Holden Commodore (VT)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Holden VT Commodore)
Jump to: navigation, search
For a complete overview of all Commodore models, see Holden Commodore.
Holden Commodore (VT)
1997-1999 Holden VT Commodore SS sedan 03.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Holden
Also called Holden Berlina (VT)
Holden Calais (VT)
Chevrolet Lumina
Chevrolet Omega
Production September 1997 – October 2000
Assembly Australia: Elizabeth, South Australia
Body and chassis
Class Full-size car
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
Platform GM V platform
Related Opel Omega B
Holden Statesman/Caprice (WH)
HSV VT series
CSV VT series
Holden Coupe concept
Powertrain
Engine 3.8 L Ecotec V6
3.8 L Supercharged Ecotec V6
5.0 L 5000i V8 (Series I only)
5.7 L Generation III V8 (Series II only)
Transmission 4-speed GM 4L60-E automatic
5-speed Getrag 260 manual
6-speed T-56 manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,788 mm (109.8 in)–2,938 mm (115.7 in)
Length 4,882 mm (192.2 in)–5,040 mm (198 in)
Width 1,824 mm (71.8 in)
Height 1,422 mm (56.0 in)–1,468 mm (57.8 in)
Curb weight 1,551 kg (3,419 lb)–1,702 kg (3,752 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Holden Commodore (VS)
Successor Holden Commodore (VX)

The Holden Commodore (VT) is a full-size car that was produced by the Australian subsidiary of General Motors, Holden, from 1997 to 2000. It was the first iteration of the third generation of this Australian made model and the last one to be powered by a locally made V8 engine (1999). Its range included the luxury variants, Holden Berlina (VT) and Holden Calais (VT) but not a new generation utility version.

Introduced in August 1997, the VT-series represented Holden's largest development yet. On debut, it won the 1997 Wheels Car of the Year, resulting in the fourth time that this award was won by the Commodore.[1] It found ready acceptance in the market as many buyers steered away from the Ford Falcon (AU), becoming the best selling Commodore to date and cementing its place as number one in Australian sales.[2]

A VT Series II (VT II) was released in 1999, before being replaced by the re-styled VX model in 2000. In 1998, the VT formed the basis of a prototype that became the catalyst for the re-introduction in 2001 of the Holden Monaro coupé—a nameplate on hiatus since 1977.

History of development[edit]

The station wagon variant possessed a cargo volume of 2,683 litres (94.7 cu ft), compared to the sedan's 475 litres (16.8 cu ft).

The VT project was the outcome of an A$600 million development program that spanned more than half a decade. The new model sported a rounded exterior body shell, improved dynamics, and many firsts for an Australian-built car.[3] A stronger body structure—30 percent stiffer than the its predecessor, the VS series—increased crash safety.[4]

As with previous Commodore models, Holden looked to Opel in Germany for a donor car. The VT series was derived from the Omega B by broadening that vehicle’s width and adapting the mechanical setup for Australian conditions.

The alternative to the above, would have been to adopt the Omega (which, notably, was also sold as the Cadillac Catera between 1997 and 2001) as is, save for the engines and transmissions or just reskinning the existing second generation (VN–VS) architecture.[5]

In 1999, the VT wagon platform served as the basis for the second generation Statesman and Caprice luxury cars.[2] This third generation Commodore also formed the basis for the resurrection of the iconic Monaro coupé from the 1960s and 1970s.[6] Presented as the "Holden Coupé" concept car at the 1998 Australian International Motor Show held in Sydney. Overwhelming public interest resulted in the coupé finally reaching production in 2001 as the Monaro[7] albeit by then based on the VX series.

Input from the United States[edit]

Holden's parent company was interested in incorporating a left-hand drive Commodore into the Buick lineup in the United States and became involved in the VT development cycle early on. Holden was provided funds for the necessary engineering changes and a prototype was unveiled to the American public in 1995 as the Buick XP2000 concept car[8] whose styling formed the basis for the VT series. The project, known internally as Project 127, was abandoned in early 1994,[citation needed] well before the VT's release but Holden made the most of the situation by exporting left-hand drive VTs to parts of Indochina and the Middle East badged as the Chevrolet Lumina,[8] and to Brazil badged as the Chevrolet Omega.[9]

Engineering[edit]

