|Place of origin||France (see French cuisine), the Netherlands|
|Main ingredients||Egg yolk, liquid butter, lemon juice|
Hollandaise sauce (// or //; French: [ʔɔlɑ̃dɛz]), formerly also called Dutch sauce, is an emulsion of egg yolk, melted butter, and lemon juice (or a white wine or vinegar reduction). It is usually seasoned with salt, and either white pepper or cayenne pepper.
Sauce hollandaise is French for "Hollandic sauce".[note 1] The name implies Dutch origins, but the actual connection is unclear. The name "Dutch sauce" is documented in English as early as 1573, though without a recipe showing that it was the same thing. The first documented recipe is from 1651 in La Varenne's Le Cuisinier François for "asparagus with fragrant sauce":
make a sauce with some good fresh butter, a little vinegar, salt, and nutmeg, and an egg yolk to bind the sauce; take care that it doesn't curdle
La Varenne is credited with bringing sauces out of the Middle Ages with his publication and may well have invented hollandaise sauce. A more recent name for it is sauce Isigny, named after Isigny-sur-Mer, which is famous for its butter. Isigny sauce is found in recipe books starting in the 19th century.
By the 19th century, sauces had been classified into four categories by Carême. One of his categories was allemande, which was a stock-based sauce using egg and lemon juice. Escoffier replaced allemande with egg based emulsions, including hollandaise and mayonnaise  in his list of the five mother sauces of haute cuisine. While many believe that a true hollandaise sauce should only contain the basic ingredients of eggs, butter, and lemon, Prosper Montagne suggested using either a white wine or vinegar reduction, similar to a Béarnaise sauce, to help improve the taste.
In English, the name "Dutch sauce" was common through the 19th century, but was largely displaced by hollandaise in the 20th.
Preparation and handling
As in other egg emulsion sauces, like mayonnaise and Béarnaise, the egg does not coagulate as in a custard; rather, the lecithin in the eggs serves as an emulsifier, allowing the mixture of the normally immiscible butter and lemon juice to form a stable emulsion.
To make hollandaise sauce, beaten egg yolks are combined with butter, lemon juice, salt, and water, and heated gently while being mixed. Some cooks use a double boiler to control the temperature. Some recipes add melted butter to warmed yolks; others call for unmelted butter and the yolks to be heated together; still others combine warm butter and eggs in a blender or food processor. Temperature control is critical, as excessive temperature can curdle the sauce. Some chefs start with a reduction. The reduction consists of vinegar, water and cracked peppercorns. These ingredients are reduced to "au sec" or almost dry, strained, and added to the egg yolk mixture.
Hollandaise can be frozen.
- Egg yolks
- Lemon juice
- White peppercorns (white pepper)
- Cayenne pepper
- The most common derivative is sauce Béarnaise. It can be produced by replacing the acidifying agent (vinegar reduction or lemon juice) in a preparation with a strained reduction of vinegar, shallots, fresh chervil, fresh tarragon, and (if to taste) crushed peppercorns. Alternatively, the flavorings may be added to a standard hollandaise. Béarnaise and its children are often used on steak or other "assertive" grilled meats and fish.
- Sauce au vin blanc (for fish) is hollandaise with a reduction of white wine and fish stock.
- Sauce Bavaroise is hollandaise with cream, horseradish, and thyme.
- Sauce crème fleurette is hollandaise with crème fraîche.
- Sauce Dijon, also known as sauce moutarde or sauce Girondine, is hollandaise with Dijon mustard.
- Sauce Maltaise is hollandaise with blanched orange zest and the juice of blood orange.
- Sauce Mousseline, also known as sauce Chantilly, is hollandaise with whipped cream folded in.
- Sauce noisette is hollandaise made with browned butter.
- The French tended to give foreign names to their creations, hollandaise being one of them.
- Ayto 2012, p. 172.
- Escoffier, Auguste; Gilbert, Philéas; Fétu, E.; Suzanne, A.; Reboul, B.; Dietrich, Ch.; Caillat, A.; et al. (1903). Le Guide Culinaire, Aide-mémoire de cuisine pratique (in French). Paris: Émile Colin, Imprimerie de Lagny. Archived from the original on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- Escoffier, Auguste (1846-1935) (1912). Le Guide Culinaire: aide-mémoire de cuisine pratique (3e édition) / par A. Escoffier ; avec la collaboration de MM. Philéas Gilbert et Émile Fétu. p. 13. Archived from the original on 21 October 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
- Escoffier, Auguste (1907). A Guide to Modern Cookery. London: William Heinemann. pp. 2, 15. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- C. Herman Senn, The book of Sauces, 1915
- Alléno & Brenot 2014, p. 12.
- Snodgrass 2004, p. 57.
- Binney 2008, p. 129.
- Mendelson 2013, p. 264.
- Jack 2011, p. 117.
- Ruhlman 2009, p. 57.
- Gilbar 2008, p. 47.
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- Jean-Bernard Lemerre, La vie de Paris, 1898, 1899, p. 29
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- Wayne Gisslen (19 January 2010). Professional Cooking, College Version. John Wiley & Sons. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-470-19752-3.
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- Harold McGee, On Food and Cooking, 1984, p. 364
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- Dun Jipping (1 May 2016). Army Chef's Handbook of Cookery. Lulu.com. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-326-64301-0.
- Escoffier: 89
- Cookwise, pp. 304–05
- Joy of Cooking p. 359
- Escoffier: 90
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- Binney, Ruth (2008), Wise Words and Country Ways for Cooks, David & Charles, ISBN 9780715334225, OCLC 774717592
- Gilbar, Steven (2008), Chicken A La King and the Buffalo Wing: Food Names and the People And Places That Inspired Them, Writer's Digest Books, ISBN 978-1582975252, OCLC 213466543
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- Mendelson, Anne (2013), Milk: The Surprising Story of Milk Through the Ages, Knopf, ISBN 9781400044108, OCLC 212855063
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- Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (2004), Encyclopedia of Kitchen History, Fitzroy Dearborn, ISBN 9781579583804, OCLC 56104141
- Tebben, Marryann (2015), Sauces: A Global History, Reaktion Books9780805061734, ISBN 978-1780233512, OCLC 870663896
- Rombauer, Irma S.; Rombauer Becker, Marion (1975), Joy of Cooking, New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc. (MacMillan), ISBN 0-02-604570-2
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hollandaise.|
- Mrs. Beeton, The book of household Management, 1861: Project Gutenberg e-text
- History of Sauces
- History of Hollandaise
- How To Make Hollandaise Sauce Step-by-step tutorial from About.com (generally good, but a glass or ceramic bowl is not recommended as they make it too difficult to control the heat)
- Free Culinary School Podcast Episode 8 A podcast (audio) episode that talks about the proper classical technique for making Hollandaise and the science behind the method.
- Ina Garten's Blender Hollandaise