Holland America Line

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Holland America Line N.V.
Founded1873; 150 years ago (1873) (as Netherlands-America Steamship Company)
In Netherlands
SuccessorNederlandsche Scheepvaart Unie Edit this on Wikidata
HeadquartersSeattle, Washington, U.S.
Key people
ParentCarnival Corporation & plc

Holland America Line is an American-owned cruise line, a subsidiary of Carnival Corporation & plc headquartered in Seattle, Washington, United States.

Holland America Line was founded in Rotterdam, Netherlands, and from 1873 to 1989, it operated as a Dutch shipping line, a passenger line, a cargo line and a cruise line operating primarily between the Netherlands and North America. As part of the company's legacy, it was directly involved in the transport of many hundreds of thousands of emigrants from the Netherlands to North America.[2]

Holland America has been a subsidiary of Carnival Corporation since 1989.[3]


Poster for Holland-Amerika Lijn, 1898

Dutch shipping and passenger line (1873–1989)[edit]

Holland America Line was founded in 1873, as the Nederlandsch-Amerikaansche Stoomvaart Maatschappij (Dutch-American Steamship Company), in short Holland-Amerika Lijn, a shipping and passenger line.[4] It was headquartered in Rotterdam, in the building which is now the Hotel New York.[5] It provided service from its European base to the Americas over the North Atlantic. The company was formed as a result of the reorganization of an earlier company, Plate, Reuchlin & Co. The company's first ship was the original Rotterdam (1872), which sailed its 15-day maiden voyage from the Netherlands to New York City on October 15, 1872. Other services were started to other new world ports, including Hoboken, Baltimore and South America. Cargo service to New York started in 1909.

During the first 25 years, the company carried 400,000 people from Europe to the Americas. Other North American ports were added during the early 20th century.[2]

Though transportation and shipping were the primary sources of revenue, in 1895, HAL offered its first vacation cruise. Its second vacation cruise, from New York to Palestine, was first offered in 1910.

One notable ship was the elegant 36,000-gross register ton SS Nieuw Amsterdam of 1937, it and RMS Queen Mary being the only two liners built in the 1930s to make a profit.

At the start of the Second World War, HAL had 25 ships; nine remained at war's end. At the beginning of the war, the Westernland acquired from the Red Star Line in 1939, berthed at Falmouth, England, became the seat of the Dutch government.[6] The Nieuw Amsterdam sailed half a million miles transporting 400,000 military personnel. After the war, the shipping line was instrumental in transporting a massive wave of immigrants from the Netherlands to Canada and elsewhere.[7]

Another notable ship during the post-war period was the SS Rotterdam of 1959, one of the first North Atlantic ships equipped for two-class transatlantic crossing and one-class luxury cruising.

By the late 1960s, the golden era of transatlantic passenger ships had been ended by the introduction of transatlantic jet air travel. HAL ended transatlantic service during the early 1970s, leaving the North Atlantic passenger trade for Cunard's Queen Elizabeth 2.

In 1973, it sold its cargo shipping division, which continued to operate freight liner services with freighters, a Lighter aboard ship ('LASH' ship, mv Bilderdijk) and then container ships under the trade name of Incotrans, with headquarters in Rotterdam, with some of its North American services operated in partnership with the French shipping line Compagnie Générale Maritime.

It ceased operating as a Dutch line in 1989, when it was purchased by Carnival for 1.2 billion guilders (€530 million). The proceeds were put into an investment company (HAL Investments), the majority of which is owned by the van der Vorm family.

