present site of Hobart at Sullivans Cove. The city, initially known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, was named after Lord Hobart, the Colonial Secretary.

The area's indigenous inhabitants were members of the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe.[10] Violent conflict with the European settlers, and the effects of diseases brought by them, dramatically reduced the aboriginal population, which was rapidly replaced by free settlers and the convict population. Charles Darwin visited Hobart Town in February 1836 as part of the Beagle expedition. He writes of Hobart and the Derwent estuary in his Voyage of the Beagle:

...The lower parts of the hills which skirt the bay are cleared; and the bright yellow fields of corn, and dark green ones of potatoes, appear very luxuriant... I was chiefly struck with the comparative fewness of the large houses, either built or building. Hobart Town, from the census of 1835, contained 13,826 inhabitants, and the whole of Tasmania 36,505.

The Derwent River was one of Australia's finest deepwater ports and was the centre of the Southern Ocean whaling and the sealing trade. The settlement rapidly grew into a major port, with allied industries such as shipbuilding.

Hobart Town became a city on 21 August 1842, and was renamed Hobart from the beginning of 1881.[11]



The City of Hobart (green) and Greater Hobart (teal)

Hobart is located on the estuary of the Derwent River in the state's south-east. Geologically Hobart is built predominantly on Jurassic dolerite around the foothills interspersed with smaller areas of Triassic siltstone and Permian mudstone. Hobart extends along both sides of the Derwent River; on the western shore from the Derwent valley in the north through the flatter areas of Glenorchy which rests on older Triassic sediment and into the hilly areas of New Town, Lenah Valley. Both of these areas rest on the younger Jurassic dolerite deposits, before stretching into the lower areas such as the beaches of Sandy Bay in the south, in the Derwent estuary. South of the Derwent estuary lies Storm Bay and the Tasman Peninsula.

The Eastern Shore also extends from the Derwent valley area in a southerly direction hugging the Meehan Range in the east before sprawling into flatter land in suburbs such as Bellerive. These flatter areas of the eastern shore rest on far younger deposits from the Quaternary. From there the city extends in an easterly direction through the Meehan Range into the hilly areas of Rokeby and Oakdowns, before reaching into the tidal flatland area of Lauderdale.

Hobart has access to a number of beach areas including those in the Derwent estuary itself; Sandy Bay, Cornelian Bay, Nutgrove, Kingston, Bellerive, and Howrah Beaches as well as many more in Frederick Henry Bay such as; Seven Mile, Roaches, Cremorne, Clifton, and Goats Beaches.

Hobart area from Bellerive


Hobart has a mild temperate oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb).[12] The highest temperature recorded was 41.8 °C (107.2 °F) on 4 January 2013 and the lowest was −2.8 °C (27.0 °F) on 25 June 1972 and 11 July 1981.[13] Annually, Hobart receives 40.8 clear days. Compared to other major Australian cities, Hobart has the second fewest daily average hours of sunshine, with 5.9 hours per day, Melbourne having the fewest.[14] However, during the summer it has the most hours of daylight of any Australian city, with 15.2 hours on the summer solstice.

Although Hobart itself rarely receives snow during the winter, the adjacent Mount Wellington is often seen with a snowcap. Mountain snow covering has also been known to occur during the other seasons. During the 20th century, the city itself has received snowfalls at sea level on average only once every 15 years; however, outer suburbs lying higher on the slopes of Mount Wellington receive snow more often, owing to cold air masses arriving from Antarctica coupled with them resting at higher altitude. These snow-bearing winds often carry on through Tasmania and Victoria to the Snowy Mountains in northern Victoria and southern New South Wales.

Climate data for Hobart (1881–2015)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 41.8
Average high °C (°F) 21.7
Average low °C (°F) 11.9
Record low °C (°F) 3.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 47.6
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 5.8 4.9 6.1 6.9 6.9 7.2 7.8 8.3 8.5 9.4 7.9 7.1 86.8
Average relative humidity (%) 54 55 56 59 63 67 65 60 56 56 56 56 58
Mean monthly sunshine hours 248 206.2 198.4 159 130.2 117 136.4 155 177 201.5 207 229.4 2,165.1
Source: Bureau of Meteorology[13]


Hobart Gospel Church
The Baha'i Centre of Learning represent's Hobart's Bahá'i community

At the 2011 census there were 211,656 people in the greater Hobart area[2] and the City of Hobart local government area had a population of 48,703. According to the 2011 census, approximately 17.9% of greater Hobart's residents were born overseas, commonly the United Kingdom, New Zealand and China.[2]

Most common occupations are Professionals 21.6%, Clerical and Administrative Workers 16.1%, Technicians and Trades Workers 13.8%, Managers 11.5% and Community and Personal Service Workers 10.6%. Median weekly household income was $869, compared with $1,027 nationally.