The VT heralded the fitment of semi-trailing arm independent rear suspension (IRS) as standard across the range.[10] However, when originally carried over, the European design was simplified with the removal of the toe control link,[2] standard equipment on the six-cylinder Omega since 1987.[11] This design was prone to distorting the suspension camber angle and toe under heavy loads (e.g. when towing or travelling over undulated surfaces), leading to excessive rear tyre wear. Holden's performance arm HSV re-added the toe control link on the flagship GTS 300 model, based on the Series II update.[11]

The base engine was the 3.8 L Ecotec V6 that Holden originally launched with the Commodore VS Series II. Apart from the Holden 5.0 litre V8 and HSV variants, the other engine offered was a supercharged version of the Ecotec, also previously launched with the VS II, which was uprated to 171 kilowatts (229 hp).[12] and available as an option on the S, SS, and Calais models.[13] The supercharged V6 availability was revised for the VT Series II. No longer available on the SS, it became optional on the Berlina and standard fitment of the Calais, although the naturally aspirated version could be specified as a "delete option".[14] Safety wise, side airbags with torso and head protection[15] became an option for the Acclaim and higher models in 1998 (a first for Holden and Australian manufactured vehicles)[16] as were more advanced electronics from launch such as optional traction control and key-based memory settings for Calais.

Holden 3.8-Litre V6 Ecotec engine (with retrofitted strut bar)
Powertrains
Engine Power Torque Transmission
3791 cc Ecotec V6 147 kW (197 hp) 304 N·m (224 lb·ft)
3791 cc Supercharged Ecotec V6 171 kW (229 hp) 375 N·m (277 lb·ft)
4987 cc V8 179 kW (240 hp) 400 N·m (300 lb·ft)
4987 cc HSV V8 195 kW (261 hp) 430 N·m (320 lb·ft)
5665 cc Generation III V8 220 kW (300 hp) 446 N·m (329 lb·ft)

Models[edit]

The VT series was officially announced on 26 August 1997 and went on sale on 5 September replacing the VS Commodore.[17] Its only major update, marketed as the VT Series II, was launched on 1 June 1999[18] and sold until October 2000, when the VX series was launched as its replacement.

VT Commodore Acclaim sedan
VT Berlina sedan
The Acclaim's interior is comparable to the fleet-oriented Executive.

The original 1997 VT range was introduced with a range of six models comprising:

  • Commodore Executive (fleet and entry package) V6 manual from A$29,760 sedan and A$31,600 wagon, with optional automatic, and V8
  • Commodore Acclaim (family safety package) V6 automatic from A$33,980 sedan and A$34,960 wagon
  • Commodore S (entry sports package) V6 manual from A$34,810 sedan only, with the option of the V6 Supercharged automatic
  • Commodore SS (high-end sports package) V8 manual from A$44,160 sedan only, with optional automatic or V6 Supercharged automatic
  • Berlina (luxury package) V6 automatic from A$39,800 sedan and A$42,600 wagon, with optional V8 automatic
  • Calais (sport luxury package) [17] V6 automatic from A$48,760 sedan only, with optional V8 automatic or V6 Supercharged automatic.

In terms of major features and options:

  • Standard across the range – IRS, driver's airbag, seatbelt pre-tensioners, electric seat height and tilt adjuster, trip computer (6-function single digital window on all models except Berlina and Calais featuring a 12-function 3 digital windows upgrade)
  • Passenger airbag available across the range standard for being optional on the Executive and S for A$510
  • ABS standard on all models except available as an optional package on Executive
  • Traction Control standard on Acclaim and Calais but optional on the rest of the range for A$510
  • Automatic transmission optional on all models except Acclaim, Berlina and Calais
  • Power steering standard across the range (a Bishop variable ratio rack and pinion system), with Calais featuring a speed sensitive version (Variotronic)
  • Air conditioning optional on Executive and Acclaim but standard on S and SS, with climate control on Berlina (single zone) and Calais (dual zone)
  • Alloy wheels optional on Executive and Acclaim (15-inch steel wheels standard) but optional on all other models (15-inch on Berlina, 16-inch on S and Calais, 17-inch on SS)
  • Full power electric windows and metallic paint standard on Berlina and Calais but optional on all other models
  • Cruise control standard on all automatic models except for being optional on Executive
  • Fabric seat trim on all models except for velour on Berlina and Calais, with leather trim optional on the latter
  • A double-DIN 6-speaker 30W sound system with cassette player across the range except for Calais featuring 8-speakers, and CD players optional on all models except being standard on Berlina (single-CD) and Calais (10-CD stacker) also featuring a power antenna with height memory
  • For Calais-only – automatic light sensing headlights, personalised key system (recognizing 2 driver's transmission, climate, audio, trip computer and overspeed setting), powered driver's seat
  • For Calais, S and SS a leather wrapped steering wheel optional on all other models
  • For S and SS models, a rear wing spoiler and FE2 sport suspension optional on all other models
  • For SS-only, sports seats and a standard limited slip differential optional on all other models
  • Sunroof optional on all models.

