Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity

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The Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (HSA-UWC), commonly called the Unification Church, was a spiritual organization founded in South Korea in 1954 by Sun Myung Moon to unify Christianity around a broad and inclusive vision of a messianic mission. Moon established HSA-UWC to rally Christianity to support his view that humanity must create God-centered families, and that it is through this ideal that God’s will can be manifest. The HSA-UWC expanded throughout the world with most members living in South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, and other nations in East Asia.[1][2][3][4][5]

The HSA-UWC was ordered to be disbanded in 1994 with Moon's announcement of the founding of a new and distinct entity, the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification. Moon stated that the mission of HSA-UWC had been completed as "the period of religion is passing away".

Terminology[edit]

Unification Church[edit]

“Unification Church” has been widely used as a shortened name to refer to the numerous organizations founded and inspired by Rev. Sun Myung Moon. This includes the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity.[6][7] It is not a term created by Rev. Sun Myung Moon, but a "name given to us by others". In the late Rev. Moon’s autobiography, he states:

"...[we] hung out a sign that read ‘Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity.’ We chose this name to signify that we belonged to no denomination, and we certainly had no plans to create a new one".
"‘Unification Church’ became our commonly known name later, but it was given to us by others. In the beginning, university students referred to us as ‘the Seoul Church.’”[8]

Rev. Sun Myung Moon himself often used the term “Unification Church” instead of pronouncing the long name “Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity”. Yet, in light of Rev. Moon’s autobiography and other speeches, it is evident that he did not intend HSA-UWC to become a new religion or church.[8][9][10][3]

Moonie[edit]

Moonie was a colloquial term sometimes used to refer to members of the HSA-UWC. It was derived from Moon's name[11] and was first used in 1974 by the American media.[12] Church members have used the word "Moonie", including Moon himself,[13] President of the Unification Theological Seminary David Kim,[14] and Bo Hi Pak, Moon's aide and president of Little Angels Children's Folk Ballet of Korea.[15] In the 1980s and 1990s the Unification Church of the United States undertook an extensive public relations campaign against the use of the word by the news media.[16] Some journalistic authorities, including The New York Times and Reuters, now discourage its use in news reporting,[17] although the BBC continues to.[18]

History[edit]

Founding and growth[edit]

Moon formally founded the HSA-UWC in Seoul on May 1, 1954. It expanded rapidly in South Korea and by the end of 1955 had 30 church centers throughout the nation.[19] In 1958, Moon sent missionaries to Japan, and in 1959, to America. Missionary work took place in Washington, D.C., New York, and California. HSA-UWC missionaries found success in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the church expanded in Oakland, Berkeley, and San Francisco. By 1971, the Unification Church of the United States had about 500 members. By 1973, it had some presence in all 50 states and a few thousand members.[19] In the 1970s, American USA-UWC members were noted for their enthusiasm and dedication, which often included raising money for church projects on so-called "mobile fundraising teams".[20][21]

The HSA-UWC also sent missionaries to Europe. They entered Czechoslovakia in 1968 and other members remained underground until the 1990s.[22] Activity in South America began in the 1970s with missionary work. Later, the HSA-UWC made large investments in civic organizations and business projects there, including an international newspaper.[23]

Starting in the 1990s, the HSA-UWC expanded in Russia and other former communist nations. Hak Ja Han, Moon's wife made a radio broadcast to the nation from the State Kremlin Palace.[24] As of 1994, the church had about 5,000 members in Russia.[25] About 500 Russian students came to the United States to participate in 40-day workshops.[26]

Evangelism[edit]

Moon moved to the United States in 1971, although he remained a citizen of the Republic of Korea. In the 1970s, he gave a series of public speeches in the United States, including one in Madison Square Garden in New York City in 1974; two in 1976 in Yankee Stadium in New York City; and one on the grounds of the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C., where he spoke on "God's Hope for America" to 300,000 people. In 1975, the HSA-UWC held one of the largest peaceful gatherings in history, with 1.2 million people in Yeouido, South Korea.[27]

Starting in 1972, the HSA-UWC sponsored the International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences, a series of scientific conferences.[28][29] The first conference had 20 participants, while the largest conference in Seoul in 1982, had 808 participants from over 100 countries.[30][31] Participants included Nobel laureates John Eccles (Physiology or Medicine 1963, who chaired the 1976 conference)[32] and Eugene Wigner (Physics 1963).[33]

In 1975 Moon founded the Unification Theological Seminary, in Barrytown, New York, partly in order to improve relations with other religious bodies. Professors from other denominations, including a Methodist minister, a Presbyterian, and a Roman Catholic priest, as well as a rabbi, were hired to teach Unificationist students.[34][35][36][37][38]

In the 1980s Moon instructed HSA-UWC members to take part in a program called "Home Church" in which they reached out to neighbors and community members through public service.[39] In 1982, the first large scale Blessing ceremony held outside of Korea took place in Madison Square Garden in New York City with 2075 couples. In 1988, Moon matched 2,500 Korean members with Japanese members for a Blessing ceremony held in Korea, partly in order to promote unity between the two nations.[40][41]

