|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2010)|
|Around 60 million (est. worldwide)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Taiwan||Majority of Taiwanese|
|Hong Kong||A minority population|
|Macao||A minority population|
|Malaysia||Largest group of Malaysian Chinese|
|Singapore||Largest group of Chinese Singaporeans|
|Indonesia||Largest group of Indonesian Chinese|
|Myanmar||One of the 3 largest groups of Burmese Chinese|
|Philippines||Majority of Chinese Filipinos|
|Hokkien of Minnan Chinese and/or Mandarin. Diaspora also speak their respective home country's language(s)|
|Chinese folk religions (including Taoism, Confucianism, ancestral worship and others), Mahayana Buddhism and non religious. Minority: Christianity.|
The Hoklo people, Hokken people, or Hokuro people (endonym Hok-ló lâng, Hō-ló lâng, or Ho̍h-ló lâng) are Han Chinese people whose traditional ancestral homes are in southern Fujian of South China. They are also known by various endonyms (above), or other related terms such as Min-nan people (閩南人) or Hokkien Lang (福建人).
In a narrow scope, "Hoklo people" refers mainly to people who speak and use the Hokkien dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in southern Fujian, Taiwan, Singapore, and by many overseas Chinese throughout Southeast Asia. Besides, Hoklo Taiwanese is the major ethnic group of Taiwanese People.
In general, the Hoklo people can refer to one of the following:
Hoklos in Taiwan
About 70% of the Taiwanese people descend from Hoklo immigrants who arrived to the island prior to the start of Japanese rule in 1895. They could be categorized as originating from Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, and Zhangpu based on their dialects and districts of origin. People from the former two areas (Quanzhou-speaking) were dominant in the north of the island and along the west coast, whereas people from the latter two areas (Zhangzhou-speaking) were dominant in the south and perhaps the central plains as well.
During the two centuries of Qing rule, a large number of Hoklo men took aboriginal brides. As some of the plains aboriginals also adopted Chinese customs and language, many of those who today categorize themselves as Hoklo have some degree of indigenous ancestry. Thus, Hoklo culture in Taiwan has deviated from that in mainland China due to Austronesian and Japanese influences.
The deep-rooted hostility between Taiwanese aborigines and (Taiwanese) Hoklo, and the Aboriginal communities effective KMT networks contribute to Aboriginal skepticism against the DPP and the Aboriginals tendency to vote for the KMT.
When Taiwanese Han "blood nationalists" tried to claim Plains Aboriginal ancestry in order to promote Taiwan independence and try to claim an identity different from that of mainland Chinese in spite of the fact that their own ancestry is overwhelmingly that of recent migrants from China and genetic tests show differences between them and plains aborigines, their claims were decidedly rejected by the actual descendants of Taiwanese Plains Aborigines, who seek to preserve their own traditional culture since the abuse of claiming their ancestry by Taiwanese "blood nationalists" to create a unique Taiwanese identity based on blood negates the actual significance of having Plains Aboriginal ancestors.
Within the Taiwanese Han Hoklo community itself, differences in culture indicate the degree to which mixture with aboriginals took place, with most Hoklo Han in Northern Taiwan having almost no Aboriginal admixture, which is limited to Hoklo Han in Southern Taiwan. Plains aboriginals who were mixed and assimilated into the Hoklo Han population at different stages were differentiated by the historian Melissa J. Brown between "short-route" and "long-route".
Indonesia and Malaysian Hoklo or Hokkien
The people of Leizhou and the non-Hakka people in Haifeng and Lufeng are Hoklo people, in a narrow scope, but are often being mistaken as Chaozhou/Teochew people in Hong Kong and Southeast Asia.
Chinese characters for Hoklo
- 福佬 (Hok-ló; lit. "Fujian folk") – emphasizes their connection to Fujian province. This is not an accurate transliteration in terms from Hokkien itself, although it may correspond to an actual usage in Hakka.
- 河洛 (Hô-lo̍k; lit. "Yellow River and Luo River") – emphasizes their purported long history originating from the area south of the Yellow River. This transliteration is a phonologically inaccurate folk etymology; the noun Hô-lo̍k does not exist, although the Mandarin pronunciation Héluò has gained currency through the propagation of this inaccurate transliteration.
- 鶴佬 (Ho̍h-ló; lit. "crane folk") – emphasizes the modern pronunciation of the characters (without regard to the meaning of the Chinese characters); it is a phonologically accurate transliteration. This variant is used by the Chinese Wikipedia version of this article.
Despite many ways to write Hoklo in Chinese, many Taiwanese will use the term Hō-ló to refer to the language and Hoklo culture.
Age of Discovery
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- Ben Sia, 《新加坡的漢語方言》 (The Chinese Languages and Dialects of Singapore)，1988
- Davidson (1903), p. 591.
- Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 48.
- Davidson (1903), p. 581.
- Damm, Jens (2012). "Multiculturalism in Taiwan and the Influence of Europe". In Damm, Jens; Lim, Paul. European perspectives on Taiwan. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. p. 95. ISBN 9783531943039.
- Chen, Shu-Juo (2009). How Han are Taiwanese Han? Genetic inference of Plains Indigenous ancestry among Taiwanese Han and its implications for Taiwan identity (Ph.D.). STANFORD UNIVERSITY. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Brown 2004. pp. 156-7.
- Brown 2004. p. 162.