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|Around 60 million (est. worldwide)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Taiwan||Majority of Taiwanese people (~16,321,075)|
|Hong Kong||A minority population|
|Macao||A minority population|
|Malaysia||Largest group of Malaysian Chinese (~2,020,000)|
|Singapore||Largest group of Chinese Singaporeans (~1,118,817)|
|Indonesia||Largest group of Indonesian Chinese (~1,100,000)|
|Myanmar||One of the 3 largest groups of Burmese Chinese (~720,000)
(figured combined with Cantonese)
|Philippines||Majority of Chinese Filipinos (~20,280,000)|
|Madagascar||A signficant group among ethnic Sinoa|
|Hokkien, Standard Mandarin Chinese, English;
Diaspora also speak their respective country's language(s)
|Chinese folk religions (including Taoism, Confucianism, ancestral worship and others), Mahayana Buddhism and non-religious;
The Hoklo people are Han Chinese people whose traditional ancestral homes are in southern Fujian of South China. They are also known by various endonyms (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-ló-lâng / Hō-ló-lâng / Ho̍h-ló-lâng / Hô-ló-lâng), or other related terms such as Banlam (Minnan) people (閩南儂; Bân-lâm-lâng) or Hokkien people (福建儂; Hok-kiàn-lâng).
In a narrow scope, "Hoklo people" refers mainly to people who speak and use the Hokkien dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in southern Fujian, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and by many overseas Chinese throughout Southeast Asia. In a wider scope, "Hoklo people" can include speakers of other Min Nan dialects, such as Zhongshan Min, Zhenan Min, Teochew dialect, and Hainanese.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Definition
- 3 Prominent Hoklo people
- 4 See also
- 5 Footnotes
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
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In Taiwan, there are three common ways to write Hoklo in Chinese characters (Hokkien pronunciations are given in Pe̍h-ōe-jī), although none have been established as etymologically correct:
- 福佬; Hok-ló; "Fujian folk" – emphasizes their connection to Fujian province. It is not an accurate transliteration in terms from Hokkien itself although it may correspond to an actual usage in Hakka.
- 河洛; Hô-lo̍k; "Yellow River and Luo River" – emphasizes their purported long history originating from the area south of the Yellow River. This term does not exist in Hokkien. The transliteration is a phonologically inaccurate folk etymology, though the Mandarin pronunciation Héluò has gained currency through the propagation of the inaccurate transliteration.
- 鶴佬; Ho̍h-ló; "crane folk" – emphasizes the modern pronunciation of the characters (without regard to the meaning of the Chinese characters); phonologically accurate.
In general, the Hoklo people can refer to one of the following:
About 70% of the Taiwanese people descend from Hoklo immigrants who arrived to the island prior to the start of Japanese rule in 1895. They could be categorized as originating from Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, and Zhangpu based on their dialects and districts of origin. People from the former two areas (Quanzhou-speaking) were dominant in the north of the island and along the west coast, whereas people from the latter two areas (Zhangzhou-speaking) were dominant in the south and perhaps the central plains as well.
During the two centuries of Qing rule, a large number of Hoklo men took aboriginal brides. As some of the plains aboriginals also adopted Chinese customs and language, many of those who today categorize themselves as Hoklo have some degree of indigenous ancestry. Thus, Hoklo culture in Taiwan has deviated from that in mainland China due to Austronesian and Japanese influences.
Within the Taiwanese Han Hoklo community itself, differences in culture indicate the degree to which mixture with aboriginals took place, with most pure Hoklo Han in Northern Taiwan having almost no Aboriginal admixture, which is limited to Hoklo Han in Southern Taiwan. Plains aboriginals who were mixed and assimilated into the Hoklo Han population at different stages were differentiated by the historian Melissa J. Brown between "short-route" and "long-route". The ethnic identity of assimilated Plains Aboriginals in the immediate vicinity of Tainan was still known since a pure Hoklo Taiwanese girl was warned by her mother to stay away from them. The insulting name "fan" was used against Plains Aborigines by the Taiwanese, and the Hoklo Taiwanese speech was forced upon Aborigines like the Pazeh. Hoklo Taiwanese has repalced Pazeh and driven it to near extinction. Aboriginal status has been requested by Plains Aboriginals.
The deep-rooted hostility between Taiwanese aborigines and (Taiwanese) Hoklo, and the Aboriginal communities' effective KMT networks contribute to Aboriginal skepticism against the DPP and the Aboriginals tendency to vote for the KMT.