In 1991 Moon announced that HSA-UWC members should return to their hometowns and undertake apostolic work there. Massimo Introvigne, who studied the Unification Church and other new religious movements, said that this confirmed that full-time membership is no longer considered crucial to church members.[19] On May 1, 1994 (the 40th anniversary of the founding of the Unification Church), Moon declared that the era of the HSA-UWC had ended and inaugurated a new organization: the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (FFWPU) would include HSA-UWC members and members of other religious organizations working toward common goals, especially on issues of sexual morality and reconciliation between people of different religions, nations, and races.[42][5]

Blessing ceremony[edit]

Rev. and Mrs. Moon preside over a mass blessing ceremony in 2010

The HSA-UWC was well known for its wedding or wedding vow renewal ceremony. It was given to engaged or married couples. Through it, members believe, the couple is removed from the lineage of sinful humanity and engrafted into God's sinless lineage. The Blessing ceremony was first held in 1961 for 36 couples in Seoul, South Korea by the Moons shortly after their own marriage in 1960. All the couples were members of the HSA-UWC. Moon matched all of the couples except 12 who were already married to each other before joining the church.[43]

Moon's practice of matching couples was very unusual in both Christian tradition and in modern Western culture and attracted much attention and controversy.[44] Thousands of couples have been placed in marriages by religious leaders with people they had barely met, since Moon taught that romantic love led to sexual promiscuity.[45] These mass arranged marriage events have gained international public attention.[46] Critics have stated that some of these marriages end in divorce, which is discouraged by the church.[47]

Later Blessing ceremonies were larger in scale but followed the same pattern. All participants were HSA-UWC members and Moon matched most of the couples. In 1982 the first large scale Blessing (of 2,000 couples) outside of Korea took place in Madison Square Garden, New York City.[48] In 1988, Moon matched 2,500 Korean members with Japanese members for a Blessing ceremony held in Korea, partly in order to promote unity between the two nations.[49] In 1992 Sun Myung Moon gave the wedding blessing for 30,000 couples at the Seoul Olympic Stadium[50] and for 13,000 at the Yankee Stadium.[51]

Esotericism[edit]

The HSA-UWC was said to have been esoteric in that it kept some of its doctrines secret from nonmembers,[52][53][54] a practice that is sometimes called "heavenly deception."[55] In 1979, critics Tingle and Fordyce commented: "How different the openness of Christianity is to the attitude of Reverend Moon and his followers who are often reluctant to reveal to the public many of their basic doctrines."[56] Since the 1990s, many HSA-UWC texts that were formerly regarded as esoteric have been posted on the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification's official websites.[57]

Brainwashing controversy[edit]

In the 1970s the HSA-UWC was accused of "brainwashing" by the newly-active anti-cult movement, which included Steven Hassan and some other former members.[58] Some sociologists of religion tend to argue that these accusations were based on theories that for the most part have not gained acceptance among scholars.[59] Other scholars, including some psychologists and psychiatrists, argue that brainwashing theories are widely endorsed within the academy at large.[60] Eileen Barker, a sociologist of religion and the founder of INFORM (Information Network Focus on Religious Movements), argues that the HSA-UWC and other new religious movements of that time "demonstrably did not have access to the irresistible or irreversible techniques they were reputedly wielding".[61][62]

Members of the HSA-UWC reported that they were forcibly deprogrammed by those who wanted to pull them out of it.[63] In 1977, the HSA-UWC won a lawsuit in the United States against deprogrammers,[64] as did some other groups about the same time.[65] Since 1990, U.S. courts have consistently rejected testimonies about brainwashing (mind control) and manipulation, stating that such theories were not part of accepted mainline science according to the Frye standard of 1923.[66]

Political activism[edit]

In the 1970s and 1980s, the HSA-UWC became noted for its political activities, especially its support for United States president Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal,[67] its support for anti-communism during the Cold War,[68][69] and its ownership of various news media outlets through News World Communications, an international news media conglomerate which publishes The Washington Times newspaper in Washington, DC, and newspapers in South Korea, Japan, and South America, which tend to support conservatism.[70]

In 1977 the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, of the United States House of Representatives, while investigating the Koreagate scandal found that the South Korean National Intelligence Service (KCIA) had worked with the HSA-UWC to gain political influence within the United States, with some members working as volunteers in Congressional offices. Together they founded the Korean Cultural Freedom Foundation, a nonprofit organization which undertook public diplomacy for the Republic of Korea.[71] The committee also investigated possible KCIA influence on the HSA-UWC's campaign in support of Nixon.[72]

In 1980 Moon asked HSA-UWC members to found CAUSA International, an anti-communist educational organization based in New York.[73][74] In August 1985, six years before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Professors World Peace Academy, an organization founded by Moon, sponsored a conference in Geneva to debate the theme, "The situation in the world after the fall of the communist empire." The conference was chaired by professors Morton Kaplan and Aleksandras Štromas.[75]

United States v. Sun Myung Moon[edit]

