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|about 46 million|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Taiwan||Majority of Taiwanese people (~16,321,075)|
|Hong Kong||A minority population|
|Macao||A minority population|
|Malaysia||Largest group of Malaysian Chinese (~2,020,000)|
|Singapore||Largest group of Chinese Singaporeans (~1,118,817)|
|Indonesia||Largest group of Indonesian Chinese (~1,100,000)|
|Myanmar||One of the 3 largest groups of Burmese Chinese (~720,000)
(figured combined with Cantonese)
|Philippines||Majority of Chinese Filipinos (~20,280,000)|
|Madagascar||A signficant group among ethnic Sinoa|
|Hokkien, Standard Mandarin Chinese, English;
Diaspora also speak their respective country's language(s)
|Chinese folk religions (including Taoism, Confucianism, ancestral worship and others), Mahayana Buddhism and non-religious;
|Related ethnic groups|
|Fuzhou people, Putian people and other Han Chinese|
The Hoklo people are Han Chinese people whose traditional ancestral homes are in southern Fujian of South China. They are also known by various endonyms (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-ló-lâng / Hō-ló-lâng / Ho̍h-ló-lâng / Hô-ló-lâng), or other related terms such as Banlam (Minnan) people (閩南儂; Bân-lâm-lâng) or Hokkien people (福建儂; Hok-kiàn-lâng). Hokkien people refer to themselves as "Tang people," (唐人; Tn̂g-lâng) which is synonymous to "Chinese people".
Throughout the course of Chinese and Asian history, there have been numerous Hokkien people who have made significant contributions to humanity in various fields, such as Yuan T. Lee, Su Song and Cai Qirui.
In a narrow scope, "Hoklo people" refers mainly to people who speak and use the Hokkien dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in southern Fujian, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and by many overseas Chinese throughout Southeast Asia. In a wider scope, "Hoklo people" can include speakers of other Min Nan dialects, such as Zhongshan Min and Zhenan Min.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Culture
- 3 Diaspora
- 4 Notable Hoklo persons
- 5 See also
- 6 Footnotes
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
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In Taiwan, there are three common ways to write Hoklo in Chinese characters (Hokkien pronunciations are given in Pe̍h-ōe-jī), although none have been established as etymologically correct:
- 福佬; Hok-ló; "Fujian folk" – emphasizes their connection to Fujian province. It is not an accurate transliteration in terms from Hokkien itself although it may correspond to an actual usage in Hakka.
- 河洛; Hô-lo̍k; "Yellow River and Luo River" – emphasizes their purported long history originating from the area south of the Yellow River. This term does not exist in Hokkien. The transliteration is a phonologically inaccurate folk etymology, though the Mandarin pronunciation Héluò has gained currency through the propagation of the inaccurate transliteration.
- 鶴佬; Ho̍h-ló; "crane folk" – emphasizes the modern pronunciation of the characters (without regard to the meaning of the Chinese characters); phonologically accurate.
Meanwhile, Hoklo people self-identify as 河老; Hô-ló; "river aged".
Hoklo architecture is for the most part the same as any other traditional Chinese architecture, Hoklo shrines and temples have tilted sharp eaves just like the architecture of Han Chinese in all parts of China due to superstitious beliefs, however Hoklo shrines and temples do have a few special differences from the styles in other regions of China: the top roofs are high and slanted with exaggerated but finely-detailed decorative inlays of wood and porcelain.
The main halls of Hoklo temple are also a little different, they are usually decorated with two dragons on the rooftop at the furthest left and right corners, and a miniature figure of a pagoda at the centre rooftop. One such example of this is the Kaiyuan Temple in Fujian, China. Other than all these minor differences, Hoklo architecture is the basically same as any other traditional Chinese architecture of any other regions by Han Chinese.
The Hoklo people speak the Hokkien dialect which is not mutually intelligble with other Chinese dialects other than Teochew. Hokkien can be traced back to the Tang Dynasty,[dubious ] and it also has roots from earlier periods such as the Northern and Southern Dynasties and also a little influence from other dialects as well, as well as an indigenous substratum from the language of the Baiyue.