In the 2011 census, 58.6% of residents specified a Christian religion. Major religious affiliations are Anglican 26.2%, Catholic 20.3%, Uniting Church 3.4%, and Presbyterian and Reformed 1.9%. In addition, 29.3% specified "No Religion" and 8.6% did not answer.[2]

Hobart has a small Mormon community of around 642 (2011), with meetinghouses in Glenorchy, Rosny, and Glen Huon.[15] There is also a synagogue where the Jewish community, of around 111 (2001), or 0.1% of the Hobart population, worships.[16] Hobart has a Bahá'í community, with a Bahá'í Centre of Learning, located within the city.[17]


The Hobart General Post Office building in the city centre
Hobart Central Business District and Wrest Point Casino in the foreground viewed from Mount Nelson
Macquarie Street in Hobart's CBD, the focal point of the city's economy.

Hobart is a busy seaport. Its economy is heavily reliant on the sea and it serves as the home port for the Antarctic activities of Australia and France. The port loads around 2,000 tonnes of Antarctic cargo a year for the Australian research vessel Aurora Australis.[18] The city is also a hub for cruise ships during the summer months, with up to 40 such ships docking during the course of the season.

The city also supports many other industries. Major local employers include catamaran builder Incat, zinc refinery Nyrstar, Cascade Brewery and Cadbury's Chocolate Factory, Norske Skog and Wrest Point Casino.[19] The city also supports a host of light industry manufacturers.

Hobart also supports a huge tourist industry. Visitors come to the city to explore its historic inner suburbs and nationally acclaimed restaurants and cafes, as well as its vibrant music and nightlife culture. Tourists also come to visit the massive weekly market in Salamanca Place, as well as to use the city as a base from which to explore the rest of Tasmania.

The last 15–20 years has also seen Hobart's wine industry thrive as many vineyards have developed in countryside areas outside of the city in the Coal River Wine Region and D'Entrecasteaux Channel, including Moorilla Estate at Berriedale one of the most awarded vineyards in Australia.

Antarctic bases[edit]

Hobart is an Antarctic gateway city, with geographical proximity to East Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Infrastructure is provided by the port of Hobart for scientific research and cruise ships, and Hobart International Airport supports an Antarctic Airlink to Wilkins Runway at Casey Station.

Hobart is the home port for the Australian and French Antarctic programs, and provides port services for other visiting Antarctic nations and Antarctic cruise ships. Antarctic and Southern Ocean expeditions are supported by a specialist cluster offering cold climate products, services and scientific expertise. The majority of these businesses and organisations are members of the Tasmanian polar network, supported in part by the Tasmanian State Government.

Tasmania has a high concentration of Antarctic and Southern Ocean scientists. Hobart is home to the following Antarctic and Southern Ocean scientific institutions:

Distinctive features[edit]

The Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens is a popular recreation area a short distance from the City centre. It is the second-oldest Botanic Gardens in Australia and holds extensive significant plant collections.[21]

Mount Wellington, accessible by passing through Fern Tree, is the dominant feature of Hobart's skyline. Indeed, many descriptions of Hobart have used the phrase "nestled amidst the foothills", so undulating is the landscape. At 1,271 metres, the mountain has its own ecosystems, is rich in biodiversity and plays a large part in determining the local weather.[citation needed]

The Tasman Bridge is also a uniquely important feature of the city, connecting the two shores of Hobart and visible from many locations. The Hobart Synagogue is the oldest synagogue in Australia and a rare surviving example of an Egyptian Revival synagogue.


The Tasmania Museum and Art Gallery

Hobart is known for its well-preserved historic architecture, much of it dating back to the Georgian and Victorian eras, giving the city a distinctly "Old World" feel.[22] For locals, this became a source of discomfiture about the city's convict past, but is now a draw card for tourists.[23] Regions within the city centre, such as Salamanca Place, contain many of the city's heritage-listed buildings. Historic homes and mansions also exist in the suburbs.