In 1982, Moon was convicted in the United States of filing false federal income tax returns and criminal conspiracy.[76] His conviction was upheld on appeal in a split decision. Moon was given an 18-month sentence and a $15,000 fine. He served 13 months of the sentence at the Federal Correctional Institution, Danbury before being released on good behavior to a halfway house.[77] The case was the center of national freedom of religion and freedom of speech debates.[78] Laurence Tribe, a professor at Harvard Law School, argued that the trial by jury had "doomed (Moon) to conviction based on religious prejudice."[79] The American Baptist Churches USA, the National Council of Churches, the National Black Catholic Clergy Caucus, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference filed briefs in support of Moon.[80] Clergy that included Jerry Falwell and Joseph Lowery signed petitions protesting the government's case and spoke out in defense of Moon.[81][82]

Scholarly studies[edit]

In the early 1960s John Lofland lived with HSA-UWC missionary Young Oon Kim and a small group of American members and studied their activities in trying to promote their beliefs and win new members. Lofland noted that most of their efforts were ineffective and that most of the people who joined did so because of personal relationships with other members, often family relationships. Lofland published his findings in 1964 as a doctoral thesis entitled "The World Savers: A Field Study of Cult Processes", and in 1966 in book form by Prentice-Hall as Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith.[83][84][85][86]

In 1977 Frederick Sontag, a professor of philosophy at Pomona College and a minister in the United Church of Christ.,[87] spent 10 months visiting HSA-UWC members in North America, Europe, and Asia as well as interviewing Moon at his home in New York State. He reported his findings and observations in Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, published by Abingdon Press. The book also provides an overview of Unification Church beliefs.[88] In an interview with UPI Sontag compared the HSA-UWC with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and said that he expected its practices to conform more to mainstream American society as its members become more mature. He added that he did not want to be considered an apologist but a close look at HSA-UWC's theology is important: "They raise some incredibly interesting issues."[89]

In 1984 Eileen Barker published The Making of a Moonie based on her seven-year study of HSA-UWC members in the United Kingdom and the United States.[90] In 2006 Laurence Iannaccone of George Mason University, a specialist in the economics of religion, wrote that The Making of a Moonie was "one of the most comprehensive and influential studies" of the process of conversion to new religious movements.[91] Australian psychologist Len Oakes and British psychiatry professor Anthony Storr, who have written rather critically about cults, gurus, new religious movements, and their leaders have praised The Making of a Moonie.[92][93] It was given the Distinguished Book Award for 1985 by the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion.[94]

In 1987, scholars with American Psychological Association rejected the hypotheses of those who accused new religious movements (such as the HSA-UWC) of brainwashing and coercive persuasion, stating that those "conclusions...cannot be said to be scientific in any meaningful sense".[95]

In 1998 Irving Louis Horowitz, sociologist, questioned the relationship between the HSA-UWC and scholars whom it paid to conduct research on its behalf.[96]

Beliefs[edit]

The HSA-UWC was among the minority of new religious movements who have introduced their own unique scriptures.[97] The Divine Principle or Exposition of the Divine Principle (Korean 원리강론, translit. wonli ganglon) was the main theological textbook of the HSA-UWC. It was co-written by church founder Sun Myung Moon and early disciple Hyo Won Eu and first published in 1966. A translation entitled Divine Principle was published in English in 1973. The book lays out the core of HSA-UWC theology, and is held by its believers to have the status of Holy Scripture. Following the format of systematic theology, it includes (1) God's purpose in creating human beings, (2) the fall of man, and (3) restoration – the process through history by which God is working to remove the ill effects of the fall and restore humanity back to the relationship and position that God originally intended.[98]

Relations and differences with other religions[edit]

Judaism[edit]

Jewish commentators, including Rabbi A. James Rudin of the American Jewish Committee in a 1976 report, have stated that Divine Principle contains pejorative language, stereotyped imagery, and accusations of Jewish deicide.[99] In 1977 representatives from the American Jewish Committee, the National Council of Churches, and the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York held a press conference to say that the Divine Principle contains antisemitic references and heresy.[100] In the 1980s, HSA-UWC leaders Mose Durst, Peter Ross, and Andrew Wilson expressed regret over some members' misunderstanding of Judaism, and urged better relations with the Jewish community.[101][102][103] Moon himself has made some controversial statements about the Holocaust, including that its Jewish victims were paying indemnity for the crucifixion of Jesus.[104][105][106]

In 1977 the HSA-UWC issued a rebuttal to Rudin's report, stating that it was neither comprehensive nor reconciliatory, but rather had a hateful tone and was filled with denunciations. It denied that the Divine Principle teaches antisemitism and gave detailed responses to 17 specific allegations contained in the AJC's report, stating that allegations were distortions of teaching and obscuration of real passage content or that the passages were accurate summaries of Jewish scripture or New Testament passages.[107]