Hokkien has one of the most diverse phoneme inventories among Chinese varieties, with more consonants than Standard Mandarin or Cantonese. Vowels are more-or-less similar to that of Standard Mandarin. Hokkien varieties retain many pronunciations from Old Chinese that changed in other Chinese varieties. These include the retention of the /t/ initial, which is now /tʂ/ (Pinyin 'zh') in Mandarin (e.g. 'bamboo' 竹 is tik, but zhú in Mandarin), having disappeared[dubious ] before the 6th century in other Chinese varieties. Hokkien has 5 to 7 tones or 7 to 9 tones according to traditional sense, dependng on variety spoken such as the Amoy dialect for example has 7-8 tones.
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Southern Fujian cuisine uses a lot of local seafood ingredients.
Hokkien people were involved in piracy in East and Southeast Asia.
About 70% of the Taiwanese people descend from Hoklo immigrants who arrived to the island prior to the start of Japanese rule in 1895. They could be categorized as originating from Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, and Zhangpu based on their dialects and districts of origin. People from the former two areas (Quanzhou-speaking) were dominant in the north of the island and along the west coast, whereas people from the latter two areas (Zhangzhou-speaking) were dominant in the south and perhaps the central plains as well.
During the two centuries of Qing rule, a large number of Hoklo men took aboriginal brides. As some of the plains aboriginals also adopted Chinese customs and language, many of those who today categorize themselves as Hoklo have some degree of indigenous ancestry. Thus, Hoklo culture in Taiwan has deviated from that in mainland China due to Austronesian and Japanese influences.
Within the Taiwanese Han Hoklo community itself, differences in culture indicate the degree to which mixture with aboriginals took place, with most pure Hoklo Han in Northern Taiwan having almost no Aboriginal admixture, which is limited to Hoklo Han in Southern Taiwan. Plains aboriginals who were mixed and assimilated into the Hoklo Han population at different stages were differentiated by the historian Melissa J. Brown between "short-route" and "long-route". The ethnic identity of assimilated Plains Aboriginals in the immediate vicinity of Tainan was still known since a pure Hoklo Taiwanese girl was warned by her mother to stay away from them. The insulting name "fan" was used against Plains Aborigines by the Taiwanese, and the Hoklo Taiwanese speech was forced upon Aborigines like the Pazeh. Hoklo Taiwanese has repalced Pazeh and driven it to near extinction. Aboriginal status has been requested by Plains Aboriginals.
The deep-rooted hostility between Taiwanese aborigines and (Taiwanese) Hoklo, and the Aboriginal communities' effective KMT networks contribute to Aboriginal skepticism against the DPP and the Aboriginals tendency to vote for the KMT.
When the Taiwanese Han "blood nationalists" tried to claim Plains Aboriginal ancestry as a tool to promote Taiwanese independence and to claim an identity separate from that of mainland Chinese, in spite of the fact that their own ancestry was overwhelmingly that of recent migrants from China with genetic tests showing differences between them and plains aborigines, their claims were decidedly rejected by the modern descendants of Taiwanese Plains Aborigines. The Plains Aborigines seek to preserve their own traditional culture since the abuse of claiming their ancestry by Taiwanese "blood nationalists" to create a uniquely "non-Chinese" Taiwanese identity based on blood negates the actual significance of having Plains Aborigine ancestors.
Indonesia and Malaysian Hoklo or Hokkien
The people of Leizhou and the non-Hakka people in Haifeng and Lufeng are Hoklo people, in a narrow scope, but are often being mistaken as Chaozhou/Teochew people in Hong Kong and Southeast Asia.
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Between 1885 and 1949, there were only nine migrants out of nearly 100,000 to Canada who traced their origins to Fujian.
After the 1960s, more Taiwanese Hoklo people began immigrating to the United States and Canada.
Notable Hoklo persons
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This list includes people who are of either pure or partial Hokkien ancestry, in chronological birth arrangement with the oldest person first.
Scientists, mathematicians and inventors
- Su Song, Chinese scientist and mathematician during the Song Dynasty who invented the first hydro-mechanical astronomical clock and endless power chain drive in the world.
- Lin Qiaozhi, she was the person who revolutionized modern Chinese gynecology and oncology.
- Cai Qirui, father of Chinese catalytic chemistry.
- Lu Jiaxi, child genius who was so smart he finished elementary school in one year and enrolled in a university before reaching the age of 13, he obtained a chemistry degree at age 18 or 19. He served as President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
- Xie Xide, physicist who made important contributions to the field of solid-state physics. She also served as president of the Fudan University.
- Leon O. Chua, inventor of the Chua's circuit.
- Yuan T. Lee, received the Nobel prize in Chemistry for his outstanding contribution to Chemistry.