Kelly's Steps were built in 1839 by shipwright and adventurer James Kelly to provide a short-cut from Kelly Street and Arthur Circus in Battery Point to the warehouse and dockyards district of Salamanca Place.[24] In 1835, John Lee Archer designed and oversaw the construction of the sandstone Customs House, facing Sullivans Cove. Completed in 1840, it was used as Tasmania's parliament house, and is now commemorated by a pub bearing the same name (built in 1844) which is frequented by yachtsmen after they have completed the Sydney to Hobart yacht race.

Hobart is also home to many historic churches. The Scots Church (formerly known as St Andrew's) was built in Bathurst Street from 1834–36, and a small sandstone building within the churchyard was used as the city's first Presbyterian Church. The Salamanca Place warehouses and the Theatre Royal were also constructed in this period. The Greek revival St George's Anglican Church in Battery Point was completed in 1838, and a classical tower, designed by James Blackburn, was added in 1847. St Joseph's was built in 1840. St David's Cathedral, Hobart's first cathedral, was consecrated in 1874.

Hobart has very few high rise buildings in comparison to other Australian cities. This is partly a result of height limits imposed due to Hobart's proximity to Derwent River and Mount Wellington.[25]

Hunter Street


Arts and entertainment[edit]

Theatre Royal, the oldest continually operating theatre in Australia.[26]
Narryna Heritage Museum

Hobart is home to the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra, which is resident at the Federation Concert Hall on the city's waterfront. It offers a year-round program of concerts and is thought to be one of the finest small orchestras in the world. Hobart also plays host to the University of Tasmania's acclaimed Australian International Symphony Orchestra Institute (AISOI) which brings pre-professional advanced young musicians to town from all over Australia and internationally. The AISOI plays host to a public concert season during the first two weeks of December every year focusing on large symphonic music. Like the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra, the AISOI uses the Federation Concert Hall as its performing base.

Hobart is home to Australia's oldest theatre, the Theatre Royal, as well as the Playhouse theatre, the Backspace theatre and many smaller stage theatres. It also has three Village Cinema complexes, one each in Hobart CBD, Glenorchy and Rosny, with the possibility of a fourth being developed in Kingston. The State Cinema in North Hobart specialises in arthouse and foreign films.[27]

The city has also long been home to a thriving classical, jazz, folk, punk, hip-hop, electro, metal and rock music scene. Internationally recognised musicians such as metal acts Striborg and Psycroptic, indie-electro bands The Paradise Motel and The Scientists of Modern Music, singer/songwriters Sacha Lucashenko (of The Morning After Girls), Michael Noga (of The Drones), and Monique Brumby, two-thirds of indie rock band Love of Diagrams, post punk band Sea Scouts, blues guitarist Phil Manning (of blues-rock band Chain), power-pop group The Innocents are all successful expatriates. In addition, founding member of Violent Femmes, Brian Ritchie, now calls Hobart home, and has formed a local band, The Green Mist. Ritchie also curates the annual international arts festival MONA FOMA, held at Salamanca Place's waterfront venue, Princes Wharf, Shed No. 1. Hobart hosts many significant festivals including winter's landmark cultural event, the Festival of Voices, Australia's premier festival celebration of voice, and Tasmania's biennial international arts festival Ten Days On The Island. Other festivals, including the Hobart Fringe Festival, Hobart Summer Festival, Southern Roots Festival, the Falls Festival in Marion Bay and the Soundscape Festival also capitalise on Hobart's artistic communities.

The Museum of Old and New Art (MONA), the largest private museum in the Southern Hemisphere

Hobart is home to the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery. The Meadowbank Estate winery and restaurant features a floor mural by Tom Samek, part funded by the Federal Government.[28] The Museum of Old and New Art (MONA) opened in 2011 to coincide with the third annual MONA FOMA festival. The multi-storey MONA gallery was built directly underneath the historic Sir Roy Grounds courtyard house, overlooking the Derwent River. This building serves as the entrance to the MONA Gallery.[29]

Designed by the prolific architect Sir Roy Grounds, the 17-storey Wrest Point Hotel Casino in Sandy Bay, opened as Australia's first legal casino in 1973.

The city's nightlife primarily revolves around Salamanca Place, the waterfront area, Elizabeth St in North Hobart and Sandy Bay, but popular pubs, bars and nightclubs exist around the city as well. Major national and international music events are usually held at the Derwent Entertainment Centre, or the Casino. Popular restaurant strips include Elizabeth Street in North Hobart, and Salamanca Place near the waterfront. These include numerous ethnic restaurants including Chinese, Thai, Greek, Pakistani, Italian, Indian and Mexican. The major shopping street in the CBD is Elizabeth Street, with the pedestrianised Elizabeth Mall and the General Post Office.