Former fleet (before 1989)[edit]

List of HAL ships retired before the takeover by Carnival.[7]

Former head office of HAL in Rotterdam, now the Hotel New York
  • MS Prinsendam, 1973–80 — Sank off of the coast of Alaska.
  • SS Veendam (III), 1972–74, 1975–76, 1978–84 — Last in service for Commodore Cruise Line as Enchanted Isle[8]
  • SS Volendam (I), 1922–52 — 1940–45 Escaped to Britain in WW2, served as troop transport, returned to Rotterdam in 1945
  • SS Volendam (II), 1972–76, 1978–84 — Sister to SS Veendam (III); Last known as Universe Explorer of World Explorer Lines[9]
  • SS Statendam (I), 1898–1911 — Sold to the Allan Line
  • SS Statendam (II) — Taken over before completion as the White Star Line's SS Justicia
  • SS Statendam (III), 1929–40 — Scrapped after being set on fire to avoid capture at Rotterdam
  • SS Statendam (IV), 1956–82 — Last in service for Regent Star as Regency. Inactive after Regent Star went bankrupt.[10]
  • SS Maasdam (III) Torpedoed and sunk in convoy HX-133 on 27 Jun, 1941 by U-564 south of Iceland[11]
  • SS Maasdam (IV), 1952–68 — 1968–90 in service for Polish Ocean Lines as TSS Stefan Batory, scrapped Turkey 2000[12]
  • SS Rijndam, 1951–73 — Sank 2003 on way to breakers[12]
  • SS Waterman, 1951–63 — Launched January 16, 1945 Decommissioned 1970.[13]
  • SS Zuiderkruis, 1951–63 — Launched May 5, 1944 Decommissioned 1969.[13]
  • SS Groote Beer, 1951–63 — Launched June 17, 1944 Decommissioned 1971.[13]
  • SS Westerdam, 1945–65 — Combination first class passenger/cargo vessel; scrapped Spain 1965
  • MV Zaandam, 1939–42 — With passengers and 9200 tons of cargo was torpedoed and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean 300 nautical miles (560 km) north of Cape Sao Roque, Brazil, with the loss of 134 of the 299 people on board.[14]
  • SS Nieuw Amsterdam, 1937 — In WW2 escaped to US neutral port, served as a British War Transport carrying over 350,000, returned to Holland in 1946. Breakers yard in 1974.
  • SS Rotterdam — Scrapped 1940.
  • SS Noordam, 1902 — Scrapped 1927, alerted RMS Titanic to ice early into its ill-fated maiden voyage.[15]
  • SS Potsdam, 1900 — Scrapped 1947. It was the largest ship HAL owned at the time it was in service.
  • SS Rotterdam, 1886 — scrapped 1895.
  • SS Rotterdam, 1872 — Wrecked September 26, 1883.
  • SS Veendam (II) — Sister ship of SS Volendam (I). In 1940, bombed in Rotterdam, repaired and requestioned by Hamburg-America Line. Used for German submarine crews stationed in Hamburg. Returned to service from Rotterdam 1947, scrapped Baltimore 1953.
  • MV Sommelsdyk (III) 1939 — Pacific service, wartime service as U.S. troopship until Atlantic service in 1947, scrapped 1965.[16][17]
  • MV Sloterdyk (II) 1940 — Sister ship of MV Sommelsdyk (III). Atlantic service. Wartime service as U.S. troopship. Returned to the HAL in 1946, used as a troop transport to the Dutch East Indies during the Indonesian National Revolution and scrapped in 1966.[16][18]

As a US-based cruise line (1989–present)[edit]

MS Rotterdam and MS Eurodam docked in Tallinn, Estonia in 2014

In 1989, the Holland America Line was purchased by Carnival Corp, thus becoming an American owned cruise line headquartered in Seattle, Washington, United States.[19]

In the summer of 2011, Rotterdam did two transatlantic crossings, the first traditional transatlantic runs made by the line in more than 40 years.[citation needed]

Beginning in September 2012, Rotterdam was based year-round out of Rotterdam, sailing to Europe, the Caribbean, as well as Asia, before returning to more varied itineraries and home ports by 2016.[citation needed]

Amsterdam makes annual "Grand Voyages" lasting more than 60 days, including a grand circle of the Pacific Ocean each fall and a World Voyage sailing around the world, usually ranging from January to April/May.

The line currently operates five different classes of ship: the smaller and older S-class vessels, the slightly newer and larger R class, the Vista class, the Signature class, and the newest and largest Pinnacle class.[20]

All HAL ships have a dark blue hull with white superstructure, with the company's logo featured prominently on the functional smoke stacks.