In 1984 Mose Durst, then the president of the Unification Church of the United States and himself a convert from Judaism,[108] said that the Jewish community had been hateful in its response to the growth of the HSA-UWC, and placed blame both on the community's insecurity and on HSA-UWC members' youthful zeal and ignorance. Rudin, then the national interreligious affairs director of the American Jewish Committee, said that Durst's remarks were inaccurate and unfair and that "hateful is a harsh word to use."[103] In the same year Durst wrote in his autobiography: "Our relations with the Jewish community have been the most painful to me personally. I say this with a heavy heart, since I was raised in the Jewish faith and am proud of my heritage."[109]

Mainstream Christianity[edit]

The Divine Principle includes new interpretations of the Bible not found in mainstream Christian traditions.[110] From its beginning, the HSA-UWC claimed to be Christian and promoted its teachings to mainstream Christian churches and organizations. The HSA-UWC in Korea was labeled as heretical by Protestant churches in South Korea, including Moon's own Presbyterian Church. In the United States, it was rejected by ecumenical organizations as being non-Christian. The main objections were theological, especially because of the its addition of material to the Bible.[111]

Protestant Christian commentators have also criticized HSA-UWC teachings as contrary to the Protestant doctrine of sola fide.[112][113] In their influential book The Kingdom of the Cults (first published in 1965), Walter Ralston Martin and Ravi K. Zacharias disagreed with the Divine Principle on the issues of Christology, the virgin birth of Jesus, the HSA-UWC's belief that Jesus should have married, the necessity of the crucifixion of Jesus, and a literal resurrection of Jesus as well as a literal Second Coming.[114]

Islam[edit]

The relationship between the HSA-UWC and Islam has often been noted, both by scholars and the news media. The Divine Principle lists the “Islamic cultural sphere” as one of the world’s four major divisions (the others are the East Asian, the Hindu, and the Christian spheres).[115] An official church website says:

Unification teaching recognizes the Prophet Muhammad and the religion of Islam that is based on the truths revealed through him as pivotal in God’s providence of restoration.[116]

HSA-UWC support for Islamist anti-communists came to public attention in 1987 when church member Lee Shapiro was killed in Afghanistan during the Soviet war in Afghanistan while filming a documentary.[117][118] The resistance group they were traveling with reported that they had been ambushed by military forces of the Soviet Union or the Afghan government. However, the details have been questioned, partly because of the poor reputation of the group's leader, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar.[119][120]