Hobart's Constitution Dock is the arrival point for Yachts after they have completed the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, and usually witnesses scenes of celebration by many yachtsmen during the new year festivities.

Hobart is internationally famous among the yachting community as the finish of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race which starts in Sydney on Boxing Day (the day after Christmas Day). The arrival of the yachts is celebrated as part of the Hobart Summer Festival, a food and wine festival beginning just after Christmas and ending in mid-January. The Taste of Tasmania is a major part of the festival, where locals and visitors can taste fine local and international food and wine.

The city is the finishing point of the Targa Tasmania rally car event, which has been held annually in April since 1991.

The annual Tulip Festival at the Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens is a popular Spring celebration in the City.

The Australian Wooden Boat Festival is a biennial event held in Hobart celebrating wooden boats. It is held concurrently with the Royal Hobart Regatta, which began in 1830 and is therefore Tasmania's oldest surviving sporting event.


Most of Hobart's sporting teams in national competitions are statewide teams rather than exclusively city teams.

Cricket is the most popular game of the city. The Tasmanian Tigers cricket team plays its home games at the Bellerive Oval on the Eastern Shore. A new team, Hobart Hurricanes represent the city in the Big Bash League. Bellerive Oval has been the breeding ground of some world class cricket players including the former Australia captain Ricky Ponting.

Despite Australian rules football's huge popularity in the state of Tasmania, the state does not have a team in the Australian Football League. However, a bid for an Tasmanian AFL team is a popular topic among football fans. The State government is one of the potential sponsors of such a team.
Local domestic club football is still played. Tasmanian State League football features five clubs from Hobart, and other leagues such as Southern Football League and the Old Scholars Football Association are also played each Winter.

The city has two local rugby league football teams (Hobart Tigers and South Hobart Storm) who compete in the Tasmanian Rugby League.

Tasmania is not represented by teams in the NRL, Super Rugby, netball, soccer, or basketball leagues. However, the "Oasis Hobart Chargers" team does represent Hobart in the South East Australian Basketball League. Besides the bid for an AFL club which was passed over in favour of a second Queensland team, despite several major local businesses and the Premier pioneering for a club, there is also a Hobart bid for entry into the A-League.

Hockey Tasmania has a men's team (the Tasmanian Tigers) and a women's team (the Van Demons) competing in the Australian Hockey League.


The main television and radio transmitter of Hobart behind the lookout building near the summit of Mount Wellington.

Five free-to-air television stations service Hobart:

Each station broadcasts a primary channel and several multichannels.

The majority of pay television services are provided by Foxtel via satellite, although other smaller pay television providers do service Hobart.

Commercial radio stations licensed to cover the Hobart market include 100.9 Sea FM and 7HO FM. Local community radio stations include Christian radio station Ultra106five, Edge Radio and 92FM which targets the wider community with specialist programmes. The five ABC radio networks available on analogue radio broadcast to Hobart via 936 ABC Hobart, Radio National, Triple J, NewsRadio and ABC Classic FM.

Station Frequency
Energy FM 87.8 FM Commercial
Triple J 92.9 FM Government funded
ABC Classic FM 93.9 FM Government funded
Hobart FM 96.1 FM Community
Edge Radio 99.3 FM UTAS radio
Sea FM 100.9 FM Commercial
7HO FM 101.7 FM Commercial
SBS Radio 105.7 FM Government funded
Ultra106five 106.5 FM Christian/Narrowcast
Heart 107.3 107.3 FM Commercial
ABC Radio National 585 AM Government funded
ABC NewsRadio 747 AM Government funded
7RPH 864 AM Community
936 ABC Hobart 936 AM Government funded
TOTE Sport Radio 1080 AM Racing/Narrowcast
Rete Italia 1611 AM Italian radio
NTC Radio Australia 1620 AM Community

Hobart's major newspaper is The Mercury, which was founded by John Davies in 1854 and has been continually published ever since. The paper is currently owned and operated by Rupert Murdoch's News Limited.


The Parliament House of Tasmania

The Greater Hobart metropolitan area consists of five local government areas of which three, City of Hobart, City of Glenorchy and City of Clarence are designated as cities. Hobart also includes the urbanised local governments of the Municipality of Kingborough and Municipality of Brighton. Each local government services all the suburbs that are within its geographical boundaries and are responsible for their own urban area, up to a certain scale, and residential planning as well as waste management and mains water storage.