Holland America also owns the following:

On October 26, 2012, it was announced that a memorandum of agreement had been signed with Italian shipbuilder Fincantieri for the construction of a 2,660-passenger ship for Holland America Line scheduled for delivery in spring 2016. The MS Koningsdam, which became a new class of vessel for the line (The Pinnacle Class), and the first new Holland America ship since the Nieuw Amsterdam, delivered in 2010. Also noted was that the addition of new ships would maintain passenger capacity if some of the older Carnival Corporation ships are sold.[22]

The Holland America Group of HAL and Princess Cruises have a letter of understanding to buy the Yukon White Pass Railways from Skagway to the US-Canadian border. The purchase closed July 31, 2018.

On July 15, 2020, it was announced by Holland America that the Maasdam, Veendam, Rotterdam, and Amsterdam were sold to two undisclosed buyers. The ships were sold in pairs, with the Maasdam and Veendam transferring to one company in August 2020, while the Amsterdam and Rotterdam moved to another company in fall 2020. One pair went to a new cruise brand and the other to an existing brand.[23]

Most cruise lines suspended their sailings because of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020.[24] As of 6 January 2021, all Holland America sailings were cancelled to at least 30 April 2021, according to an industry news item. That report listed no specific sailings for Holland America prior to the first week of June 2021.[25]


Current fleet[edit]

Vessel name In HAL
passenger decks
Flag Image
Rotterdam class (R class)
Unlike the vessels of the S class, Holland America Line's R-class ships did not all start out identical. Rotterdam, the first of the four, was similar to the S class, but slightly longer and wider, with a third set of passenger stairs/elevators, twin funnels, and some new facilities. The twins Volendam and Zaandam followed, similar to Rotterdam, but with a different (single) funnel and larger because the aft pool was moved up one deck to the Lido level, creating more space for passenger accommodations below. The final R-class ship, Amsterdam, like a hybrid of Rotterdam and Volendam/Zaandam, incorporates Rotterdam's twin funnels as well as the Lido deck aft pool. Together, Rotterdam and Amsterdam were considered HAL's flagships.[citation needed] On July 15, 2020, it was announced by Holland America that MS Rotterdam and MS Amsterdam were sold to an undisclosed buyers. The ships were sold in pairs, with the two joining an existing cruise brand in fall 2020.[23] It was further announced on the same day, that this pair will join Fred. Olsen Cruise Line.[26]
MS Volendam 1999 61,214 23 knots 1,432 9  Netherlands Kobe MS Volendam01n4272.jpg
MS Zaandam 2000 61,396 23 knots 1,432 9  Netherlands MS Zaandam.JPG
Vista class (V class)
HAL's four Vista-class ships are named for the points of the compass in Dutch. Noord for north, Zuid for south, Oost for east and West for West. These ships were designed mainly for shorter (less than two weeks) cruises in the Caribbean, Alaska and Europe. These ships are notable because of the exceptionally great number of oceanview and verandah staterooms - more than 85% and 67% respectively. The first three Vista-class vessels were built as identical triplets. Noordam incorporated a few design changes, including a more vertical aft profile, which makes her larger, with a slightly greater passenger capacity. The success of Noordam's revised design caused HAL to modify the other three Vista-class ships with aft expansions to mimic Noordam.[citation needed] In 2006, the Vista-class cruise ships were awarded the 2006 Green Planet Award for outstanding environmental standards by Kuoni Switzerland.[27] Zuiderdam, Oosterdam and Westerdam received the first phase of Signature of Excellence upgrades (detailed above) between 2005 and 2006, while Noordam was built to SOE1 standards.[citation needed]
MS Zuiderdam 2002 82,305 24 knots 1,916 10  Netherlands 20080921-Piraeus-MS Zuiderdam.JPG
MS Oosterdam 2003 82,305 24 knots 1,916 10  Netherlands MS Oosterdam, Princes Wharf, 2013 (cropped).JPG
MS Westerdam 2004 82,305 24 knots 1,916 10  Netherlands Westerdam Nov 24 2015.png
MS Noordam 2006 82,318 24 knots 1,924 10  Netherlands Noordam.jpg
Signature class
The Signature-class ships are essentially an enhanced Vista-class design. The main difference is the addition of a deck between the Lido and Observation decks. This allows for more cabins (mostly spa accommodations) and some additional facilities including the specialty restaurant Tamarind and the Silk Den lounge.[citation needed] Both Signature-class ships were built to Signature of Excellence (first phase) standards (detailed above).[citation needed]
MS Eurodam 2008 86,273 23.9 knots 2,104 11  Netherlands Eurodam.JPG
MS Nieuw Amsterdam 2010 86,700 23.9 knots 2,106 11  Netherlands Nieuw Amsterdam San Juan.JPG
Pinnacle class
Constructed at the Fincantieri shipyards, Koningsdam is the largest ship to be built for Holland-America, and is the size of the ex-Ryndam and ex-Statendam joined together.[22] The new vessel has a beam of 35 metres (114 ft 10 in), complying with the New Panamax dimensions and allowing it to cruise through the new wider locks currently under construction at the Panama Canal. It was launched on February 15, 2016.[28] All Pinnacle class ships were built to Signature of Excellence (first phase) standards (detailed above).
MS Koningsdam 2016 99,863 22,2 knots 2,650 12  Netherlands Koningsdam (ship, 2016) 004.jpg
MS Nieuw Statendam 2018 99,863 22,2 knots 2,650 12  Netherlands
MS Rotterdam 2021 99,863 22,2 knots 2,650 12  Netherlands MS Rotterdam in Rotterdam 2021-10-14.jpg