Although considered to be part of the "VT Commodore" range, the Berlina and Calais luxury models were not badged or marketed as Commodore's and the Calais was only offered as a sedan. Apart from greater standard interior features as listed above plus such things as map lamps, footwell lamps, programmable interior dimming lights, auto-off lamp function, speed sensitive windscreen wipers (and, for Calais, including a woodgrain-look gear gate, chrome-look door handles, door lamps), the key differentiating exterior features of these luxury-oriented models relative to Executive and Acclaim included chrome-look grilles, side mouldings and bumper bars with chrome-look strips, chrome exhaust tips. In addition, the Calais featured lower skirt area of the Calais in contrasting paint (for a dual tone effect), chrome-look window mouldings, front fog lights, clear rear side indicators.

The range colours included: Heron (white and sole non-metallic), Rubens Mica, Capricorn Mica, Raven Mica, Orion Frost (silver), Valencia Mica, Tundra Mica, Botanica Mica, Granada Mica, Morocco Sand Frost, Bermuda Mica.

Special editions included the following:

  • 1998 Commodore 50th Anniversary sedan and wagon (commemorating Holden's history)
  • 1998 Calais 50th Anniversary (as above)
  • 1999 Commodore Equipe (marketing package)
  • 1999–2000 Commodore Olympic edition (commemorating the Sydney 2000 games)
  • 2000 Calais International (marketing package).

Featuring special badging, with the exception of Calais, which featured unique limited edition parts, the rest of these special editions were base Commodores sold with extra equipment (e.g. full body-coloured bumper bars, standard alloy wheels—from Berlina for the 50th Anniversary—but without the luxury interior features such as climate control and full trip computer).

Series II[edit]

1999–2000 VT Series II Commodore limited edition fitted with 1997–1999 VT Berlina alloy wheels, as standard
All VT Series II models now featured clear side and rear indicator lenses

The Ecotec V6 remained the same, however, it received an updated tune that made the Series II of the V6 slightly faster than the original version. The VT had lost some of the performance of the VS due to the significant weight increase and thus could match neither its predecessor, nor, most importantly, its competitor, the AU Falcon.

The 1999 update replaced the venerable Holden 5.0 litre V8 with a new 5.7 litre Gen III V8 sourced from the United States.[11] The VT II in Gen III V8 guise was claimed by Wheels magazine in 1999 to be the fastest Australian car ever.[19] The V8 was detuned to 220 kilowatts (300 hp) from the original version, but would receive incremental power upgrades to 250 kilowatts (340 hp) throughout its time in the Commodore.[1]

Cosmetically, all Series II VT models received slightly revised wheel covers and alloys, front grilles (silver accents on the base models and thicker horizontal chrome bars on Berlina and Calais) as well as clear side and rear indicator lenses (as fitted on the 1997–1999 VT Calais) instead of the previous amber. The updated Calais now also featured a chrome strip across the boot garnish above the number plate, to distinguish it from the lower model variants.[20]

Holden Ute[edit]

Unlike in the case of its other new generation platforms, which saw Holden release a utility version concurrent to other mainstream body shapes, a VT Ute version was never developed. Instead, Holden continued to sell the VS Commodore utility version until December 2000, at which time the VU-series Holden Ute was released.[21] This vehicle was based on the long wheelbase platform of the VX Commodore, itself launched in October 2000 as the first significant facelift of the VT series.