Most city wide events such as the Taste of Tasmania and Hobart Summer Festival are funded by the Tasmanian State Government as a joint venture with the Hobart City Council. Urban planning of the Hobart CBD in particular the Heritage listed areas such as Sullivans Cove are also intensely scrutinised by State Government, which is operated out of Parliament House on the waterfront.

Greater Hobart area from Mount Wellington


The University of Tasmania's Centenary Building, Sandy Bay campus

Hobart is home to the main campus of the University of Tasmania, located in Sandy Bay. On-site accommodation colleges include Christ College, Jane Franklin Hall and St John Fisher College. Other campuses are in Launceston and Burnie.

The G.H.A (Greater Hobart Area) contains 122 Primary, Secondary and Pretertiary (College) schools distributed throughout Clarence, Glenorchy and Hobart City Councils and Kingborough and Brighton Municipalities. These schools are made up of a mix of public, catholic, private and independent run, with the heaviest distribution lying in the more densely populated West around the Hobart city core. The city also maintains a large Polytechnics College campus (formerly TAFE Tasmania) for post-secondary studies in Trades and other non-university qualifications.


Main article: Transport in Hobart
A Metro Tasmania bus

The only public transportation within the city of Hobart is via a network of Metro Tasmania buses funded by the Tasmanian Government and a small number of private bus services. Like many large Australian cities, Hobart once operated passenger tram services, a trolleybus network consisting of six routes which operated until 1968. However, the tramway closed in the early 1960s. The tracks are still visible in the older streets of Hobart.

Suburban passenger trains, run by the Tasmanian Government Railways, were closed in 1974 and the intrastate passenger service, the Tasman Limited, ceased running in 1978. Recently though there has been a push from the city, and increasingly from government, to establish a light rail network, intended to be fast, efficient, and eco-friendly, along existing tracks in a North South corridor; to help relieve the frequent jamming of traffic in Hobart CBD.

The main arterial routes within the urban area are the Brooker Highway to Glenorchy and the northern suburbs, the Tasman Bridge and Bowen Bridge across the river to Rosny and the Eastern Shore. The East Derwent Highway to Lindisfarne, Geilston Bay, and Northwards to Brighton, the South Arm Highway leading to Howrah, Rokeby, Lauderdale and Opossum Bay and the Southern Outlet south to Kingston and the D'Entrecasteaux Channel. Leaving the city, motorists can travel the Lyell Highway to the west coast, Midland Highway to Launceston and the north, Tasman Highway to the east coast, or the Huon Highway to the far south.

Ferry services from Hobart's Eastern Shore into the city were once a common form of public transportation, but with lack of government funding, as well as a lack of interest from the private sector, there has been the demise of a regular commuter ferry service – leaving Hobart's commuters relying solely on travel by automobiles and buses. There is however a water taxi service operating from the Eastern Shore into Hobart which provides an alternative to the Tasman Bridge.

Hobart is served by Hobart International Airport with flights to/from Melbourne (Qantas, Virgin Australia, Jetstar Airways and Tiger Airways Australia); Sydney (Qantas, Jetstar and Virgin); Brisbane (Virgin); Gold Coast (Jetstar); and Canberra (Virgin). The smaller Cambridge Aerodrome mainly serves small charter airlines offering local tourist flights. In the past decade, Hobart International Airport received a huge upgrade, with the airport now being a first class airport facility.

Former Hobart Gas Company

In 2009, it was announced that Hobart Airport would receive more upgrades, including a first floor, aerobridges (currently, passengers must walk on the tarmac) and shopping facilities. Possible new international flights to Asia and New Zealand, and possible new domestic flights to Darwin, Cairns and Perth have been proposed. A second runway, possibly to be constructed in the next 15 years, would assist with growing passenger numbers to Hobart. Hobart Control Tower may be renovated and fitted with new radar equipment, and the airport's carpark may be extended further. Also, new facilities will be built just outside the airport. A new service station, hotel and day care centre have already been built and the road leading to the airport has been maintained and re-sealed. In addition, Tony Abbott the former Prime minister of Australia promised in the lead up to the 2013 federal election that his government would provide the funding needed for an extension of the one and only runway at Hobart international. This would allow larger planes to land which could boost the economy.

