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Alternative names Hodo-gwaja, walnut cookies, walnut cakes, walnut pastries
Type Cookie
Place of origin South Korea
Region or state Cheonan
Created by Jo Gwigeum, Sim Boksun
Invented 1934
Main ingredients Walnuts, red bean paste
Ingredients generally used Wheat flour, eggs, milk, sugar
Cookbook: Hodu-gwaja  Media: Hodu-gwaja
Korean name
Hangul 호두과자
Hanja --菓子
Revised Romanization hodu-gwaja
McCune–Reischauer hodu-kwaja
IPA [ho.du.ɡwa.dʑa]

Hodu-gwaja (호두과자; "walnut cookie"), commonly translated as walnut cookies, walnut cakes, and walnut pastries,[1][2][3] is a type of cookie originated from Cheonan, South Korea.[4] It is also known by the name hodo-gwaja (호도과자; which is not the Standard Korean spelling but the name used by Hakhwa walnut cookies, the company that first produced the confection.) in and outside Korea.

It is a walnut-shaped baked confection with red bean paste filling, whose outer dough is made of skinned and pounded walnuts and wheat flour. Ones that are made in Cheonan, South Chungcheong Province, are called "Cheonan hodu-gwaja" and are a local specialty.


Hodu-gwaja was first made in 1934 by Jo Gwigeum and Sim Boksun, who were a married couple living in Cheonan.[4] The method was developed based on those of traditional Korean confectioneries and the influence from Imperial Japan, as the cookie was developed during the period of Japanese forced occupation (1910–1945).[5]

Outside Cheonan, it was popularized in the 1970s, often sold in train stations and inside the train via catering trolleys.[5] Nowadays it is sold in most regions in South Korea including Seoul, and in the cities of other countries, such as Los Angeles and San Diego in the United States.[2][3]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Yun, Suh-young (27 November 2013). "Fresh from the street". The Korea Times. Retrieved 10 February 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Payne, Emily (10 October 2015). "Forget Venice beach and Santa Monica: How gritty Downtown became LA's hippest area (with laid back Los Feliz hot on its heels)". Daily Mail. Retrieved 10 February 2017 – via Mail Online. 
  3. ^ a b Anderson, Ian (11 October 2015). "Walnut-shaped pastries are a thing". San Diego Reader. Retrieved 10 February 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Lee, Seongok. "Local foods". Encyclopedia of Cheonan. Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 10 February 2017 – via Digital Local Culture Encyclopedia of Korea. 
  5. ^ a b Hong, Ji-yeon (17 February 2016). "Local specialties take train travel to a new level". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 10 February 2017. 

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