When the Taiwanese Han "blood nationalists" tried to claim Plains Aboriginal ancestry as a tool to promote Taiwanese independence and to claim an identity separate from that of mainland Chinese, in spite of the fact that their own ancestry was overwhelmingly that of recent migrants from China with genetic tests showing differences between them and plains aborigines, their claims were decidedly rejected by the modern descendants of Taiwanese Plains Aborigines. The Plains Aborigines seek to preserve their own traditional culture since the abuse of claiming their ancestry by Taiwanese "blood nationalists" to create a uniquely "non-Chinese" Taiwanese identity based on blood negates the actual significance of having Plains Aborigine ancestors.
Indonesia and Malaysian Hoklo or Hokkien
The people of Leizhou and the non-Hakka people in Haifeng and Lufeng are Hoklo people, in a narrow scope, but are often being mistaken as Chaozhou/Teochew people in Hong Kong and Southeast Asia.
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Between 1885 and 1949, there were only nine migrants out of nearly 100,000 to Canada who traced their origins to Fujian.
After the 1960s, more Taiwanese Hoklo people began immigrating to the Untied States and Canada.
Prominent Hoklo people
This list includes people who are of either pure or partial Hokkien ancestry.
Scientists, mathematicians and astronomers
- Su Song, a famous Chinese scientist, mathematician and astronomer during the Song Dynasty who invented and built the first hydro-mechanical astronomical clock in the world.
- Lu Jiaxi, a child prodigy who was so smart he finished elementary school in a single year and was enrolled in a university before reaching the age of 13 through passing the enterance exam, eventually becoming a chemist after obtaining a chemistry degree at age 18 or 19 and served as President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences from 1981 to 1987. His most notable contribution is the invention of the structural model of the center of nitrogenase, a key enzyme used in nitrogen fixation.
- Zhang Yuzhe, a famous Chinese astronomer who is widely regarded as the father of modern Chinese astronomy.
Entrepreneurs and Businessmen
- Tan Kah Kee, a well respected Chinese patriot, businessman and philanthropist who was responsible for gathering much support from the community to aid China in major events and wars. He also helped contribute to many schools in Fujian.
- Tan Tock Seng, a rich businessman most famous for contributing money to build a hospital called "Tan Tock Seng Hospital" after he saw many poor and sick people and funding the contruction of temples in Singapore.
- Kwik Kian Gie, the Indonesian Coordinating Minister of Economics and Finance (1999–2000)
- Mari Elka Pangestu (Phang Hoei Lan), Minister of Trade of Indonesia (2004-2011)
- Hong Chengchou, a Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty general who was promoted to Minister of War and Viceroy of Suliao during the Early Qing Dynasty
- John Lie, a military general and National Hero of Indonesia.
- Demographics of Taiwan
- Taiwanese people
- Teochew people
- Hokkien dialect
- Hoklo (disambiguation)
- Hokkien and Hoklo Americans
- Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2005), "Indonesia", Ethnologue: Languages of the World (15th ed.), Dallas, T.X.: SIL International, ISBN 978-1-55671-159-6, retrieved 26 January 2010.
- Mya Than (1997). Leo Suryadinata, ed. Ethnic Chinese As Southeast Asians. ISBN 0-312-17576-0.
- Ng, Maria; Philip Holden (1 September 2006). Reading Chinese transnationalisms: society, literature, film. Hong Kong University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-962-209-796-4.
- 2005-2009 American Community Survey
- Ben Sia, 《新加坡的漢語方言》 (The Chinese Languages and Dialects of Singapore)，1988
- Exec. Yuan (2014), pp. 36,48.
- Exec. Yuan (2015), p. 10.
- Governor-General of Taiwan (1931–1932). "hô-ló (福佬)". In Ogawa Naoyoshi. 臺日大辭典 [Taiwanese-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese and Hokkien). 2. Taihoku: 同府 [Dōfu]. p. 829. OCLC 25747241. .
- Davidson (1903), p. 591.
- Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 48.
- Davidson (1903), p. 581.
- Brown 2004. pp. 156-7.
- Brown 2004. p. 162.
- Brown 2004. p. 157.
- Damm, Jens (2012). "Multiculturalism in Taiwan and the Influence of Europe". In Damm, Jens; Lim, Paul. European perspectives on Taiwan. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. p. 95. ISBN 9783531943039.
- Chen, Shu-Juo (2009). How Han are Taiwanese Han? Genetic inference of Plains Indigenous ancestry among Taiwanese Han and its implications for Taiwan identity (Ph.D.). STANFORD UNIVERSITY. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Yu, Henry, edited by Tan, Chee-Beng, Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Diaspora p. 110
- Brown, Melissa J (2004). Is Taiwan Chinese? : The Impact of Culture, Power and Migration on Changing Identities. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23182-1.
- Davidson, James W. (1903). The Island of Formosa, Past and Present. London and New York: Macmillan. OCLC 1887893. OL 6931635M.
- The Republic of China Yearbook 2014 (PDF). Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2014. ISBN 9789860423020. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
- The Republic of China Yearbook 2015. Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2015. ISBN 9789860460131.