Former fleet[edit]

Holland America's parent company, Carnival Corporation & plc, currently owns 2 ex-Holland America Line ships operated by Marella Cruises. Both the Marella Celebration and the Marella Spirit sailed for Holland America as the Noordam (1984) and Nieuw Amsterdam (1983) before being transferred to the Marella fleet in 2005 and 2003, respectively. Marella Spirit was operated by Louis Cruises under sub-charter to Marella until 2018, when she was sold for scrap. Her sister ship, the Marella Celebration, still remains in operation. The Marella Dream was built as Homeric in 1986 before moving to Holland America as Westerdam in 1988.

When Carnival Corporation acquired Costa Cruises in 2000, she was then transferred to the Costa fleet as Costa Europa in 2002. She has since been under charter to Marella since 2010.[29] It was announced on May 19, 2014 that both the Statendam and Ryndam would be transferred to P&O Cruises Australia fleet.[30]

Vessel name Built In HAL
Notes Image
Amsterdam 2000 2000–2020 62,735 tons  Netherlands Rotterdam class
Sold to Fred. Olsen Cruise Line in 2020 and renamed Bolette.
Amsterdam at Kobe07s3872.jpg
Rotterdam 1997 1997–2020 61,849 tons  Netherlands Rotterdam class
Sold to Fred. Olsen Cruise Line in 2020 and renamed Borealis.
Rotterdam at Pier Tallinn 31 May 2013.JPG
Veendam 1996 1996–2020 57,092 tons  Greece Statendam class (S class)

As the first ships ordered and delivered under the line's ownership by Carnival Corporation & plc, the S-class ships were the first new Holland America Line ships to incorporate features including the atrium, the two-deck main dining room and show lounge, and the Lido pool with retractable roof.[31] Sold to Seajets in 2020 and renamed Aegean Majesty.[23]
MS Veendam Near Gloucester (recropped).jpg
Ryndam 1994 1994–2015 55,819 tons  Greece Statendam class (S class)

MS Ryndam for Holland America Line from 1994 to 2015. Pacific Aria for P&O Cruises Australia from 2015 to 2020. After the deal to sell to CMV failed due to their administration P&O sold Pacific Aria to Seajets.[32]
Ryndam near Flåm 4.JPG
Maasdam 1993 1993–2020 55,575 tons  Greece Statendam class (S class)

sold to Seajets in 2020 and renamed Aegean Myth.[33]
Charlottetown Waterfront, Prince Edward Island (471303) (9450771460).jpg
Statendam 1993 1993–2015 55,819 tons  United Kingdom Statendam class (S class)

