A disease is holoendemic when essentially every individual in a population is infected. As the disease is ubiquitous, the young are more likely to express pathogenic responses, whilst the older hosts will carry the disease asymptomatically, or with reduced damage, due to adaptive immunity. Examples of this holoendemic pattern are seen with malaria in areas of sub-saharan Africa (where 75% of the deaths are in children under 5) and trachoma in areas of Saudi Arabia.
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- August Stich, Nadja Oster, Inas Z. Abdel-Aziz, Gabriele Stieglbauer, Boubacar Coulibaly, Hannes Wickert, Jeremy McLean, Bocar A. Kouyaté, Heiko Becher and Michael Lanzer, A; Oster, N; Abdel-Aziz, IZ; Stieglbauer, G; Coulibaly, B; Wickert, H; McLean, J; Kouyaté, BA; et al. (2006). "Malaria in a holoendemic area of Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study". Parasitology Research. 98 (6): 596–599. PMID 16416123. doi:10.1007/s00436-005-0104-9. Note:"In the study area, like other holoendemic areas, youth is a risk factor for malaria. In comparison, adults in such areas have acquired permunition and can more readily resist infection and tolerate various symptoms associated with malaria."
- Snow; et al. (1999). "RBM Fact sheet: Children and Malaria". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 77(8):624-40. Roll Back Malaria. Retrieved 2009-04-20.
- Stedman's Medical Spellchecker (2006). "Holoendemic". WrongDiagnosis.com. Retrieved 2009-04-20.
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