The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (which is critical of United States and Israeli policies) praised The Washington Times and the Times’ sister publication The Middle East Times (along with The Christian Science Monitor owned by the Church of Christ, Scientist) for their objective and informative coverage of Islam and the Middle East, while criticizing the Times generally pro-Israel editorial policy. The Report suggested that these newspapers, being owned by churches, were less influenced by pro-Israel pressure groups in the United States.[121]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Introvigne, Massimo (2000-10-15). The Unification Church: Studies in Contemporary Religion. Signature Books. ISBN 1560851457. 
  2. ^ Introvigne, Massimo. "From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994-1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes". www.cesnur.org. CESNUR - Center for the Studies on New Religions. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  3. ^ a b "Life and Legacy of Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Movements in Scholarly Perspective". www.cesnur.org (in Italian). CESNUR Center for Studies on New Religions. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  4. ^ Fefferman, Dan. "SCHISM in the Unification Church" (PDF). CESNUR Center for Studies on New Religions. 2016 CESNUR Conference. Retrieved 9 February 2018. 
  5. ^ a b Stymied in U.S., Moon's Church Sounds a Retreat, Marc Fisher and Jeff Leen, Washington Post, November 24, 1997
  6. ^ Kim, Jongsuk (2017-11-25). Split of the Unification Movement (Advanced copy ed.). Cheunan City, S. Korea: SARANG Kim of AUNE. pp. 11–14. ISBN 979-11-959843-3-6. 
  7. ^ Matczak, Sebastian (1982). Unificationism: A New Philosophy and Worldview. New York, NY: New York Learned Publications. 
  8. ^ a b Moon, Sun Myung (2010). As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen (May 2010 ed.). USA: The Washington Times Foundation. pp. 119–120. OCLC 751568991. 
  9. ^ Moon, Sun Myung (May 2006). Cheon Seong Gyeong (First ed.). Sun-jo Hwang; HSA Publications. pp. 1011, 1606. 
  10. ^ Moon, Sun Myung. "The Proclamation of the Complete Testament Age -- View of the Principle of the Providential History of Salvation". tparents.org. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  11. ^ Miller, Timothy (1995). America's Alternative Religions. State University of New York Press. pp. 223, 414. ISBN 0-7914-2398-0. 
  12. ^ PacNews staff (February 17, 2006). "Church leaders unite against Moonies". PacNews. Pacific Island News Agency Service. 
  13. ^ Enroth, Ronald M. (2005). A Guide To New Religious Movements. InterVarsity Press. pp. 69, 72. ISBN 0-8308-2381-6. 
  14. ^ Shupe, Anson D.; Bronislaw Misztal (1998). Religion, Mobilization, and Social Action. Praeger. pp. 197, 213, 215. ISBN 978-0-275-95625-7. 
  15. ^ Ofcom (February 20, 2006). "Complaint by Mr Robin Marsh on behalf of The Family Federation for World Peace and Unification – UK (formerly known as the Unification Church)". Broadcast Bulletin. www.ofcom.org.uk (54). Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  16. ^ Gorenfeld, John (2008). Bad Moon Rising. PoliPointPress. p. 96. ISBN 0-9794822-3-2. 
  17. ^ Siegal, Allan M.; William G. Connolly (2002). The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage. Three Rivers Press. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-8129-6389-2. 
  18. ^ Moonies' mass wedding held in South Korea, BBC News, 20 February 2016
  19. ^ a b c Introvigne, 2000
  20. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. pages 12 – 16
  21. ^ Moon-struck, Time, October 15, 1973, "The core members—most in their 20s, many of them converts from other spiritual, psychological or political trips—display a dogged devotion that makes even Jehovah's Witnesses look like backsliders. They are enthusiastic capitalists who rise at dawn to hit the streets with wares to exchange for "donations": flowers, votive light candles, even peanuts. Last year, when Master Moon moved his international headquarters to Tarrytown, N.Y., members sold candles across the U.S. for seven weeks to meet the down payment of $300,000 on an $850,000 estate".
  22. ^ "Czechs, Now 'Naively' Seeking Direction, See Dangers in Cults", New York Times, February 14, 1996
  23. ^ "Unification Church Gains Respect in Latin America", New York Times, November 24, 1996
  24. ^ The Moonies in Moscow: a second coming?, Green Left Weekly, May 28, 1997. "With the dismantling of the Soviet Union in 1991, Moon's anticommunism lost much of its camouflage value. There was, however, the compensating possibility of being able to expand his operations into Russia – both with the bible, and with business. One of Moon's schemes in Russia during the early 1990s was reportedly to rent Red Square for a mass wedding ceremony of the type practised by his sect in many cities around the world, in which scores and perhaps hundreds of couples – selected for one another by church leaders, and introduced only a few days previously --are married simultaneously. This plan came to nothing. The most that was achieved was that Moon's wife was allowed to broadcast from the stage of the Kremlin Palace of Congresses".
  25. ^ A Less Secular Approach, The Saint Petersburg Times, June 7, 2002
  26. ^ Schmemann, Serge (July 28, 1993). "Religion Returns to Russia, With a Vengeance". The New York Times. 
  27. ^ Lifestyle: Conversations with Members of Unification Church – "Quebedeaux, Richard" – Google Книги. Books.google.kg. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  28. ^ excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
  29. ^ Kety Quits Moon-Linked ICF Conference Harvard Crimson, 10 August 1976.
  30. ^ "ICUS". 
  31. ^ Church Spends Millions On Its Image The Washington Post. 17 September 1984
  32. ^ "Kety Quits Moon-Linked ICF Conference – News – The Harvard Crimson". 
  33. ^ Eugene Paul Wigner Papers Archived 2008-02-24 at the Wayback Machine. Princeton University Library