MS Statendam for Holland America Line from 1992 to 2015. Pacific Eden for P&O Cruises Australia from 2015 to 2019. Vasco da Gama for TransOcean Tours since 2019. After CMV entered administration in 2020 sold to Mystic Invest.[34]
MS Statendam(js)02.jpg
Prinsendam 1988 2002–19 38,848 tons The Bahamas Bahamas Prinsendam had a career with Royal Viking Line, Cunard Line, and Seabourn Cruise Line before joining the HAL fleet after an extensive refit in 2002. Transferred to Phoenix Reisen and renamed Amera in 2019 Prinsendam arriving at Tallinn 6 July 2015.JPG
Westerdam 1986 1988–2002 54,763 tons  Malta Homeric for Home Lines from 1986 to 1988. MS Westerdam for Holland America Line from 1988 to 2002. Costa Europa for Costa Cruises from 2002 to 2010. Marella Dream for Marella Cruises from 2010 to 2020. Laid up from 2020 to 2022. Sold for scrap as Ella in 2022. "Westerdam" - Québec City, 1997 (cropped).jpg
Noordam 1984 1984–2005 33,960 tons  Malta MS Noordam for Holland America Line from 1984 to 2005. Marella Celebration for Marella Cruises from 2005 to 2020. Laid up from 2020 to 2022. Sold for scrap as Mare in 2022. Marco polo-amsterdam-noordam (2459029719) (noordam).jpg
Nieuw Amsterdam 1983 1984–2000 33,930 tons  Malta MS Nieuw Amsterdam for Holland America Line 1983 to 2000. MS Patriot for American Classic Voyages from 2000 to 2002. Laid up as MS Nieuw Amsterdam by Holland America Line 2002. MS Spirit for Louis Cruise Lines from 2002 to 2003. Marella Spirit for Marella Cruises from 2003 to 2018. Sold for scrap as Mare S and La Spirit in 2018 Nieuw Amsterdam at Vancouver (cropped).jpg
Rotterdam 1959 1959–97 38,645 tons  Netherlands SS Rotterdam for Holland America Line from 1959 to 1997. Rembrandt for Premier Cruises from 1997 to 2000. Laid up as Rembrandt from 2000 to 2003. SS Rotterdam for WestCord Hotels since 2013. Valdez - SS Rotterdam (3847789627).jpg

See also[edit]