- Zhijian James Chen, biomedist best known for using classical biochemistry to discover new pathways and mechanisms in innate immunity and cell signaling such as Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein.
- Pua Khein-Seng, one of the inventors of the USB flash drive.
- March Tian Boedihardjo, child genius who finished his A-level exams in Britain at the age of nine years and three months and was conferred a Bachelor of Science in Mathematical Science as well as a Master of Philosophy in Mathematics after successfully completing his programme in 2011 (one year early).
Businessmen and entrepreneurs
- Howqua, merchant who was at one time the most richest man in the world.
- Ong Seok Kim, wealthy entrepreneur that financed China in war and many charities.
- Tan Kah Kee, Chinese patriot who contributed greatly in gathering financial support to help China in wars and many schools.
- Gan Eng Seng, a Chinese businessman and philanthropist who was one of the early pioneers of Singapore.
- Lee Kong Chian, a prominent Chinese businessman and philanthropist active in Malaya and Singapore. He was the founder of the Lee Foundation and one of the richest men in Southeast Asia in the 1950s and 1960s.
- Tan Tock Seng, was a Singaporean merchant and philanthropist. The Tan Tock Seng Hospital in Singapore is named after him.
- Lim Peng Siang, was a Singaporean banker. Peng Siang Quay in Singapore is named after him.
- Carlo Tabalujan, Chinese Indonesian businessman and entrepreneur
- Khoo Teck Puat, was a banker and hotel owner, who, with an estimated fortune of S$4.3 billion, was the wealthiest man in Singapore at one point.
- Henry Sy, the richest man in the Philippines (named by Forbes in 2015).
- Robert Budi and Michael Bambang Hartono brothers, the richest persons in Indonesia.
- Kwik Kian Gie, the Indonesian Coordinating Minister of Economics and Finance (1999–2000).
- Kwek Hong Png, Singaporean businessman, known for establishing Hong Leong Group
- Mari Elka Pangestu (Phang Hoei Lan), the Minister of Trade of Indonesia (2004-2011).
- Lim Goh Tong, was a prominent wealthy Malaysian Chinese businessman. He was once the richest man in Malaysia with a net worth of US$4.2billion
- Kwek Leng Beng, is a Singaporean businessman with a net worth of US$7.4 billion.
- Quek Leng Chan, a Malaysian businessman with a net worth of US$2.9 billion
- Tan Lark Sye, a prominent Chinese businessman and philanthropist active in Singapore in the 20th century.
- Wee Kheng Chiang, a Singaporean businessman. He was the founder of United Overseas Bank (UOB) and the father of Wee Cho Yaw
- Wee Cho Yaw, a Singaporean businessman and the chairman of the United Overseas Bank (UOB) and United Industrial Corporation(UIC) in Singapore.
- Tan Kim Seng, was a Peranakan merchant and philanthropist in Singapore in the 19th century.
- Loh Boon Siew, also known as “Mr Honda”, was a Penang Hokkien tycoon and the first sole distributor of Honda motorcycles in Malaysia.
- Sergio Osmeña, the fourth president of the Philippines, son of Go Bon Tiao or Pedro Lee Gotiaoco.
- Chen Boda, a secretary to Mao Zedong and a prominent member of the leadership during the Cultural Revolution
- Tan Cheng Lock, key public figure who devoted his life to fighting for the rights and the social welfare of the Chinese community in Malaya and the founder and first president of the Malaysian Chinese Association.
- Lim Guan Eng, a Malaysian politician who has been Chief Minister of Penang since 2008
- Lim Kit Siang, prominent leader of the Democratic Action Party in Malaysia
- Tun Leong Yew Koh, the first President of Malacca, Malaysia since Malaysia's independence from Britain, and first secretary and co-founder of the Malay Chinese Association.
- Goh Keng Swee, former Ministers for Finance, Interior and Defence, Education and Defence.
- Lee Kuan Yew, the 1st Prime Minister of Singapore and founding father of modern Singapore.
- Dr. Lim Chong Eu, former Chief Minister of Penang.
- Corazon Aquino, the 11th president of the Philippines whose maiden name Cojuangco derived from her Chinese ancestor named Co Yu Hwan (許玉寰) (later Jose Cojuangco) who migrated to the Philippines from Fujian Province in 1861. In the 1980s she visited their ancestral place in Hongjian village, Xiamen where she was welcomed by the officials and her relatives from Xu or Co Clan.