  34. ^ Yamamoto, J. I., 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-70381-6 (Excerpt: Archived 2012-02-10 at the Wayback Machine.)
    "1. The Unification Theological Seminary
    a. The Unification Church has a seminary in Barrytown, New York called The Unification Theological Seminary.
    b. It is used as a theological training center, where members are prepared to be leaders and theologians in the church.
    c. Moon's seminary, however, has not only attracted a respectable faculty (many of whom are not members of his church), but it also has graduated many students (who are members of his church) who have been accepted into doctoral programs at institutions such as Harvard and Yale."
  35. ^ Korean Moon: Waxing or Waning Leo Sandon Jr. Theology Today, July 1978, "The Unification Church purchased the estate and now administers a growing seminary where approximately 110 Moonies engage in a two-year curriculum which includes biblical studies, church history, philosophy, theology, religious education, and which leads to a Master of Religious Education degree."
  36. ^ Dialogue with the Moonies Rodney Sawatsky, Theology Today, April 1978. "Only a minority of their teachers are Unification devotees; a Jew teaches Old Testament, a Christian instructs in church history and a Presbyterian lectures in theology, and so on. Typical sectarian fears of the outsider are not found among Moonies; truth is one or at least must become one, and understanding can be delivered even by the uninitiated."
  37. ^ Where have all the Moonies gone? K. Gordon Neufeld, First Things, March 2008, "While I was studying theology, church history, and the Bible—taught by an eclectic faculty that included a rabbi, a Jesuit priest, and a Methodist minister—most of my young coreligionists were standing on street corners in San Francisco, Boston, and Miami urging strangers to attend a vaguely described dinner."
  38. ^ Helm, S. Divine Principle and the Second Advent Archived 2008-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. Christian Century May 11, 1977 "In fact Moon's adherents differ from previous fringe groups in their quite early and expensive pursuit of respectability, as evidenced by the scientific conventions they have sponsored in England and the U.S. and the seminary they have established in Barrytown, New York, whose faculty is composed not of their own group members but rather of respected Christian scholars."
  39. ^ Patrick Hickey Tahoe Boy: A journey back home John, Maryland, Seven Locks Press (May 15, 2009) ISBN 0-9822293-6-4 ISBN 978-0-9822293-6-1 pages 163-168
  40. ^ MARRIAGE BY THE NUMBERS; MOON PRESIDES AS 6,500 COUPLES WED IN S. KOREA Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. Peter Maass Washington Post October 31, 1988
  41. ^ "6,000 Couples Are Married in Korea". The New York Times. October 31, 1988. 
  42. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, pages 47-52
  43. ^ Duddy, Neil Interview: Dr. Mose Durst Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  44. ^ The men and women entered a large room, where Moon began matching couples by pointing at them."NY Daily News "In the Unification tradition, romantic liaisons are forbidden until the members are deemed by Mr. Moon to be spiritually ready to be matched at a huge gathering where he points future spouses out to one another. His followers believe that his decisions are based on his ability to discern their suitability and see their future descendants. Many are matched with people of other races and nationalities, in keeping with Mr. Moon's ideal of unifying all races and nations in the Unification Church. Though some couples are matched immediately before the mass wedding ceremonies, which are held every two or three years, most have long engagements during which they are typically posted in different cities or even continents, and get to know one another through letters."NY Times "Many were personally matched by Moon, who taught that romantic love led to sexual promiscuity, mismatched couples and dysfunctional societies. Moon's preference for cross-cultural marriages also meant that couples often shared no common language."Manchester Guardian "Moon's death Sept. 2 and funeral Saturday signaled the end of the random pairings that helped make Moon's Unification Church famous — and infamous — a generation ago." Washington Post "Many of the couples who married at mass weddings were hand-picked by Moon from photos. It led to some strange pairs such as a 71-year-old African Catholic archbishop who wed a 43-year-old Korean acupuncturist. In 1988 Moon entered the Guinness Book of Records when he married 6,516 identically dressed couples at Seoul's Olympic Stadium. Moonie newly-weds were forbidden to sleep together for 40 days to prove their marriage was on a higher plane. They then had to consummate their marriage in a three-day ritual with the sexual positions stipulated by their leader."Daily Mirror
  45. ^ "Thousands marry in first Moonie wedding since founder's death". Independent. 17 February 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  46. ^ Palmer, Mark (6 September 2012). "I got married in a Moonie mass wedding: He was a public schoolboy from a wealthy family. So what made Mark Palmer spend seven years as a disciple of the cult?". Daily Mail. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  47. ^ Henneberger, Melinda (22 December 1992). "A Look at Life After Mass Marriage; For 2,075 Couples (Give or Take 200), 10 Years Together, Thanks to Sun Myung Moon". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  48. ^ "NEW YORK DAY BY DAY; Wedding Day for 4,000". The New York Times. July 1, 1982. 
  49. ^ Marriage by the numbers; Moon presides as 6,500 couples wed in S. Korea Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. Peter Maass Washington Post October 31, 1988
  50. ^ Bak Byeong Ryong Unification Church believers around the world three manyeossang joint wedding, MBCNews, 25 August 1992