  1. ^ "Carnival Corporation announces important moves within its leadership team". eTurboNews. July 9, 2020. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Holland America Line - A History of Distinction, Innovation and Growth". The Maritime Executive. 22 December 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  3. ^ "Carnival Buys Up Holland America". LA Times. 12 February 1989. Retrieved 11 January 2021. $625-million purchase
  4. ^ "About us - History". Holland America Line. Retrieved November 8, 2002.
  5. ^ "Hotel New York and Lloyd Hotel: migration stopovers between Europe and the Americas". blog.europeana.eu. Europeana (CC BY-SA). 2018-11-07. Retrieved 2018-11-30.
  6. ^ "SS Regina". Retrieved April 15, 2014.
  7. ^ a b Dalkmann & Schoonderbeek, H.A. & A.J. (1998). 125 Years of Holland America Line. United Kingdom: The Pentland Press Ltd. pp. 5–17. ISBN 1-85821-590-0.
  8. ^ "Moore-McCormack Liner Argentina 1958 – Ship Postcards". www.simplonpc.co.uk.
  9. ^ "Moore-McCormack Liner Brasil 1958 - Ship Postcards". www.simplonpc.co.uk.
  10. ^ "Holland America - Statendam (1956) Ocean Liner and Cruise Ship Postcards". www.simplonpc.co.uk.
  11. ^ Gudmundur Helgason. "Maasdam". uboat.net. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  12. ^ a b "Holland America Ocean Liner Postcards". www.simplonpc.co.uk.
  13. ^ a b c "SS Zuiderkruis, Groote Beer, Waterman". www.ssmaritime.com.
  14. ^ "Zaandam". Uboat. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  15. ^ "Noordam history". cruise.bwatts.org.
  16. ^ a b S. Swiggum and M. Kohli (January 18, 2006). "Nederlandsch-Amerikaansche Stoomvaart Maatschappij / Holland America Line". The Ship List. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  17. ^ Lloyds (1943–44). "Lloyd's Register" (PDF). Lloyd's Register (through PlimsollShipData). Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  18. ^ Van Kuijk, John. "Sloterdyk (2) (1940 - 1966)" (in Dutch). Vereniging de Lijn. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  19. ^ "Estonia".
  20. ^ "Vista Class". Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  21. ^ "Westmark Hotels & Inns - About Us". Westmark Hotels - Alaska/Yukon. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  22. ^ a b Staff, CIN (26 October 2012). "Carnival Cruise Lines and Holland America Line Order New Ships".
  23. ^ a b c "Sold". 15 July 2020.
  24. ^ "FIRST LARGE CRUISE LINE WITH 2 SHIPS BACK IN OPERATION". Travel Off Path. 20 September 2020. As of 19 September "Costa became the first large cruise line to relaunch the operations of a second ship"
  25. ^ "Holland America and Princess Cruises Extend Suspensions". Cruise Hive. 6 January 2021. The cruise line which has been hit hard by the global pandemic has announced a further suspension on cruise operations.
  26. ^ "Sold". 15 July 2020.
  27. ^ Sailing the Seas of Green Archived 2007-02-08 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ "Holland America Line Confirms Date, Size and Class of New Build Cruise Ship - Holland America Line". www.cruisecritic.com.
  29. ^ "Costa charters Costa Europa for Thomson Cruises (see also Latest News story below)". 2011-07-08. Archived from the original on 2011-07-08. Retrieved 2020-03-25.
  30. ^ "Ryndam and Statendam to P&O Australia as AU Growth for Carnival Corp. Continues". Cruise Industry News. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  31. ^ "1871 An Outline of the History of Holland America Line part 4 – – Captain Albert's Blog –". Retrieved 2020-03-26.
  32. ^ "Iliopoulos strikes again with another Carnival cruiseship buy | TradeWinds". TradeWinds | Latest shipping and maritime news. 14 October 2020. Retrieved 2020-10-17.
  33. ^ "Four Holland America Line Ships Sold". 15 July 2020.
  34. ^ "Mystic Cruises buys Vasco da Gama, first CMV ship to be auctioned". seatrade-cruise.com. 2020-10-13. Retrieved 2020-10-17.


