Holt Fleet bridge
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|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Fire||Hereford and Worcester|
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Holt Fleet is a village in the Wychavon district of the county of Worcestershire, England. The church is dedicated to St. Martin, and dates from about the 12th century. Holt Bridge, over the River Severn, was designed by Thomas Telford, and opened in 1830.
Holt saw archaeological digs during the 1970s, in advance of gravel extraction. The oldest artefacts recovered were late Neolithic flints and pottery, possibly dating to about 2000 BC. Sherds of burial pottery from the Beaker period (c. 2000–1900 BC) were also found.
The bulk of the archaeological evidence related to the early British Bronze Age (c. 1700–1450 BC) in the form of traces of low barrows and enclosures with associated cremations. No dwellings were identified. In 1844 a bronze axe was found during dredging operations in the River Severn below the site of Holt Lock.
British Iron Age (1500 BC – 40 AD) finds have been scarce, although crop marks indicated farming activity and a rectangular enclosure was partly uncovered. A few pottery sherds from that period have been recovered at other times, along with an iron pin also from the area of Holt Lock.
Worcestershire has one of the most complete and ancient collections of Anglo-Saxon charters that detail the grants of estates by the church and crown. Wick Episcopi was an area to the north-west of Worcester, roughly bounded by the rivers Severn and Teme and a line through Broadwas, Martley, Wichenford, Little Witley and Shrawley Brook, and thus included present-day Holt. The manors (later parishes) within Wick Episcopi where defined during that period. Beonot league (Bentley in today's Holt parish) was first recognised at that time. Other locations in Holt named in the Wick Episcopi grant of 775 include Heafuchrycg (Ockeridge), Doferic (Shrawley Brook), Saeferne (the Severn) and Baele Broc (Babbling Brook = Grimley Brook). Hallow, in 816, was one of the first single manors to be granted to a tenant lord by the Bishopric of Worcester. Prior to that it had been part of a larger estate, Worgorena league (the clearing of the people of Worcester), which also included Holt. The clearing concerned would have been in the southern portion of the still extensive but retreating Wyre Forest.
One of Alfred the Great's client kings, Burgred, granted Alhun (or Alhwine), Bishop of Worcester various favours in return for two gold armlets weighing 45 'mancuses'. The grant, in 855, included exempting three 'manentes' in Beonetlege (Bentley in Holt) from pasturing rights by the king's swine in an area called Fern Pasture.
In 962, with the consent of the king, Edgar, Bishop Oswald of Worcester let two 'mansae' at Beonetlaege (Bentley in Holt) to his thegn and minister Eadmaer. The grant described and defined the boundaries of the manors in terms of natural and man-made landscape features. Bentley's included references to Saeferne (the Severn), Baele (Babbling) Brook today known as Grimley Brook, Heafuc hrycge (Hawks Ridge/Ockeridge) and 'Dic in Doferic' (a boundary dike running to Shrawley Brook). Ball Mill on the Holt-Grimley parish boundary preserves a derivation of the name of Baele.
Bentley manor became known as Holte (Holt) by the time of Domesday, the original name is preserved in the form of Bentley Farm. Holt(e) means a copse in an otherwise cleared area. Possibly when Bentley manor was granted in two parts the eastern portion was separately identified by the name Holte, which later came to represent the whole manor or parish. Eadmaer received a further grant in 969 when he took on an additional four 'mansi', or hides, at Witleah (Little Witley). The boundaries included all of Witley and the remaining portion of Bentley, probably in the area of Ockeridge Wood. This association of the two manors was repeated on subsequent grants.
In 1017 Archbishop Wulfstan of Worcester granted the six hide Beonetleah (Bentley in Holt) with Witley manor to his brother, Aelfwige.
Holt was mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 when Urso de Abitot, Sheriff of Worcestershire, held it. His estate consisted of 5 hides (about 600 acres) with two ploughs (probably 8 oxen per team). There were 12 villagers and 24 smallholders with an additional 10 ploughs. A 12-acre (4.9 ha) meadow and a woodland half a league square (c. 1440 acres) were also in the parish. A hedged enclosure was noted; this would have been for the capture of game such as deer and wild boar. A fishery (on the Severn presumably) was worth 5 shillings and a salt house in Droitwich 13 pence. The total value was £6.
