Holism and Evolution
Holism and Evolution is a 1926 book by South African statesman Jan Smuts, in which he coined the word "holism", although Smuts' meaning is different from the modern concept of holism. Smuts defined holism as the "fundamental factor operative towards the creation of wholes in the universe."
The book was part of a broader trend of interest in holism in European and colonial academia during the early twentieth century. Smuts' philosophy of holism was based in the thoughts behind his earlier book Walt Whitman: A Study in the Evolution of Personality, written during his time in Cambridge. He described a "process-orientated, hierarchical view of nature" and has been influential among criticisms of reductionism. Smuts' formulation of holism has also been linked with his political-military activity, especially his aspiration to create a league of nations.
- Ton Otto; Nils Bubandt (2 August 2011). Experiments in Holism: Theory and Practice in Contemporary Anthropology. John Wiley & Sons. p. 252. ISBN 978-1-4443-5185-9.
- Freeman J (2005). "Towards a definition of holism". Br J Gen Pract. 55 (511): 154–5. PMC 1463203. PMID 15720949.
- Poynton, J.C. (1987). "Smuts's Holism and Evolution sixty years on". Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. 46 (3): 181–189. doi:10.1080/00359198709520121.
- J.C. Smuts (1927). Holism and evolution. Рипол Классик. ISBN 978-5-87111-227-4.
- Jan C Smuts: Walt Whitman – a Study in the Evolution of Personality, Wayne State University Press 1973
- Hancock – Smuts: 1. The Sanguine Years, 1870–1919, p. 28
- Crafford, F.S. (1943). Jan Smuts: A Biography. Kessinger Publishing. p. 140. ISBN 1-4179-9290-5.
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