HSV range[edit]

The enhanced performance range of the original VT-based range sold by Holden Special Vehicles (HSV)comprised the following variants:

  • Manta sedan with a 5.0-litre 195 kW V8 5-speed manual or optional 4-speed automatic
  • Clubsport sedan with a 5.0-litre 195 kW V8 5-speed manual or optional 4-speed automatic
  • GTS sedan with a 5.7-litre 220 kW V8 or optional 230 kW version 6-speed manual or optional 4-speed automatic
  • Senator sedan with a 5.7-litre 220 kW V8 or optional 230 kW version 4-speed automatic with the 5- or 6-speed manual option
  • Senator Signature sedan with a 5.7-litre 220 kW V8 or optional 230 kW version 4-speed automatic with the 5- or 6-speed manual option
  • Senator Estate wagon with a 5.7-litre 220 kW V8 or optional 230 kW version 4-speed automatic only.

A limited-run XU8 model was also released powered by the last Australian-made 5.0-litre V8, due to be replaced by the imported 5.7-litre V8 standard on VT Series II cars. The launch of this series also introduced the short lived XU6 sedan, which was powered by the supercharged version of Commodore's 3.8-litre V6 engine.

Clubsport
HSV VT Clubsport

Launched in 1997, the HSV VT Clubsport was much larger and heavier than its predecessors. Critics noted that its engine, a 5.0 L V8 (producing 195 kW (265 PS; 261 hp)), was also available as an option on the Commodore SS, making the Clubsport less exclusive and desirable. The VT Clubsport did feature many luxury features, including a CD player, leather-wrap steering wheel, powered front seats and foglights.[22]

The VT Series II was released in 1999 to replace the standard Clubsport. It featured a new 5.7 L V8 LS1 Gen III engine, sourced from GM Powertrain, producing 250 kW (340 PS; 335 hp). Production ceased in 2000.[23]

GTS
  • Series 1 VT GTS — 161 produced — 126 manual, remainder automatic
  • Series 2 VT GTS — 100 produced
Senator Signature
HSV VT Senator sedan

Introduced in 1997 the VT gained the larger all-new bodyshell of the VT Commodore and also heralded the introduction of a Senator Signature wagon for the first time into the HSV range. An upgraded 195 kW (261 hp) 5.0 litre and 220 kW (295 hp) 5.7-litre V8 engines were offered. The VT Senator Signature came standard with speed-sensitive steering which would act in different ways depending on the road and surrounding conditions and luxury suspension tuned featuring Monroe Sensatrac shock absorbers. Appearance differed from other HSV models with the use of a chrome single-slat grille, side skirts, front fog lamps and 10-spoke 17 inch alloy wheels. The suspension was lowered, with leather seats and woodgrain standard throughout the Senator Signature.

The steering featured the Variatronic power assisted rack and pinion technology. The independent rear suspension and luxury front and rear Sensatrac variable rate dampers fitted made for smooth ride control and high speed stability. Additionally, HSV added complementary special features which were for the driver rather than the car, such as a Maglite torch, wheel nut cap remover and a multi-purpose pen knife. The VT Series II introduced a new 5.7 litre LS1 V8 which produced 250 kW (335 hp) and 473 N·m (349 lb·ft).

A choice of two transmissions were offered a 6-speed manual and 4-speed automatic. Front and side airbags, climate control air-conditioning and traction control are some of the features that come as standard. By activating a certain button in the cabin labeled "power" the automatic transmission holds the gears in longer, this gives the car more acceleration power. Storage wise the cabin offers, pockets behind the seats, door pockets, a large glove box and a console bin plus the larger boot.[24]

The Senator Signature Estate Wagon had two versions available with this version the 195i and the 220i these was known by the badges found on the rear. The numbers that were chosen was to illustrate the power the cars had. Some of the optional features included an upgraded braking system, rain sensing wipers and luxury tuned suspension. Leather featured heavily throughout the vehicle and dual climate control was to enhance comfort for the passengers throughout the large wagon. A special entertainment audio system is only available as an extra option it includes a Premium audio pack with 350 watt power amp and 6 stack CD. There is an optional Coulson 'performance' front seating which is for extra comfort. The wheels are 10-spoke 17" x 8" alloy wheels.[25] These days there are very few of these wagons left today.

