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A disease is holoendemic when essentially every individual in a population is infected.[1][2] As the disease is ubiquitous, the young are more likely to express pathogenic responses, whilst the older hosts will carry the disease asymptomatically, or with reduced damage, due to adaptive immunity.[2][3] Examples of this holoendemic pattern are seen with malaria in areas of sub-saharan Africa (where 75% of the deaths are in children under 5[4]) and trachoma in areas of Saudi Arabia.[5]


  1. ^ "Holoendemic definition". Miriam Webster's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 
  2. ^ a b "Holoendemic disease". Mondofacto. 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 
  3. ^ August Stich, Nadja Oster, Inas Z. Abdel-Aziz, Gabriele Stieglbauer, Boubacar Coulibaly, Hannes Wickert, Jeremy McLean, Bocar A. Kouyaté, Heiko Becher and Michael Lanzer, A; Oster, N; Abdel-Aziz, IZ; Stieglbauer, G; Coulibaly, B; Wickert, H; McLean, J; Kouyaté, BA; et al. (2006). "Malaria in a holoendemic area of Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study". Parasitology Research. 98 (6): 596–599. PMID 16416123. doi:10.1007/s00436-005-0104-9.  Note:"In the study area, like other holoendemic areas, youth is a risk factor for malaria. In comparison, adults in such areas have acquired permunition and can more readily resist infection and tolerate various symptoms associated with malaria."
  4. ^ Snow; et al. (1999). "RBM Fact sheet: Children and Malaria". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 77(8):624-40. Roll Back Malaria. Retrieved 2009-04-20. 
  5. ^ Stedman's Medical Spellchecker (2006). "Holoendemic". WrongDiagnosis.com. Retrieved 2009-04-20.