- Chuan Leekpai, the 20th Prime Minister of Thailand
- Lanhee Chen, an American university lecturer, policy expert, and political commentator. Chen is also a political commentator for CNN, on which he frequently provides insights related to the 2016 presidential election. He is also counsel at the law firm Arent Fox LLP.
- Daniel Akaka, an American politician who was a United States Senator from Hawaii from 1990 to 2013.
- Min Kao, is an American businessman. He is the co-founder of Garmin Corporation with Gary Burrell. As of May 2015, his personal wealth was estimated at $2.6 billion.
- Goh Chok Tong, the 2nd Prime Minister of Singapore.
- Ong Teng Cheong, the 5th President of Singapore and former Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore.
- Lee Hsien Loong, the 3rd and current Prime Minister of Singapore.
- Benigno Aquino III, the fifteenth president of the Philippines, son of Corazon Aquino.
- Khaw Boon Wan, is a Malaysian-born Singaporean politician. Since October 2015, he has been the Coordinating Minister for Infrastructure and the Minister for Transport.
- Heng Swee Keat, minister of Finance in Singapore since October 2015
- Ng Eng Hen, minister of defense in Singapore since 2011
- Toh Chin Chye, a prominent member of the country's first generation of political leaders after Singapore became independent in 1965
- Lim Yew Hock, second Chief Minister of Singapore from 1956 to 1959.
- Gan Kim Yong, is a Singaporean politician. A member of the governing People's Action Party (PAP), he has been Minister for Health since May 2011.
- Hong Chengchou, Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty general who was promoted to Minister of War and Viceroy of Suliao during the Early Qing Dynasty.
- Koxinga, Ming loyalist and the first king of the Kingdom of Tungning on the Taiwan Island.
- Zheng Jing, 17th-century Chinese warlord and Ming Dynasty loyalist who was the eldest son of Koxinga.
- Feng Xifan, was an official and general of the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan in the 17th century
- Huang Sian Teh, army general during World War II, he was in charge of the "Tiger Division", which fought in over 100 battles.
- John Lie, National Hero of Indonesia.
- Lim Bo Seng, Chinese patriot and war hero. When the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out, Lim and other Chinese in Singapore participated in anti-Japanese activities such as the boycotting of Japanese goods and fund-raising to support China in the war.
- Tan Chong Tee, a Chinese resistance fighter based in Singapore and Malaya during World War II, who joined Force 136
- Lim Teck Yin, the CEO of Sport Singapore. He retired as a Brigadier-General from the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) after 30 years of military service. His grandfather was the late Major-General Lim Bo Seng.
- Chee Kim Thong, famous practitioner of Five Ancestors Fist
- Fang Qi Niang, inventor of the White Crane Style, a type of Shaolin boxing
- Yu Dayou, Chinese general and martial artist best known for countering the wokou pirates in the Ming Dynasty
Philosophers and writers
- Li Zhi, Ming Dynasty philosopher.
- Gu Hongming, famous Malaysian author
- Jose Rizal a writer and one of the national heroes of the Philippines, a descendant of Cue Yi-Lam or Domingo Lamco.
- Cai Xiang, a poet who had the reputation as the greatest calligrapher in the Song dynasty.
- Qiu Jin, a Ming Dynasty revolutionary, feminist, and writer.
- Kang-i Sun Chang, a Chinese-born American scholar of classical Chinese literature.
- Antonio Cua, was an eminent scholar in Chinese philosophy and comparative philosophy who was professor emeritus of philosophy at The Catholic University of America.
- Fang Zhouzi, a Chinese popular scientific writer
- Lin Yutang, one of the most influential writers of his generation, many of his books were bestsellers both in China and the Western world.
- Chua Jim Neo, a cookbook writer from Singapore best known for Mrs. Lee's Cookbook, which features the recipes of Peranakan cuisine.
- Amy Chua, lawyer and author of the international best seller Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother which attracted huge media attention and ignited global debate about different parenting techniques and cultural attitudes that foster such techniques.
- Jeremy Lin, an American professional basketball player for the Brooklyn Nets of the NBA
- Rudy Hartono, Indonesian badminton player who was one of the greatest badminton players of all time.
- Lin Dan, a professional badminton player from Fujian. He is a two-time Olympic champion, five-time World champion, as well as a six-time and reigning All England champion.
- Lee Chong Wei, a Malaysian professional badminton player, who is the most successful Malaysian Olympian in history.