Video games

HSV versions of the VT Commodore have featured in a number of video games. These include "HSV Adventure Racing", which was an adapted version of Beetle Adventure Racing exclusively for the Australian Nintendo 64 market, and, the "Need for Speed" collection.

Exports[edit]

Exports of the VT to the Middle East, rebadged as the Chevrolet Lumina, began in 1998.

In addition, General Motors do Brasil also imported the VT as the Chevrolet Omega from October 1998 to replace the same-named predecessor that was a rebadged Opel Omega A.[26][27][28] The Brazilian model sold as a single-specification CD model, based on the Holden Calais automatic powered by the Ecotec 3.8-litre V6 engine.[29] The VT II model came to Brazil in December 1999.[30] VT Omega sales ended in 2001 when replaced by the VX-based model, as announced on 18 May 2001.[31]

Production[edit]

Production of all VTs between August 1997 and August 2000 totalled 303,895 units.[32] Of these, some 100,000 units were sold in the first 22 months leading up to the release of the VT Series II in June 1999,[17] and 33,428 were exported.[33]

Recalls[edit]

The information summarised below relates to official factory recalls of this vehicle, as listed on the Australian product safety and recall website administered by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC).

  • March 1998: VT police vehicles (serial numbers L251589 to L296360) fitted with unique front bucket seat cushions with low side wings were recalled as those wings could enable to mat supporting the seat cushion to deflect sufficiently, crushing the wiring routed across the driver's seat and potentially resulting in heat damage to the seat cushion (PRA 1998/3494)
  • May 1998: VT vehicles built from 5 February 1998 to 24 March 1998 (serial numbers L287611 to L321633) recalled due to the welding of brake pedal assemblies potentially being inadequate and causing the brakes to fail (PRA 1998/3537)
  • March 1999: VT vehicles (serial numbers L246596 to L259927) recalled due to seats with unprotected wiring that, upon the seat cushion deflecting sufficiently, could crush the wiring harness and expose bare wires to the motor bracket, in so doing creating a short circuit and the wiring insulation to burn (PRA 1999/3845)
  • April 1999: VT vehicles manufactured from 24 August 1998 to 11 December 1998 (serial numbers L367025 to L413138) recalled for potentially faulty microprocessors within the sensing and diagnostic module of the supplemental restraint system that could potentially cause accidental activation of the vehicle's airbags (PRA 1999/3916)
  • July 1999: VT Series II vehicles manufactured between 27 May 1999 and 22 June 1999 (serial numbers L464495 to L473691) recalled due to final attaching torque not being achieved during assembly of the steering gear, rack-bar and inner ball joint housing (PRA 1999/4007)
  • November 1999: a total of 80 VT Series II vehicles recalled due to steering knuckles having potential casting defects which could compromise the durability of the knuckle and cause it to fail (PRA 1999/4139)
  • November 1999: a total of 19 VT Series II vehicles recalled due to the potential that the integrity of a weld used in the rear semi-trailing arm manufacturing process was not meeting Holden specifications, potentially leading to a component failure (PRA 1999/4138)
  • November 2000: VT vehicles fitted with 5.0-litre V8 engines (code LB9) recalled as the fuel feed hose may not have been manufactured to the correct specification, potentially causing the hose to suffer thermal degradation leading to a fuel leak and potential fire hazard (PRA 2000/4550)
  • July 2001: VT Series II vehicles manufactured after June 1999 recalled as an interruption of the electric current to the fuel pump relay, fuel pump connectors and low-beam headlight relay could cause the fuel pump and low-beam lights to fail (PRA 2001/4844)
  • November 2001: VT vehicles fitted with a 1600kg or 2100kg towbar tongue manufactured by Frontline after 1 April 2000 recalled due to the brittleness of the material that could lead to the towbar's failure during towing (PRA 2001/5042)