  51. ^ "'D' Is For Danger – And For Writer Don Delillo". Chicago Tribune. May 22, 1992. 
  52. ^ Evangelical-Unification Dialogue (Conference series – Unification Theological Seminary; no. 3) Richard Quebedeaux, Rodney Sawatsky, Paragon House, 1979, ISBN 093289402X, pages 77-99.
  53. ^ Frederick Sontag,1977, Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, Abingdon Press, ISBN 0687406226, page 185.
  54. ^ Irving Louis Horowitz, 1978, Science, Sin, and Scholarship: The Politics of Reverend Moon and the Unification Church, MIT Press, ISBN 0262081008, page 114
  55. ^ The A to Z of New Religious Movements, George D. Chryssides Scarecrow Press, 2006, page 155
  56. ^ Tingle, D. and Fordyce, R. 1979, The Phases and Faces of the Moon: A Critical Examination of the Unification Church and Its Principles, Hicksville, New York: Exposition Press ISBN 0682492647, p20-21
  57. ^ George D. Chryssides, "Unificationism: A study in religious syncretism", Chapter 14 in Religion: empirical studies, Editor: Steven Sutcliffe, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004, ISBN 0-7546-4158-9, ISBN 978-0-7546-4158-2, page 232.
  58. ^ Lester R. Kurtz, 2007, Gods in the Global Village: The World's Religions in Sociological Perspective, Pine Forge Press, ISBN 1412927153 page 227
  59. ^ Barker, Eileen (1986). "Religious Movements: Cult and Anti-Cult Since Jonestown". Annual Review of Sociology. 12: 329–346. doi:10.1146/annurev.so.12.080186.001553. 
  60. ^ Zablocki, Benjamin (October 1997). "The Blacklisting of a Concept". Nova Religio. 1 (1): 96–121. doi:10.1525/nr.1997.1.1.96. 
  61. ^ Eileen Barker. Did the Moonies really brainwash millions? Time to dispel a myth. // The Guardian, 4 September 2012
  62. ^ "Obituary: Sun Myung Moon". BBC News. 2 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  63. ^ "Japan". 
  64. ^ "California Court Backs Moonies". Toledo Blade: 9. 7 October 1977. 
  65. ^ Shupe, Anson; Darnell, Susan E. (2006). Agents of Discord. New Brunswick (U.S.A.), London (UK): Transaction Publishers. pp. 180–184. ISBN 0-7658-0323-2. 
  66. ^ Anthony, D. and Robbins, T. (1992), Law, social science and the "brainwashing" exception to the first amendment. Behav. Sci. Law, 10: 5–29.
  67. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. page 16
  68. ^ SFgate.com, San Francisco Chronicle September 3, 1983
  69. ^ "Revista Envío – How to Read the Reagan Administration: The Miskito Case". 
  70. ^ See
  71. ^ Spiritual warfare: the politics of the Christian right, Sara Diamond, 1989, Pluto Press, Page 58
  72. ^ Ex-aide of Moon Faces Citation for Contempt, Associated Press, Eugene Register-Guard, August 5, 1977
  73. ^ "Moon's 'Cause' Takes Aim At Communism in Americas." The Washington Post. August 28, 1983
  74. ^ Sun Myung Moon's Followers Recruit Christians to Assist in Battle Against Communism Christianity Today June 15, 1985
  75. ^ Projections about a post-Soviet world-twenty-five years later. // Goliath Business News
  76. ^ See United States v. Sun Myung Moon
  77. ^ Moon's Japanese Profits Bolster Efforts in U.S., Washington Post, 16 September 2008.
  78. ^ "Clerics Urge Pardon For Rev. Moon". Chicago Tribune. 21 August 1985. 
  79. ^ "THE CITY; Arguments Heard In Moon's Appeal". The New York Times. 24 March 1983. 
  80. ^ Raspberry, William, "Did Unpopular Moonie Get a Fair Trial?", Washington Post, 19 April 1984
  81. ^ "The Unification Church Aims a Major Public Relations Effort at Christian Leaders", Christianity Today, 19 April 1985.
  82. ^ Moon's financial rise and fall, Harvard Crimson, 11 October 1984.
  83. ^ Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America: African diaspora traditions and other American innovations, Volume 5 of Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, W. Michael Ashcraft, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0-275-98717-5, ISBN 978-0-275-98717-6, page 180
  84. ^ Exploring New Religions, Issues in contemporary religion, George D. Chryssides, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001ISBN 0-8264-5959-5, ISBN 978-0-8264-5959-6 page 1
  85. ^ Exploring the climate of doomArchived 2012-04-23 at the Wayback Machine., Rich Lowry, 2009-12-19 'The phrase "doomsday cult" entered our collective vocabulary after John Lofland published his 1966 study, "Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith." Lofland wrote about the Unification Church.'
  86. ^ Conversion Archived 2012-01-21 at the Wayback Machine., Unification Church Archived 2012-01-13 at the Wayback Machine., Encyclopedia of Religion and Society, Hartford Institute for Religion Research, Hartford Seminary
  87. ^ Frederick E. Sontag dies at 84; Pomona College philosophy professor, Los Angeles Times, June 20, 2009
  88. ^ Who is this Pied Piper of Religion?, St. Petersburg Times, February 4, 1978
  89. ^ Moon: an objective look at his theology, Boca Raton News, 1977-11-25
  90. ^ Review, William Rusher, National Review, December 19, 1986.
  91. ^ The Market for Martyrs Archived 2012-01-11 at the Wayback Machine., Laurence Iannaccone, George Mason University, 2006, "One of the most comprehensive and influential studies was The Making of a Moonie: Choice or Brainwashing? by Eileen Barker (1984). Barker could find no evidence that Moonie recruits were ever kidnapped, confined, or coerced. Participants at Moonie retreats were not deprived of sleep; the lectures were not “trance-inducing”; and there was not much chanting, no drugs or alcohol, and little that could be termed “frenzy” or “ecstatic” experience. People were free to leave, and leave they did. Barker’s extensive enumerations showed that among the recruits who went so far as to attend two-day retreats (claimed to beMoonie’s most effective means of “brainwashing”), fewer than 25% joined the group formore than a week and only 5% remained full-time members one year later. And, of course, most contacts dropped out before attending a retreat. Of all those who visited a Moonie centre at least once, not one in two-hundred remained in the movement two years later. With failure rates exceeding 99.5%, it comes as no surprise that full-time Moonie membership in the U.S. never exceeded a few thousand. And this was one of the most New Religious Movements of the era!"