  • de Balbian Verster, J.F.L. (1921). Holland-America: an historical account of shipping and other relations between Holland and North America. Amsterdam: Bernard Houthakker for the Holland America Line. OCLC 19792377.
  • van Berkum, Sandra; Maes, Tal (2011). Captain's Dinner: Koken met de Holland-Amerika Lijn [Captain's Dinner: Cooking with the Holland America Line] (in Dutch). Schiedam: Scriptum. ISBN 9789055948161.
  • de Boer, G.J. (1998). 125 jaar Holland-Amerika Lijn, 1873–1998 [125 Years Holland America Line, 1873–1998] (in Dutch). Alkmaar: De Alk. ISBN 906013074X.
  • de Boer, Michiel George (1923). Holland-America Line, 1873–1923. Rotterdam: Holland America Line. OCLC 602295517.
  • Card, Stephen J. (2005). Holland America Line, "The Spotless Fleet" : Maritime Paintings. London: Carmania Press. ISBN 0954366654.
  • Collard, Ian (2018). Holland America Cruise Ships. Stroud, Glos, UK: Amberley Publishing. ISBN 9781445667607.
  • Dalkmann, H.A.; Schoonderbeck, A. J. (1998). 125 years of Holland America Line: a company history. Edinburgh: Pentland Press. ISBN 1858215900.
  • Gischler, Arnout C. (2003). De Holland-Amerika Lijn in Zwaar Weer [The Holland America Line in Heavy Weather]. Historische publicaties Roterodamum series, no. 148 (in Dutch). Zutphen: Walburg Pers. ISBN 9057302624.
  • de Groot, Edward P. (1980). Per mailboot naar Amerika: vijftig jaar Noordatlantische passagiersvaart onder Nederlandse vlag [By Mail Boat to America: Fifty years of North Atlantic passenger travel under the Dutch flag] (in Dutch). Bussum: Unieboek. ISBN 9022818314.
  • Guns, Nico (2004). Holland America Line: Short History of a Shipping Company. Zutphen, the Netherlands: Walburg Pers. ISBN 9057303167.
  • Guns, Nico; van Rikxoort, Ronald (2006). Holland-Amerika Lijn: Schepen van 'De Lijn' in beeld [Holland America Line: Ships of 'The Line' in focus] (in Dutch). Zutphen: Walburg Pers. ISBN 9057304600.
  • Guns, Nico (2013). Een zeevarend zondagskind: de memoires van HAL-kapitein Roelof ten Kate [A Seafaring Sunday's Child: the memoirs of HAL Captain Roelof ten Kate] (in Dutch). Zutphen: Walburg Pers. ISBN 9789491354281.
  • Haws, Duncan (1995). Holland America Line. Merchant Fleets series, no. 28. Uckfield, East Sussex, UK: TCL Publications. ISBN 0946378258.
  • van Herk, C.; van der Elst, J. H. (1981). De schepen van de Holland Amerika Lijn [The Ships of the Holland America Line]. Erato-monografieën series, no. 5. (in Dutch). Haarlem: Historische Boekhandel ERATO; Bussum: De Boer Maritiem. ISBN 9022818632.
  • Holdermans, Rob (2006). Holland-Amerika Lijn van boven bekeken, 1921–1964 [Holland America Line from above, 1921–1964] (in Dutch). Hoogeveen: V+W Collective. ISBN 9789059780347.
  • Kohler, Peter C. (1993). The Holland America Line: A 120th Anniversary Celebration in Postcards. Coltishall, Norfolk, UK: Ship Pictorial Publications. ISBN 0951603841.
  • Le Fleming, H. M. (1965). Ships of the Holland - America Line (2nd ed.). London: Le Fleming. OCLC 834361608.
  • Miller, William H. (1998). Going Dutch: The Holland America Line Story. London: Carmania Press. ISBN 0951865684.
  • Payne, Stephen M. (1990). Grande Dame: Holland America Line and the S.S. Rotterdam. London: RINA Ltd. ISBN 0903055120.
  • Schaap, Dick (1973). A Bridge to the Seven Seas. New York: D. McKay. OCLC 701048.
  • Seabrook, William C. (1950). In the War at Sea: a record of Rotterdam's largest merchant fleet and its gallant crews, from 1940 to 1945 (2nd ed.). Rotterdam: Holland America Line. OCLC 604175934.
  • Oosterwijk, Bram; van de Ven, Daniël (2002). Holland-Amerika Lijn: achteromkijkend naar de Wilhelminakade [Holland America Line: looking back to the Wilhelminakade] (in Dutch). Alkmaar: De Alk. ISBN 9060132424.
  • Verdure, Michel; Lasley, Paul; Harryman, Elizabeth (2007). The Art of Cruising: Fine Art and Antiques of Holland America Line. Seattle: Holland America Line. ISBN 9780977802838.
  • Wendtholt, A.D. (1973). Brug over de oceaan: Een eeuw geschiedenis van de Holland Amerika Lijn [Bridge over the Ocean: A centenary history of the Holland America Line] (in Dutch). Rotterdam: Nijgh & Van Ditmar. ISBN 9023692292.
  • Zuidhoek, Arne (1997). Droomschepen: Holland-Amerika Lijn [Dream Ships: Holland America Line] (in Dutch). Alkmaar: De Alk. ISBN 9060130685.
  • Zuidhoek, Arne (2004). De mooiste schepen van 'De Lijn': Holland-Amerika Lijn [The most beautiful ships of 'The Line: Holland America Line]. De mooiste schepen van... series (in Dutch). Zaltbommel: Aprilis. ISBN 905994027X.

External links[edit]