  • February 2002: VT vehicles fitted with factory-fitted LPG systems from September 2000 to August 2001 recalled due to the system's brass flare nuts used in the supply lines could potentially cracking and resulting in LPG leakage (PRA 2002/5200)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Davis, Tony; Kennedy, Alistair; Kennedy, Ewan (February 2007). "The Holden Heritage – 13th Edition (Part Three)". GM Holden. pp. 106–107. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c Kenwright, Joe (2006-07-29). "Crossing the Lion". CarPoint. ninemsn. Retrieved 2007-06-16. 
  3. ^ McCarthy, McKay, Newton, Robinson (2006), p. 158
  4. ^ Tuckey (1999), p. 224.
  5. ^ Robinson (2006), p. 27
  6. ^ Robinson (2006), p. 29
  7. ^ "Holden Waves Goodbye to Monaro". WebWombat. 2005-07-21. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 
  8. ^ a b Robinson (2006), p. 38
  9. ^ "Holden Sets All-Time Vehicle Export Record". Next Car. 2005-01-21. Retrieved 2007-08-03. 
  10. ^ "1997–99 Holden VT Commodore". Herald Sun. News Limited. 2003-01-10. Retrieved 2007-08-05. 
  11. ^ a b c Kenwright, Joe. "Holden VT/VX Commodore (1997–2002) AND Ford Falcon AU (1998–2002)". ninemsn. Retrieved 2007-08-05. 
  12. ^ "Holden Commodore VT". MyHolden.com.au. Retrieved 2007-08-07. 
  13. ^ Bebbington (2009), p. 126. "As well as Calais, [the supercharged V6] was now optional for S and SS models."
  14. ^ "Series II VT Commodore And Calais Improve On A Winning Package". AutoWeb. Web Publications. 1 June 1999. Retrieved 2010-05-06. 
  15. ^ http://www.autoweb.com.au/cms/A_50572/title_Holdens-Side-Impact-Airbag-is-a-Safety-First/newsarticle.html
  16. ^ "Holden Commodore VT". Unique Cars and Parts. Retrieved 2007-08-05. 
  17. ^ a b c Norm Darwin, 100 Years of GM in Australia, 2002, page 327
  18. ^ http://www.autoweb.com.au/cms/A_51375/title_Series-II-VT-Commodore-And-Calais-Improve-On-A-Winning-Package/newsarticle.html
  19. ^ Wheels magazine, 1999.
  20. ^ "Holden Commodore / Calais – VT Series – September 1997 – September 2000". The Unofficial Holden Commodore Archive. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  21. ^ Norm Darwin, 100 Years of GM in Australia, 2002, page 332
  22. ^ "HSV ClubSport (VT ClubSport)". GoAuto.com.au. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  23. ^ "HSV ClubSport (VTII ClubSport)". GoAuto.com.au. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  24. ^ "RACQ Road Test of 1999". RACQ. Retrieved 2006-10-07. [dead link]
  25. ^ "VT Senator Signature Wagon". Archived from the original on 2006-09-19. Retrieved 2007-01-25. 
  26. ^ Davi, Susete (1999-03-18). "Omega: líder absoluto de vendas" [Omega: absolute leader in sales] (Press release) (in Portuguese). São Caetano do Sul: General Motors do Brasil. Retrieved 2014-12-19. 
  27. ^ "Chevrolet Omega CD" (Press release) (in Portuguese). São Caetano do Sul: General Motors do Brasil. 2003-04-28. Retrieved 2014-12-19. 
  28. ^ "Novo Omega chega importado da Austrália" [New Omega comes imported from Australia]. AN Veículos (in Portuguese). 1998-10-26. Retrieved 2014-12-19. 
  29. ^ Meneghim, Luís (1998-12-06). "Omega". AN Veículos (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2014-12-19. 
  30. ^ Davi, Susete (1999-12-01). "Chegou o Chevrolet Omega 2000" [The 2000 Chevrolet Omega has arrived] (Press release) (in Portuguese). São Caetano do Sul: General Motors do Brasil. Retrieved 2014-12-19. 
  31. ^ Davi, Susete (2001-05-18). "Novo Chevrolet Omega 2001: reestilização e mais tecnologia" [New Chevrolet Omega 2001: restyling and more technology] (Press release) (in Portuguese). São Caetano do Sul: General Motors do Brasil. Retrieved 2014-12-19. 
  32. ^ Norm Darwin, 100 Years of GM in Australia, 2002, page 331
  33. ^ http://www.marks.4t.com/holden3.htm#vt

References[edit]

Books

Journals

  • McCarthy, Mike; McKay, Peter; Newton, Bruce; Robinson, Peter (October 2006). "2006 Collector's Edition VE Commodore: The Full Story". Wheels magazine (ACP Magazines).