  92. ^ Oakes, Len "By far the best study of the conversion process is Eileen Barker’s The Making of a Moonie [...]" from Prophetic Charisma: The Psychology of Revolutionary Religious Personalities, 1997, ISBN 0-8156-0398-3
  93. ^ Storr, Anthony Dr. Feet of clay: a study of gurus 1996 ISBN 0-684-83495-2
  94. ^ Past Winners Archived 2010-02-23 at WebCite
  95. ^ APA Brief in the Molko Case, from CESNUR website, 1987.
  96. ^ Kent, Stephen; Theresa Krebs (1998). "Academic Compromise in the Social Scientific Study of Alternative Religions". Nova Religio. 2 (1): 44–54. doi:10.1525/nr.1998.2.1.44. 
  97. ^ John Bowker, 2011, The Message and the Book, UK, Atlantic Books, page 13-14
  98. ^ Korean Moon: Waxing of Waning?, Leo Sandon Jr., Theology Today, Vol 35, No 2, July 1978, "The movement's official doctrinal statement, and a part of the revelation, is the Divine Principle. Both an oral tradition and a written one and published in several versions, Divine Principle is the Completed Testament. The Rev. Moon claims to have come not to destroy or abrogate the Old and New Testaments, but to fulfill them-to "complete" them. To his Moonist followers, the Rev. Moon is primarily "true father," probably the Messiah, and only secondarily a theologian. In an effort to systematize Moon's teachings, several members of the Unification Church in Korea have put together a developing theological system in Divine Principle which is impressive in its imaginative nature, coherence, and consistency, if not in its Christian orthodoxy. As the most complete expression of Moonist teachings to date, Divine Principle is the basic text of the Unification Church.4 The two major divisions of the system are the doctrines of Creation and Restoration. There are many subsets to these major divisions, but Creation and Restoration are the foci for the Moonist theological system."
  99. ^ Rudin, A. James, 1978 A View of the Unification Church, American Jewish Committee Archives
  100. ^ Sun Myung Moon Is Criticized by Religious Leaders, David F. White, The New York Times, December 29, 1976
  101. ^ Guidelines for Members of The Unification Church in Relations with the Jewish People, Peter Ross and Andrew Wilson, March 15, 1989.
  102. ^ "Religion: Sun Myung Moon's Goodwill Blitz". Time magazine. April 22, 1985. 
  103. ^ a b "Unification Church seen as persecuted", The Milwaukee Sentinel, September 15, 1984, page 4
  104. ^ Jewish currents, Volume 30, 1976, p5, Religious education, Volume 73, 1978, p356.
  105. ^ Anti-cult movements in cross-cultural perspective, Anson D. Shupe, David G. Bromley, 1994, p42
  106. ^ Sun Myung Moon forms new political party to merge divided Koreas, Church & State, May 01, 2003.
  107. ^ Response to A. James Rudin's Report, Unification Church Department of Public Affairs, Daniel C. Holdgeiwe, Johnny Sonneborn, March 1977.
  108. ^ "Religion: Sun Myung Moon's Goodwill Blitz". Time Magazine. April 22, 1985. 
  109. ^ To Bigotry, No Sanction, Mose Durst, 1984
  110. ^ Religious Requirements and Practices of Certain Selected Groups: A Handbook for Chaplains, By U. S. Department of the Army, Published by The Minerva Group, Inc., 2001, ISBN 0-89875-607-3, ISBN 978-0-89875-607-4, page 1–42. Google books listing
  111. ^ Unifying or Dividing? Sun Myung Moon and the Origins of the Unification Church George D. Chryssides, University of Wolverhampton, U.K. 2003
  112. ^ Daske, D. and Ashcraft, W. 2005, New Religious Movements, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-0702-5 p142
  113. ^ Yamamoto, J. 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Press, ISBN 0-310-70381-6 p40
  114. ^ Walter Ralston Martin, Ravi K. Zacharias, The Kingdom of the Cults, Bethany House, 2003, ISBN 0764228218 pages 368-370
  115. ^ Exposition of the Divine Principle 1996 Translation Chapter 3 Eschatology and Human History, accessed September 3, 2010
  116. ^ UNIFICATIONISM AND ISLAM: MUTUAL RESPECT AND JOINT EFFORTS TO BENEFIT THE WORLD, reverendsunmyungmoon.org, accessed September 3, 2010
  117. ^ Afghanistan: eight years of Soviet occupation, United States Department of State, March 1988, The campaign to target foreign journalists had more tragic results. Two American filmmakers, Lee Shapiro and Jim Lindelof, were apparently killed by a regime attack while traveling with the mujahidin. In 1986, Lindelof had been named paramedic of the year for his efforts training Afghan medical workers. In response to protests, Kabul stated it could not "guarantee the security of foreign subjects" who enter illegally, whose presence it views as "evidence" of "external interference."
  118. ^ 2 Americans killed in ambush, Pacific Stars and Stripes, October 29, 1987
  119. ^ Two US journalists reported killed in Afghanistan; details murky, Christian Science Monitor, October 28, 1987 "Two American journalists are believed dead in northwest Afghanistan, diplomatic and resistance forces say here. Filmmaker Lee Shapiro and his soundman, Jim Lindalos, both of New York, were killed Oct. 11, reportedly in a Soviet or Afghan government ambush, according to United States consular officials. However, the resistance group that accompanied the film team has a poor reputation among most informed observers, and doubts have arisen over whether the two Americans did indeed die in an Afghan government or Soviet attack."
  120. ^ Kaplan, Robert, Soldiers of God : With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan, New York : Vintage Departures, 2001, p.170
  121. ^ As U.S. Media Ownership Shrinks, Who Covers Islam?, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, December 1997

Annotated bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]