Notable residents[edit]


Actor Errol Flynn was born in Hobart in 1909



Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "3218.0 - Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2012-13: ESTIMATED RESIDENT POPULATION, States and Territories - Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSAs)". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.  ERP at 30 June 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Hobart (GCCSA)". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  3. ^ "QUEEN TO HONOUR DAVID COLLINS IN HISTORIC UNVEILING.". The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954) (Hobart, Tas.: National Library of Australia). 19 February 1954. p. 8 Supplement: Royal Visit Souvenir Supplement. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  4. ^ Macquarie ABC Dictionary. The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. 2003. p. 465. ISBN 1-876429-37-2. 
  5. ^ Frank Bolt, The Founding of Hobart 1803–1804, ISBN 0-9757166-0-3
  6. ^ "Antarctic Tasmania". Government of Tasmania. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  7. ^ Mocatta, Charles Rawlings-Way, Meg Worby, Gabi (2008). Tasmania (5th ed.). Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet. ISBN 9781741046915. 
  8. ^ "REGIONAL OVERVIEW". tra.gov.au. Tourism Research Australiua. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  9. ^ "City of Hobart - Economic Profile". Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  10. ^ Parliament of Tasmania – House of Assembly Standing Orders "We acknowledge the traditional people of the land upon which we meet today, the Mouheneener people." Archived 30 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "Advertising.". The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954) (Hobart, Tas.: National Library of Australia). 1 January 1881. p. 4. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  12. ^ Tapper, Andrew; Tapper, Nigel (1996). Gray, Kathleen, ed. The weather and climate of Australia and New Zealand (First ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press. p. 300. ISBN 0-19-553393-3. 
  13. ^ a b "Climate statistics: Hobart (Ellerslie Road)". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  14. ^ Australian Bureau of Meteorology
  15. ^ http://www.ldschurchnewsarchive.com/articles/58097/Country-information-Australia.html
  16. ^ Tasmania
  17. ^ "Welcome to The Baha'i Centre of Learning for Tasmania". Tasbcl. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  18. ^ Collyer, Sam (5 August 2008). "Potential Antarctic boost for Hobart port". Lloyd's List Daily Commercial News (Informa Australia Pty Ltd). Archived from the original on 6 August 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
  19. ^ "Why do Business In Hobart? Economic Profile Business". hobartcity.com.au. Hobart City Council. Retrieved 16 January 2015. 
  20. ^ Excellence in Research Australia ERA 2010 national report, Australian Research Council
  21. ^ "Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens". Botanic Gardens Conservation International. 
  22. ^ Content-Area Vocabulary Strategies for Language Arts. Walch Publishing. 2002. p. 39. ISBN 0-82514337-3. 
  23. ^ Clark, J. "This Southern Outpost, Hobart 1846–1914" pp. 1
  24. ^ unknown. "A self-guided tour of the Salamanca Arts Centre" (PDF). Salamanca Arts Centre: 4. Retrieved 30 May 2008. 
  25. ^ http://www.hobartcity.com.au/files/f041c176-60f4-43ec-a5a7-a2dc00a2259f/final_draft_24_feb_2014.pdf
  26. ^ McIntyre, Paul (November 3, 2009). "3 November, 2009 12:55PM AEDT The Theatre Royal celebrates 175 years". ABC.net. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  27. ^ State Cinema
  28. ^ Bell, John. "Spoilt for choice with wine", The Courier-Mail, 19 May 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
  29. ^ MONA, MONA MOFO program 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  30. ^ "Dennis Miller (II)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 10 September 2010. 
  31. ^ http://www.hobartcity.com.au/HCC/STANDARD/SISTER_CITIES.html 'Sister Cities']. Hobart City Council. Retrieved 16 August 2009HCC/STANDARD/SISTER_CITIES.html 'Sister Cities']. Hobart City Council. Retrieved 16 August 2009 Archived 6 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ "Hobart offers condolences to Italian sister city L'Aquila severely damaged by earthquake" (PDF). Hobart City Council. 7 April 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 September 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2009. 
  33. ^ "Hobart Lord Mayor signs sister city deal with China's Xian". ABC Online. 30 March 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Frank Bolt (2004). The Founding of Hobart 1803–1804. Peregrine Pty Ltd, Kettering Tasmania. ISBN 0-9757166-0-3.
  • Peter Timms (2009). In Search of Hobart. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney (NSW). ISBN 978-1-921410-54-3 (hbk.).

External links[edit]