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In telecommunications networking, a residential gateway (more commonly known as a home router or home gateway) is a device that allows a local area network (LAN) to connect to a wide area network (WAN) via a modem. The WAN can be a larger computer network (such as a municipal WAN that provides a connection to residences within the municipality) or the Internet. The connection to the WAN may use DSL, cable modem, a broadband mobile phone network, or other connection.
The term "residential gateway" was originally used to distinguish the inexpensive networking devices designated for use in the home from similar devices used in corporate LAN environments (which generally offered a greater array of capabilities). In recent years, however, the less expensive "residential gateways" have gained many of the capabilities of corporate gateways and the distinctions are fewer. Many home LANs now are able to provide most of the functions of small corporate LANs.
Since the early 2000s the residential or home gateway has been used by Telecommunications Multiple Service Operators [MSOs] as a termination device for connecting consumer premises to a broadband delivery network. As a part of the carrier network, the home gateway supports remote control, detection and configuration.
Multiple devices have been described as "residential gateways":
- Cable modem
- DSL modem
- Wireless router
- Network switch
- Voice over internet protocol (VoIP) analog telephone adapter
- Wireless access point
- Wired router
or certain combinations of the above.
A modem (e.g. DSL modem, Cable modem) by itself provides none of the functions of a router. It merely allows ATM or Ethernet or PPP traffic to be transmitted across telephone lines, cable wires, optical fibers, or wireless radio frequencies. On the receiving end is another modem that re-converts the transmission format back into digital data packets.
This allows network bridging using telephone, cable, optical, and radio connection methods. The modem also provides handshake protocols, so that the devices on each end of the connection are able to recognize each other. However, a modem generally provides few other network functions.
- A USB modem plugs into a single PC and allows a connection of that single PC to a WAN. If properly configured, the PC can also function as the router for a home LAN.
- An internal modem can be installed on a single PC (e.g. on a PCI card), also allowing that single PC to connect to a WAN. Again, the PC can be configured to function as a router for a home LAN.
A wireless access point can function in a similar fashion to a modem. It can allow a direct connection from a home LAN to a WAN, if a wireless router or access point is present on the WAN as well.
However, many modems now incorporate the features mentioned below and thus are appropriately described as residential gateways.
A residential gateway usually provides
- configuration via a web interface,
- routing between the home network and the Internet,
- connectivity within the home network like a network switch,
- network address translation (NAT) for IPv4,
- DHCP for IPv4 and increasingly router advertisements for IPv6, and
- firewall functions.
- May also have an internal modem, most commonly for DSL or Cable ISP.
Most routers are self-contained components, using internally stored firmware. They are generally OS-independent, i.e., they can be accessed with any operating system.
Wireless routers perform the same functions as a router, but also allow connectivity for wireless devices with the LAN, or between the wireless router and another wireless router. (The wireless router-wireless router connection can be within the LAN or can be between the LAN and a WAN.)
Low-cost production and requirement for user friendliness makes the home routers vulnerable to network attacks, which in the past resulted in large clusters of such devices being taken over and used to launch DDoS attacks. A majority of the vulnerabilities were present in the web administration consoles of the routers, allowing unauthorised control either via default passwords, vendor backdoors, or web vulnerabilities.
- "The set-top box is dead; long live the home gateway". FierceCable.
- Wireless router is a combination of wired router and wireless access point.
- Martin, Jim. "Can't access 192.168.1.1: how to change router settings including Wi-Fi password". PC Advisor. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
- "NAT Router Security Solutions". Gibson Research Center. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
- Ou, George. "Make your home PCs accessible anywhere with Dynamic DNS for free". Techrepublic. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
- Gayer, Ofer. "Lax Security Opens the Door for Mass Scale Abuse of SOHO Routers | Incapsula.com". www.incapsula.com. Retrieved 2015-06-16.
- "Owning Your Home Network: Router Security Revisited" (PDF). Arxiv.org.
- The Residential Gateway (a vision paper published in International Engineering Consortium’s 1996 Annual Review of Communications, p.457)
- Home Gateway Initiative, a group of broadband providers proposing specifications for residential gateways
- The Residential Home Gateway on About.com