- Koo Kien Keat, a former Malaysian professional badminton player.
- Liem Swie King, former Indonesian badminton player
- Christian Hadinata, former Indonesian badminton player
- Eric Go, American Badminton player
- Ong Poh Lim, a badminton player who won numerous national and international titles from the late 1940s to the early 1960s. Known for his quickness and his aggressive, unorthodox playing style
- Tan Boon Heong, a former World No.1 Malaysian male professional badminton player in the men's doubles event.
- Hoon Thien How, a professional badminton player from Malaysia
- Ang Peng Siong, is a swimmer from Singapore, who once held World Number 1 ranking in the 50 m freestyle.
- Michael Chang, an American former tennis player.
- Chen Haiwei, a Chinese competitive fencer. He has won three medals (one gold, one silver, one bronze) at the Asian Fencing Championships
- Dick Lee, a Singaporean pop singer, composer and playwright.
- Yao Chen, a Chinese actress whom Forbes ranks as the 83rd most powerful woman in the world
- Wu Bai, is a Taiwanese rock singer and songwriter.
- Jody Chiang, is Taiwan's most famous singer and is often referred to as the Queen of Taiwanese pop music.
- Janet Hsieh, a Taiwanese-American television personality, violinist, author, and model based in Taipei, Taiwan. She is most well known for playing the Taiwanese Mandarin voiceover of Anna in the movie Frozen.
- Han Kuo-Huang, a Chinese-born American musician.
- Stella (singer), a singer-actress and former model who has become a pop star in much of the Chinese-speaking world, including Hong Kong and Taiwan.
- Sarah Chen, is a Taiwanese singer who became famous during the late-1980s and early-1990s. Her most famous hit songs, many resulting from her collaborations with songwriter Jonathan Lee, include Awakening Dream 夢醒時分
- Katrina Law, an American actress. She is known for playing the roles of Mira in the Starz television series, Spartacus: Blood and Sand and Spartacus: Vengeance, and Nyssa al Ghul on The CW television series, Arrow.
- George Hu, is an American actor and singer based in Taiwan. He speaks fluent Taiwanese, Mandarin, and English.
- Rebecca Lim, a Singaporean actress who has acted in several English and Chinese dramas
- Jack Neo, a Singaporean film and television actor, host and director.
- Joshua Ang, Singaporean actor
- Ah Niu, a Malaysian Chinese singer in Malaysia and Singapore
- Michelle Yeoh, a Chinese Malaysian actress, best known for performing her own stunts in the Hong Kong action films that brought her to fame in the early 1990s.
- Lim Kay Tong, Singaporean actor
- Sharon Au, former Singaporean actress and host
- Priscelia Chan, Singaporean television actress
- Chen Guohua (actor), Singaporean actor
- Joi Chua, Singaporean pop singer
- Edmund Chen, Singaporean actor
- Paige Chua, Singaporean model and actress
- Baiyu (singer), Chinese-born American singer-songwriter and actress.
- Lim Hak Tai, Singapore's pioneer artist at the turn of the 20th century, and was the person who inspired the Nanyang School of art form
- Cheong Soo Pieng, a Singaporean artist who was a pioneer of the Nanyang art style
- Liu Kang, Singaporean artist known for his Balinese-themed paintings
- Tan Swie Hian, artist known for his contemporary sculptures and Chinese calligraphy
- Cai Guo-Qiang, Chinese contemporary artist who works in New York. Much of his work draws on Maoist/Socialist concepts.
- Mazu, Song Dynasty patron goddess who is said to protect the sailors.
- Baosheng Dadi, Song Dynasty doctor and Taoist practitioner who was credited with performing medical miracles. After his death, he was worshiped as a deity.
- Sri Suriyendra, Queen consort of Siam.
- Kwa Geok Choo, First Lady of the first Prime Minister of Singapore, she topped the whole of Malaya in the 1936 Senior Cambridge examination. Lee Kuan Yew admitted that Kwa was 'a very bright girl, brighter than I was'.
- Wesley So, famous chess prodigy, he won the 2015 Bilbao Chess Masters and 2016 Sinquefield Cup.
- Ling Tan, Malaysian supermodel
- Khoo Kay Kim, Malaysian historian
- Kathleen Wong Mei Yin, political activist in Malaysia
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- Teochew people
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- Hoklo (disambiguation)
- Hokkien and Hoklo Americans
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