After the Norman Conquest the new manorial lords quickly went about putting their physical mark on the landscape. This generally took the form of rebuilding the parish churches in the Norman architecture style. In Holt church the earliest architectural feature, an opening in the bell tower wall, was possibly constructed within ten years of the conquest. It bears Saxon characteristics and probably reflects the use of native stonemasons by the Norman lord. The nave was constructed about 1100 to 1110, and the chancel arch in 1120. The same mason appears to have carved the font and the arch. The rest of the structure of the building dates from periods in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, as do some of the memorials and leaded windows. In 1113 Holt was still a chapelry of St Helen's in Worcester.
A medieval deer park that was situated immediately to the south of Holt church may have pre-dated the Norman Conquest.
Holt manor passed to the Beauchamp family when Emeline de Abitot, the daughter and heiress of Urso, married Walter de Beauchamp, then owner of Elmley Castle. Holt was then held by successive Beauchamps, Earls of Warwick, one of the most powerful earldoms in the country. No doubt using his influence with the King Edward III of England, Sir John Beauchamp (1319–1388) obtained a grant to hold a fair at 'Le Rode' in Holt. The fair was to be held every 22 July, St. Mary Magdalene's feast day. Sir John was impeached by the 'Merciless Parliament' on 12 March 1388 and was executed on Tower Hill, London, on 12 May the same year.
At the time of his death Sir John Beauchamp of Holt, Lord of Beauchamp, Baron of Kidderminster, had manors, estates and properties throughout the Midland shires and beyond. Holt was still however his principal manor. It is thought that John Beauchamp built Holt Castle. The only surviving original portion of which is the square tower that dominates the west elevation, with fifteenth and sixteenth century additions behind.
On Sir John's execution parliament expropriated all his lands and possessions, and leased them out to various parties. His distant cousin, Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, obtained Holt manor. In 1398 Parliament reversed its earlier decision and returned all his father's lands and title to John (1378–1420), son of John (1319–1388). In 1420 Sir John Beauchamp died without male heir. At that time he held the manors of Holt and Hanley, near Tenbury, four more in Warwickshire, weirs and fisheries in Ombersley and several properties in the city of Worcester. In the absence of a male heir the barony became extinct. His twenty-year-old daughter, Margaret succeeded him, but Holt Manor was split into three parts, each following a different female line of descent. Margaret married firstly John Pauncefoot and, secondly, John Wyshaw, who in 1428 was holding the manor for her.
The deer park was enclosed following the death of Sir John Beauchamp.
Following the division of the manor of Holt in 1420, over 150 years passed before the manor was recombined following a series of complex transactions between the likes of Sir John Bourne, Anthony Bourne, Thomas Fortescue, John and Martin Crofts, and Sir Thomas Bromley.
Sir Thomas' eldest son, Sir Henry Bromley was born in Holt Castle. Sir Henry inherited all his father's lands except the family seat at Holt Castle, which was held by his widowed mother for her life.
In February 1601 Sir Henry was implicated for his involvement with the Essex Rebellion, and his lands, including Holt Castle, were forfeited and he was briefly imprisoned. Upon the accession of James I in 1603 these lands were returned to him, and he proceeded to show King James his full loyalty. Nine years later Sir Henry reunited the final portion of Holt manor. As a magistrate Henry Bromley had rounded up the Jesuit priests Henry Garnet and Edward Oldcorne, the last wanted men in the Gunpowder Plot, at Hindlip on the outskirts of Worcester in 1606. Garnet and Oldcorne were held for a time in Holt Castle.
Sir Henry Bromley married four times, lastly to Anne Beswicke who erected a monument in the chancel of Holt Church to her husband who died 1615. Sir Henry's descendants sold Holt manor to Thomas Lord Foley of Witley Court, Great Witley, in 1750. In 1837 the Foleys sold off the Witley & Holt estates to realise capital which was needed to pay off heavy debts incurred by the 2nd. Baron, who was an incurable gambler. The purchasers were the trustees of Lord William Ward who later became the 1st Earl of Dudley. The estate was finally broken up in 1920 when the 2nd. Lord Dudley moved on after his first wife's death.
- Edmunds Pytts M.P. and his wife, the Dowager Countess of Coventry were buried in the church here.
- Matthew Kilburn, 'Coventry , Anne, countess of Coventry (1691–1788)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 28 Nov 2014
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Holt Fleet.|
- St. Martin and its architectural features
- Details and bibliography for Holt Castle
- Holt and Little Witley, Worcestershire – history essays
- photos of Holt, Worcestershire and surrounding area on geograph
- The Holt Fleet – a historic restaurant adjacent to the Holt Fleet Bridge
- for Holt Fleet